Nieuport IV

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Nieuport IV
Nieuport IV-G Malmen 08.03.68 edited-2.jpg
1912 Nieuport IVG displayed in the Flygvapenmuseum at Malmen near Linköping, Sweden.
Role Sporting and military monoplane
National origin France
First flight 1911
Introduction 1911
Status preserved in museums
Primary users Private pilots
Air Forces
Variants Nieuport VI
Emmanouel Argyropoulos and Nieuport IV.G Alkyon in which he made the first flight in Greece.
Replica at Nizhny Novgorod of the Nieuport IV.G in which Nesterov performed the first loop in an aircraft
Claude Grahame-White's Nieuport IV circa 1912. This aircraft later served with the Royal Flying Corps.

The Nieuport IV was a French-built sporting, training and reconnaissance monoplane of the early 1910s.

Design and development[edit]

Societe Anonyme des Etablissements Nieuport was formed in 1909 by Édouard Nieuport. The Nieuport IV was a development of the single-seat Nieuport II. It was initially designed as a two-seat sporting and racing monoplane, but was also bought by the air forces of several countries. It was initially powered by a 50 hp (37 kW) rotary engine, which was later replaced by more powerful rotaries.[1]

Operational history[edit]

The first Nieuport IVs were built in 1911 and production continued well into World War I in Russia.[2] The design was adopted in small numbers by most air arms of the period, although the Imperial Russian Air Service was the largest user.

The IV.G was one of the principal aircraft used by the Imperial Russian Air Service during its formative years, with roughly 300 being produced locally by the Russo-Baltic Wagon Works and Shchetinin in St. Petersburg, and the Dux Factory in Moscow.[3] Lt. Pyotr Nesterov performed the first ever loop over Kiev in a model IV.G on 27 August 1913 for which he was placed under arrest for 10 days for "undue risk to government property" until the feat was repeated in France and he was promoted and awarded a medal.[4]

The French government equipped a single squadron with Nieuport IV.Ms, escadrille N12 initially based at Reims, having purchased at least 10. This unit continued to operate Nieuport monoplanes after the start of World War I, slowly replacing them with other types as attrition reduced their numbers.[5]

The Swedish Air Force was presented with a IV.G in 1912 by four individuals, becoming one of the first aircraft of that force,[1] which was later joined by a second IV.G in 1913, and a IV.H transferred from the Swedish Navy.[6]

The Japanese Army operated a IV.G and a IV.M, which were designated as Army Nieuport NG aeroplane and Army Nieuport NM aeroplane.[citation needed]

One of the first batch of aircraft purchased by the British Army's Air Battalion Royal Engineers (the precursor to the Royal Flying Corps) was a Nieuport IV.G and serialed B4. Additional IV.G monoplanes were purchased from private individuals including one from Claude Grahame-White and another from Charles Rumney Samson, plus three others though little of note was accomplished with them.[7][8]

Argentina purchased a single IV.G named la Argentina which served with the Escuela de Aviation Militaire.[9]

In Greece a IV.G was bought privately and named Alkyon and after being the first aircraft to fly in Greece, was resold to the government which used it during the First Balkan War in 1912, flying from Larissa.[9]

Siam purchased 4 IV.Gs which were used as trainers at Don Muang airfield.[10]

Spain purchased one IV.G and 4 IV.Ms which were used by the Escuala Nieuport de Peu for training before 3 were transferred to an operational Escuela at Tetuán which then moved to Zezulan, remaining operational until 1917.[6]

Italy's 1st Flottiglia Aeroplani of Tripoli operated several Nieuport IV.Gs during the Italo-Turkish War, one of which became the first aeroplane to be used in a military operation when it flew a reconnaissance mission against Turkish forces on 23 October 1911.[11] It narrowly missed out to a Bleriot XI with the same unit for the honor of being the first aircraft to drop a bomb on enemy forces, but did so for the remainder of the war. The pilot who carried out the first mission Capt. Maizo, became one of the first victims of anti-aircraft fire, when he was shot down by an old Austrian cannon weeks before the war ended in 1912.[11]

Variants[edit]

IV 
generic base designation (specific aircraft always had an applicable suffix letter)
IV.G 
Gnome basic sport/racing model with various sizes of Gnome rotary from 50 to 100 hp (37 to 75 kW)
IV.H 
Hydro floatplane fitted with two main floats and a tail float - used extensively for competition with engines of up to 200 hp.
IV.M 
Military observation variant with various Gnome rotaries from 70 to 100 hp (52 to 75 kW) - designed to be readily assembled and disassembled for transport by truck.

Survivors[edit]

Nieuport IVG in the Swedish AF museum at Malmen

The Swedish Air Force maintained their first model IV in airworthy condition until 1965.[12] This aircraft is now preserved in the Flygvapenmuseum at Malmen near Linköping.[13] The Museo del Aire at Cuatro Vientos near Madrid has a full scale replica of one of their model IVs.[14]

Operators[edit]

Military[edit]

 Argentina
 France
 Greece
 Kingdom of Italy
 Japan
 Russia
Thailand Siam
 Spain
 Sweden
 United Kingdom

Specifications (IVM)[edit]

Data from Aviafrance

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Capacity: 1 passenger
  • Length: 8.2 m (26 ft 11 in)
  • Wingspan: 12.1 m (39 ft 8 in)
  • Wing area: 22.0 m2 (237 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 483 kg (1,065 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Gnome rotary piston, 75 kW (100 hp)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 120 km/h (75 mph; 65 kn)
  • Time to altitude: 12 minutes 40 seconds to 500m

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Green, 1965, p.347
  2. ^ Sanger, 2002, p.109-111
  3. ^ Davilla, 1997 p351
  4. ^ Durkota, 1997, pp.201-204
  5. ^ Sanger, 2002, p.77
  6. ^ a b Sanger, 2002, p.157
  7. ^ Sanger, 2002, p.93-95
  8. ^ Robertson, 1979, p.18
  9. ^ a b c Sanger, 2002, p.154
  10. ^ Sanger, 2002, p.156
  11. ^ a b Sanger, 2002, p.131
  12. ^ Green, 1965 p.346
  13. ^ Ogden, 2006, p.484
  14. ^ Ogden, 2006, p.470

References[edit]

  • Davilla, Dr. James J.; Soltan, Arthur M. (1997). French Aircraft of the First World War. Stratford, CT: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 0-9637110-4-0. 
  • Durkota, Alan; Darcey, Thomas; Kulikov, Victor (1995). The Imperial Russian Air Service — Famous Pilots and Aircraft of World War I. Moutain View, CA: Flying Machines Press. pp. 201–204. ISBN 0-9637110-2-4. 
  • Green, William (1965). The Aircraft of the World. Macdonald & Co (Publishers) Ltd. 
  • Ogden, Bob (2006). Aviation Museums and Collections of Mainland Europe. Air-Britain (Historian) Ltd. ISBN 0-85130-375-7. 
  • Pommier, Gerard (2002). Nieuport 1875-1911 — A biography of Edouard Nieuport. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 0-7643-1624-9. 
  • Robertson, Bruce (1979). British Military Aircraft Serials 1911-1979. Cambridge: Patrick Stevens. p. 18. ISBN 0-85059-360-3. 
  • Sanger, Ray (2002). Nieuport Aircraft of World War One. Wiltshire: Crowood Press. ISBN 1-86126-447-X. 

External links[edit]