Nigeria Airways

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Nigeria Airways
NigeriaLogo.jpg
IATA
WT[1]:50
ICAO
NGA[1]:50
Callsign
NIGERIA[2]
Founded 23 August 1958 (1958-08-23) (after the dissolution of WAAC)
Commenced operations 1 October 1958 (1958-10-01)
Ceased operations 2003 (2003)
Hubs
Secondary hubs
Focus cities
Destinations 9 (at the time of closure)
Parent company Government of Nigeria (100%)
Headquarters Abuja, Nigeria
Key people Peter Gana (CEO) (at the time of closure)[1]:51
Website www.nigeriaairways.com (currently unavailable)

Nigeria Airways Ltd., more commonly known as Nigeria Airways, is a defunct Nigerian airline. The company was founded in 1958 after the dissolution of West African Airways Corporation. It was wholly owned by the Government of Nigeria, and served as the country's flag carrier until it ceased operations in 2003. At the time of dissolution, the company's headquarts were at Airways House, located in Abuja. The airline's operations were concentrated at Murtala Muhammed International Airport.

The airline was managed by a number of foreign companies, including British Airways, KLM and South African Airways.[3][4] It had its heyday in the early 1980s, just after a KLM team two-year-management period; at that time its fleet comprised about 30 aircraft.[5][6] Plagued by mis-management, corruption, and overstaffing,[7][8][9][10] at the time of closure the airline had debts of more than US$60,000,000 ($76,921,129 in 2014), a poor safety record, and its operative fleet comprised a single aircraft flying domestic routes as well as two leased aircraft operating the international network.[11][12] It was succeeded by Virgin Nigeria.[11][13][14]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

The airline came into being on 23 August 1958[1]:51 under the name West African Airways Corporation Nigeria Limited (WAAC Nigeria), also known as Nigerian Airways, to succeed the folded West African Airways Corporation (WAAC);[15] the title “WAAC” was retained due to the prestige this company had previously earned.[16] Initially, the carrier was a tripartite entity in which the Nigerian government was the major shareholder (51%), and Elder Dempster Lines and BOAC held the balance (32⅔ and 16⅓, respectively).[1]:51[15][16] WAAC Nigeria inherited some aircraft previously owned by WAAC.[17] Operations started on 1 October 1958, with a BOAC Stratocruiser operated on behalf of the new airline linking London with Lagos.[18] The same day, WAAC Nigeria signed a 15-year agreement with BOAC to charter Stratocruisers and Britannias for serving long-haul flights between Nigeria and the United Kingdom.[16] The contract also contemplated that these routes would be operated in a pool agreement.[17]

A Nigeria Airways Vickers VC-10, leased from BOAC, at Ikeja Airport in 1969. A company Fokker Friendship is in the background.

At April 1960 (1960-04), the fleet comprised one Dove, eight Herons and eight DC-3s.[15] In early 1961, Nigeria became the only owner of the company;[19] the airline became the flag carrier of the country.[17] A BOAC Comet 4 inaugurated the jet services between Nigeria and London on 1 April 1962; the flight was operated in conjunction with Nigeria Airways.[17] Aimed at replacing the DC-3 aircraft park, five Fokker Friendship 200s were ordered late that year;[20][21] these Fokker F-27s joined the fleet between January and May 1963 (1963-05), and were deployed on regional routes, including those that served Abidjan, Accra, Bathurst, Dakar, Freetown and Robertsfield.[17] That year, the contract with BOAC was revised and a new agreement was signed in April.[22] BOAC subsequently operated Vickers VC-10 services on behalf of Nigeria Airways from April 1964 until an aircraft of the type was acquired from the British state airline in October 1969 (1969-10);[23]:292 the airplane was destroyed in an accident in November that year.[24][25]

The first air link between Nigeria and the United States was launched in early October 1964 (1964-10). Called ″Operation Fantastic", it linked Lagos with New York and was operated by PanAm using Boeing 707s and DC-8s, but an agreement between both countries allowed Nigeria Airways to sell a limited number of seats on these flights.[26]

Nigeria Airways Boeing 727-200 on the domestic apron at Lagos Ikeja Airport in June 1980
A Nigeria Airways McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 at Zurich Airport in 1983. This particular aircraft was written off following a fire that completely destroyed the airframe on 10 January 1987.

Employment was 2,191 at March 1970 (1970-03). At this time, the fleet comprised one Aztec, one DC-3 and six Fokker F27s that worked on a domestic network and regional routes that extended west, as far as Dakar, operated in pool agreement with Ghana Airways; the European list of destinations included Frankfurt, London, Madrid and Rome, all of them served with VC10s chartered from BOAC.[27] On 22 January 1971, the company was rebranded as Nigeria Airways.[1]:51 Until a new Boeing 707-320C entered the fleet in 1971, Boeing 707s were leased from Laker Airways and Ethiopian Airlines to fill the capacity shortage left by the crashed aircraft on the Lagos–London route.[28][29] Another Boeing 707-320C was ordered in 1972, along with two Boeing 737-200s.[30] In October the same year, the Fokker F28 entered the fleet on a lease agreement with Fokker, and later that year the type was ordered.[31] In late 1972, a contract for management assistance was signed with TWA, with the American carrier providing specialists in different managerial, commercial, and financial fields for five years.[32][33] Once this agreement was officially concluded, a similar contract was signed with KLM in September 1979 (1979-09), this time for a period of two years.[34]:332

By March 1975 (1975-03), the fleet consisted of two Boeing 707-320Cs, two Boeing 737-200s, three Fokker F28s, five Fokker F27s, and one Aztec, while five F28-2000s were on order.[35][36] In October 1976 (1976-10), the company became the 83rd customer for the Boeing 727, when an order for two Boeing 727-200s and another Boeing 707-320C was placed;[37] it also took possession of a Douglas DC-10-30.[38] Orders for a second DC-10-30 and two F28-4000s were placed in 1977 and 1978, respectively.[39][40]

By July 1980 (1980-07), the fleet consisted of 26 aircraft, split into three Boeing 707-320Cs, two Boeing 727-200s, two Boeing 737-200s, two DC-10-30s, two F27-200s, two F27-400Ms, four F27-600s, six F28-2000s, two F28-4000s, and one Aztec.[34]:332 Nigeria Airways became Airbus' 40th customer in 1981, when it placed an order for four Airbus A310-200s; these aircraft were incorporated into the fleet in late 1984 and early 1985.[41][42] Also in 1981, four new Boeing 737-200s were ordered to replace leased aircraft of the same type in a deal worth US$65,000,000 ($168,614,568 in 2014); they were delivered in February 1983 (1983-02).[43][44][45] In 1982, a Boeing 747 was leased from Scanair; the aircraft was deployed on services to the United Kingdom, permitting the DC-10s to be used on new routes to Frankfurt, Paris, and Zurich.[46][47] Following an accident occurred in November 1983 (1983-11) that involved a Fokker F28, the carrier decided to withdraw from service its F27 and F28 fleet.[48] The fleet was 22-strong in March 1985 (1985-03), comprising two DC-10-30s, four Airbus A310s, three Boeing 707-320Cs, two Boeing 727-200s, ten Boeing 737-200s, and one Boeing 737-200C; two Boeing 737-200s were on order.[49] Financed by a Japanese leasing company and the Equator Bank,[50] the carrier operated the last DC-10 ever built.[51]:70 The aircraft was delivered in 1989, and replaced an aircraft of the same type that was lost in an accident two years earlier.[51]:70

Demise[edit]

A Nigeria Airways Airbus A310-200 at London Heathrow Airport in 1995.

The carrier had accumulated significant debts that outstripped its revenues virtually from the mid-1980s.[52][53] While 1,000 jobs had been cut by late 1986,[53] Nigeria ordered the airline to reduce the number of employees —8,500 at the time, with a staff-aircraft ratio of 500:1— even more, and also to reduce or discontinue unprofitable routes.[54] In 1988, cost-cutting measures led to the discontinuance of flights to a number of African destinations, including Cotonou, Dakar, Douala, Kinshasa, Monrovia and Nairobi; some of these routes were resumed a year later.[50][55]

At April 2000 (2000-04), employment was 4,516. At this time, an Airbus A310-200, three Boeing 737-200 Advanced, one Boeing 747-200B Combi and one McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 served a route network that included Abuja, Calabar, Douala, Dubai, Jeddah, Jos, Kaduna, Kano, Kinshasa, Lagos, Libreville, London, Maiduguri, Malabo, Port Harcourt, Sokoto and Yola.[56] That year, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) was commissioned by the Nigerian Government to assist in the process of restructuring and privatisation of the airline.[9] Among three options, one of them was to partner with a large European airline; Air France, Lufthansa and Swissair were all considered.[9] Other option was to liquidate the carrier.[9] A fleet comprising 32 aircraft in 1984[nb 1] gradually depleted to a three-strong at that time.[9] The IFC withdrew from its advisory position in 2001 citing the unwillingness of both the company and the government to carry out the necessary measures that would make the airline attractive to potential investors.[58] Likewise, there were various allegations claiming the airline's failure was accelerated by former Nigerian rulers who looted and mismanaged the company.[59][60]

In 1997 the UK Civil Aviation Authority had banned the airline from operating into its territory citing safety concerns; the Nigerian government replied banning British Airways operations.[61][62][63] The United Kingdom cited safety concerns again in 2001 when it refused to allow Nigeria Airways to operate the Lagos–London route, this time regarding the Boeing 747 that was leased from Air Djibouti to fly the route.[64][65]

The carrier ceased operations in 2003.[66] The Nigerian government later came to an agreement with Virgin Atlantic Airways to found Virgin Nigeria Airways, intended as a replacement, yet the ground facilities of the folded Nigeria Airways were eventually taken over by Arik Air.[67]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Nigeria Airways had its headquarters at Airways House in Abuja at the time of dissolution.[1]:50 It had been moved from Murtala Muhammed Airport between 1999 and 2000.[56][68] The airline logo consisted of the Nigerian flag with a green elephant named Skypower in its centre.[7][nb 2]

Destinations[edit]

At the time of closure the Nigeria Airways network consisted of four domestic destinations, namely Abuja, Kano, Lagos and Port Harcourt; likewise, the international network comprised Abidjan, Dubai, Jeddah, London and New York.[1]:51

Fleet[edit]

A Boeing 747-200BM in Nigeria Airways livery at Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport in 1988. This aircraft was leased from Scandinavian Airlines.
A Nigeria Airways Boeing 707-320C at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport in 1990. This particular aircraft crashed on 19 December 1994.

The airline operated the following equipment throughout its history:[70]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Aviation Safety Network records 16 events for the airline, eight of which led to fatalities.[72] The worst accident experienced by the carrier took place on 11 July 1991, when 261 people were killed in an accident at King Abdulaziz International Airport. The following list includes events that had reported fatalities, carried with the hull-loss of the equipment involved, or both.

Date Location Aircraft Tail number Aircraft damage Fatalities Description Refs
20 November 1969 NigeriaLagos VC-10-1101 5N-ABD W/O 87/87 The aircraft was flying the London–Rome–Kano–Lagos route as Flight 825 when it crashed on its last leg, during approach to Ikeja International Airport, after hitting trees in low visibilty. The aircraft involved had been sold to Nigeria Airways by BOAC less than two months prior to the occurrence of the accident and was operated by an experienced crew. [73][74][75][76][77]
4 April 1971 NigeriaJos F27-200 5N-AAX W/O 0/41 Swerved off the runway and hit heaps of gravel at Jos Airport, following a rejected takeoff in crosswind conditions. [78]
19 September 1972 NigeriaPort Harcourt F28-1000 PH-FPT W/O 0 Ran off the runway upon landing at Port Harcourt Airport. [79]
22 January 1973 NigeriaKano Boeing 707-320C JY-ADO W/O 176/202 Skidded off the runway and caught fire soon after one of the two main gears collapsed on landing at Kano Airport. The aircraft was due to fly the Jeddah–Lagos route, but it was diverted to Kano because of the weather. It was chartered from Alia Royal Jordanian Airlines and operated on behalf of Nigeria Airways for the Hajj season. [80]
25 April 1977[nb 3] NigeriaSokoto F27-200 5N-AAW W/O 0/23 Overran the runway on landing at Sokoto Airport. [81][82]
1 March 1978 NigeriaKano F28-1000 5N-ANA W/O 18 The aircraft was operating a domestic scheduled Sokoto–Kano service, when it collided short before touchdown at the destination airport with a Nigerian Air Force Mig-21U trainer. There were 18 fatalities, 16 of them occupants of the civil aircraft. [83][84]
28 November 1983 NigeriaEnugu F28-2000 5N-ANF W/O 53/72 Crashed in poor visibility 3.3 kilometres (2.1 mi) short of the runway on a steep approach to Enugu Airport, inbound from Lagos. The aircraft caught fire and burned out. [85][86]:286[87]
10 January 1987 NigeriaIlorin DC-10-30 5N-ANR W/O 0/9 Overshot the runway at Ilorin Airport on a training flight, catching fire. [88]
15 October 1988 NigeriaPort Harcourt Boeing 737-200 5N-ANW W/O 0/132 Overran the runway on landing in heavy rain at Port Harcourt Airport; both the nosegear and the starboard main gear collapsed. [89]
2 October 1989 NigeriaLagos Boeing 737-200 5N-ANX W/O 0/135 Had its nosegear collapsed after overrunning the wet runway on landing at Ikeja International Airport. [90]
11 July 1991 Saudi ArabiaJeddah DC-8-61 C-GMXQ W/O 261/261 Caught fire and crashed shortly after take-off from King Abdulaziz International Airport. The aircraft, chartered from the Canadian company Nolisair, was flying pilgrims back to Sokoto as Flight 2120, during the Hajj season. [91]
25 October 1993 NigerNiamey A310-200 Unknown Minor 1/149 Hijacked en route from Lagos to Abuja. The hijackers demanded the resignation of the Nigeria's government and to be flown to Frankfurt. The aircraft was denied permission to land in N'Djamena, and was diverted to the Niamey Airport for refuelling. It was stormed by Nigerien commandos 4 days later; the co-pilot was killed during the operation. [92]
19 December 1994 NigeriaKiri Kasama Boeing 707-320C 5N-ABK W/O 3/5 Crashed near Kiri Kasama after smoke in the cockpit was reported, distracting the pilots. The aircraft was operating a cargo service between Jeddah and Kano as Flight 9805. [93][94]:39[95]
13 November 1995 NigeriaKaduna Boeing 737-200 5N-AUA W/O 11/138 The aircraft experienced a wing strike following a long, tailwind landing at Kaduna Airport, inbound from Jos as Flight 357. The starboard wing hit the ground after the aircraft slewed off the runway to the left, damaging the fuel tanks and starting a fire that completely engulfed the fuselage. [96][97][98]

See also[edit]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Flight International, at March 1984 (1984-03) the aircraft park totalled 31, including one Boeing 747-200, one Boeing 747-200 Combi, two DC-10-30s, two Airbus A310s, three Boeing 707-320Cs, two Boeing 727-200s, 12 Boeing 737-200s, one Boeing 737-200C, five Fokker F-28-2000s and two Fokker F-28-4000s.[57]
  2. ^ The flying elephant was an icon of air transport all through West Africa.[69]
  3. ^ There exists a discrepancy over the date of occurrence, as it was informed to be 25 April,[81] or 15 May.[82]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h
  2. ^ "Nigeria Airways information". theAirDB. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 
  3. ^ Adujie, Paul I. (13 October 2004). "Falcons' Victory, Nigeria Airways Failure; Metaphors Nigeria's Malaise". Nigerian Village Square. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. 
  4. ^ "Nigerian pilots threaten strike action". Flight International (Lagos): 1338. 19 November 1983. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "Capt Tunde Ashafa, president of the pilots' association, said that the pilots have not had their salary reviewed since 1978, when Nigeria Airways was being managed by Dutch flag carrier KLM." 
  5. ^ "Nigeria Airways halves workforce". BBC News. 4 January 2002. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. "Nigeria Airways is today a far cry from its heyday in the early 1980s when it had a fleet of about 30 aircraft." 
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ "Nigeria set for new carrier". Flightglobal.com. Airline Business. 1 September 2003. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Tumba, Simon (1 October 2000). "Nigeria Airways faces tough choices". Flightglobal.com. Airline Business. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  10. ^ "Nigeria seeks lost airways money". BBC News. 24 November 2003. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  11. ^ a b "Virgin takes to Nigeria's skies". BBC News. 28 September 2004. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  12. ^ Isaacs, Dan (15 May 2002). "Nigeria gets tough on air safety". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  13. ^ "Africa report: Survival test". Flightglobal. Airline Business. 21 November 2006. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. "Partially privatised Ghana International Airlines has already taken over from the liquidated Ghana Airways, while Virgin Nigeria replaced Nigeria Airways, which lurched from crisis to crisis until the government finally pulled the plug three years ago." 
  14. ^ "Virgin Nigeria takes to the air". Flightglobal. Airline Business. 4 October 2005. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. 
  15. ^ a b c d e "Airlines of the World – Nigerian Airways". Flight 77 (2665): 505. 8 April 1960. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c "B.O.A.C in West Africa". Flight 2593 (74): 564. 3 October 1958. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c d e Guttery (1998), p. 143.
  18. ^ "Civil Aviation...". Flight: 603. 10 October 1958. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  19. ^ "World airlines survey... – Nigeria Airways". Flight: 501. 13 April 1961. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. 
  20. ^ "Air commerce". Flight 80 (2743): 563. 5 October 1961. Archived from the original on 18 November 2013. "Chief J. O. Fadahunsi, chairman of Nigeria Airways, signs at Schiphol a contract for the purchase of five Fokker Friendship 200s to be delivered in December 1962 and January 1963." 
  21. ^ "Air commerce – Brevities". Flight 80 (2742): 524. 28 September 1961. Archived from the original on 17 November 2013. "Nigeria Airways have confirmed their order for five Fokker Friendship 200s, with an option on a further two, for delivery in December 1962 and January1963. The aircraft will replace the company's five DC-3s and provide the additional capacity needed for the expansion of Nigeria Airways' domestic and regional routes." 
  22. ^ "Air commerce". Flight International 2825 (83): 632. Archived from the original on 17 November 2013. "A revised agreement between BOAC and Nigeria Airways was signed in Ikeja on April 16." 
  23. ^
  24. ^ "Another Nigerian 707?" (PDF). Flight International: 53. 13 January 1972. Retrieved 31 January 2012. "The former VC10 crews have now left Nigeria Airways (they were not given the chance to convert on to 707s after the airline's VC10 was lost in November 1969), and a number of actions by aircrew for breach of contract are pending against the airline." 
  25. ^ "AIR TRANSPORT..." (pdf). Flight International: 741. 27 May 1971. Retrieved 31 January 2012. "Nigeria Airways has taken delivery of a new Boeing 707-320C which will eventually replace the 707 at present on lease from Ethiopian Airlines. Nigeria Airways has been advertising for 707-qualified crews, although it still has on contract VC10 crew members who have been retained since the airline's VC10 was lost in November 1969." 
  26. ^ "Operation Fantastic". Flight International: 695. 22 October 1964. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. 
  27. ^ a b c "World airlines 1970 – Nigeria Airways". Flight International 97 (3185): 492. 26 March 1970. Archived from the original on 16 November 2013. 
  28. ^ "707 for Nigeria" (pdf). Flight International: 238. 12 August 1971. Retrieved 31 January 2012. "Nigeria Airways put its new Boeing 707-320C into service between London and Lagos last week. The aircraft replaces one wet-leased for the past 18 months from Ethiopian Airlines." 
  29. ^ "AIR TRANSPORT..." (pdf). Flight International: 6. 2 July 1970. Retrieved 14 August 2011. "Nigeria Airways has just begun services on the London-Lagos route with its 707-320C, wet leased from Ethiopian Airlines. The airline had previously leased a Laker 707 on an ad hoc basis." 
  30. ^ "Airline directory up-dated – October" (PDF). Flight International: 487. 12 October 1972. Retrieved 31 January 2012. "Nigeria Airways has ordered two Boeing 737-200s for delivery in November, and a second 707-320C for delivery in December." 
  31. ^ "First stretched F.28 order" (PDF). Flight International: 8. 4 January 1973. Retrieved 31 January 2012. "The first order for the Fokker-VFW F.28 Mk 2000 has been placed by Nigeria Airways, which has been operating the 79-seat aircraft on lease since last October." 
  32. ^ "Airlines updated". Flight International 104 (3358): 86. 19 July 1973. Archived from the original on 3 July 2012. "Nigeria Airways has signed a management-assistance contract with TWA, following a four-month study of the African airline by the US carrier. Under the contract TWA will second specialists in flight operations, maintenance, administration, finance, training, marketing, planning, and research to Nigeria Airways for five years." 
  33. ^ "Help for Nigeria". Flight International 102 (3321): 636. 9 November 1972. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. "TWA has signed a management assistance agreement with Nigeria Airways. The airline will provide Nigeria Airways with a team of specialists in different managerial fields, including technical services and flight operations, as well as in commercial and financial fields. A separate contract is for a study by TWA of Nigeria Airways' pattern of operations." 
  34. ^ a b
  35. ^ "Airliner market" (PDF). Flight International: 587. 10 April 1975. Retrieved 31 January 2012. "Nigeria Airways and Fokker-VFW have confirmed an order for five F.28 Mk 2000s pushing the official order list to the 100 mark." 
  36. ^ "World Airline Directory – Nigeria Airways Ltd" (PDF). Flight International: 495. 20 March 1975. Retrieved 31 January 2012. 
  37. ^ "Airliner market". Flight International 110 (3526): 1065. 9 October 1976. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. "Nigeria Airways has become the 83rd Boeing 727 customer with an order for two 727-200s, to be delivered in August and September of next year. The airline also ordered a 707-320C, for delivery in November 1977" 
  38. ^ "Air transport". Flight International 110 (3529): 1299. 30 October 1976. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. "Nigeria Airways last week took delivery of a DC-10-30." 
  39. ^ "Airliner market" (PDF). Flight International: 2158. 16 December 1978. Retrieved 1 February 2012. "Fokker-VFW reports the sale of two F.28 Mk 4000s to Nigeria Airways, for delivery in May and June 1979. The carrier already operates six F.28 Mk 2000s." 
  40. ^ "Airliner market" (PDF). Flight International: 691. 19 March 1977. Retrieved 1 February 2012. "Nigeria Airways has ordered a second McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30, for delivery in the autumn" 
  41. ^ "Market place" (PDF). Flight International: 8. 5 January 1985. Retrieved 2 February 2012. "Nigeria Airways has accepted its four A310-200s. Two of the aircraft are already in Lagos, while the other two will depart for the Nigerian capital in mid-January. Nigeria Airways placed the order for four A310s in April 1981 but Government guarantees on the aircraft were not agreed until 1984." 
  42. ^ "Airbus signs fortieth customer" (PDF). Flight International: 1217. 2 May 1981. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  43. ^ "Air transport" (PDF). Flight International: 510. 26 February 1983. Retrieved 2 February 2012. "Nigeria Airways has taken delivery of four new Boeing 737-200s. Three are seen here at London's Heathrow Airport while on delivery. They will replace leased 737s in the airline's fleet. A loan of $70 million from a group of seven major banks made the deal possible" 
  44. ^ "Airliner market" (PDF). Flight International: 1883. 26 December 1981. Retrieved 2 February 2012. "Nigeria Airways has converted options on four Boeing 737-200s into a firm order. Two of the aircraft will be delivered in December 1982 and the other two in July 1983. The airline already operates six 737s on lease and has four 737-200s on order for mid-1982 delivery." 
  45. ^ "Airliner market" (PDF). Flight International: 55. 10 January 1981. Retrieved 2 February 2012. "Nigeria Airways has ordered four Boeing 737s, worth $65 million with spares, for delivery in 1982." 
  46. ^ "Marketplace" (PDF). Flight International: 186. 24 July 1982. Retrieved 2 February 2012. "Scanair, the charter subsidiary of SAS, is looking for a Boeing 747 for two or three years because the 747 it previously operated has been leased to Nigeria Airways." 
  47. ^ "Airliner market" (PDF). Flight International: 910. 10 April 1982. Retrieved 2 February 2012. "Nigeria Airways is leasing a Boeing 747 from SAS for its Lagos-London services. The airline's managing director Alhaji Bature says that the carrier has made little progress in buying its own 747, so the SAS aircraft is being leased until Nigeria Airways can buy one outright. "We are currently considering a number of offers from various airlines which already operate 747s and have no further use for their equipment." The leased 747 will be flown by SAS flightcrew, but will carry Nigeria Airways cabin staff. The introduction of the 747 has allowed the airline to operate its DC-lOs on new routes to Zurich, Frankfurt, and Paris." 
  48. ^ "Fokker keeps the pressure on Africa" (PDF). Flight International: 6. 6 July 1985. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  49. ^ "World Airline Directory – Nigeria Airways" (PDF). Flight International: 103. 30 March 1985. Retrieved 2 February 2012. 
  50. ^ a b "Nigeria Airways resumes African routes". Flight International 136 (4183): 21. 23 September 1989. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. 
  51. ^ a b
  52. ^ "Nigerian Airbus detained". Flight International (Bordeaux) 133 (4102): 3. 27 February 1988. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 16 November 2013. 
  53. ^ a b "Nigeria Airways cuts back". Flight International (Lagos) 130 (4043): 3. 27 December 1986. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 16 November 2013. 
  54. ^ "Nigeria tries to reduce debts". Flight International (Lagos) 132 (4091): 8. 5 December 1987. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. 
  55. ^ "News in brief – Nigeria relaunches". Flight International 136 (4181): 9. 9 September 1989. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. 
  56. ^ a b "World Airline Directory–Nigeria Airways". Flight International 157 (4722): 94. 4 April 2000–10 April 2000. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. 
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i
  58. ^ "World Bank quits Nigerian privatisation". BBC News. 22 May 2001. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  59. ^ "Fresh fraud probe for Nigeria Airways". BBC News. 12 December 2002. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  60. ^ "Politicians probe Nigeria Airways 'sale'". BBC News. 26 August 2002. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012. "The airline also last year dismissed its chief executive amid fraud allegations, after Lagos-London flights were suspended over fears about the safety of aircraft leased." 
  61. ^ "Nigeria hits rock bottom". Flightglobal.com. Airline Business. 1 August 1998. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "Nigeria Airways' revenue dwindled after the May 1997 ban by the UK Civil Aviation Authority on Nigerian registered aircraft." 
  62. ^ "BA resumes Nigeria flights". BBC News. 29 July 1998. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  63. ^ "Nigeria airways takes off for London". BBC News. 20 November 2001. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  64. ^ "Britain Stops Nigeria Airways from Returning to Lagos-London Flight". People's Daily. 17 August 2001. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012. "The British aviation authorities Thursday admitted here that it has prevented Nigeria Airways from returning to the Lagos-London route scheduled for Thursday, due to safety concerns over the use of a Boeing 747 plane leased from Air Djibouti." 
  65. ^ Dunn, Graham (25 November 2010). "AB25: Births, deaths and marriages". Flightglobal.com. Airline Business. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012. "Nigeria Airways stops flights (2003)" 
  66. ^ Ezard, Kerry (9 May 2006). "Arik aims to shake up Nigeria". Flightglobal.com (London). Flight International. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012. "Arik has moved into the former headquarters building of defunct Nigeria Airways in Lagos..." 
  67. ^ "World Airline Directory–Nigeria Airways". Flight International: 90. 31 March 1999–6 April 1999. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  68. ^ John Seekings (31 October 1958). "Where Elephants Fly – The story of Nigeria's airline" (pdf). Flight: 685 – 688. 
  69. ^ "SubFleets for: Nigeria Airways". AeroTransport Data Bank. 15 January 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  70. ^ "The Comet is twenty..." (PDF). Flight International: 169 – 172. 31 July 1969. Retrieved 16 January 2012. "Air Ceylon, East African Airways, MEA and Nigeria Airways had also leased Comets at various times from BOAC." 
  71. ^ "Accident record for Nigeria Airways". Aviation Safety Network. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  72. ^ Accident description for 5N-ABD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 24 January 2012.
  73. ^ "Accident Synopsis for 5N-ABD". AirDisaster.com. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  74. ^ "No pay-out" (pdf). Flight International: 40. 9 July 1970. Retrieved 9 August 2011. 
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Bibliography[edit]

  • Guttery, Ben R. (1998). Encyclopedia of African Airlines. Jefferson, North Carolina 28640: Mc Farland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-7864-0495-7. 

External links[edit]