Rebbachisauridae

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Rebbachisaurids
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous
Limaysaurus.jpg
Limaysaurus tessonei skeleton restoration
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Suborder: Sauropodomorpha
Superfamily: Diplodocoidea
Family: Rebbachisauridae
Bonaparte, 1997
Genera

Rebbachisauridae is a family of sauropod dinosaurs known from fragmentary fossil remains from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and Europe.

Taxonomy[edit]

Sauropod specialist Jack McIntosh in 1990 included the first known genus, the giant North African sauropod Rebbachisaurus in the family Diplodocidae, subfamily Dicraeosaurinae, on the basis of skeletal details. With the discovery in subsequent years of a number of additional forms, it was realised that the rebbachisaurs constitute a distinct group of dinosaurs, and in 1997 the Argentine paleontologist José Bonaparte named the family Rebbachisauridae. Whitlock, 2011 defined two new subfamilies Nigersaurinae and Limaysaurinae within Rebbachisauridae. Cladogram of the Rebbachisauridae after Fanti et al., 2013,[3] which is based on Carballido et al., 2012:[4]

Rebbachisauridae

Amazonsaurus




Histriasaurus



Zapalasaurus




Comahuesaurus



Limaysaurinae

Rayososaurus



Rebbachisaurus




Cathartesaura



Limaysaurus




Nigersaurinae

Nigersaurus




Demandasaurus



Tataouinea








Cladogram after Whitlock, 2011.[5]

Rebbachisauridae

Histriasaurus




Rebbachisaurus



Nigersaurinae

Zapalasaurus




Demandasaurus ("Spanish rebbachisaurid")



Nigersaurus




Limaysaurinae

Cathartesaura



Limaysaurus






21st century in paleontology 20th century in paleontology 19th century in paleontology 2090s in paleontology 2080s in paleontology 2070s in paleontology 2060s in paleontology 2050s in paleontology 2040s in paleontology 2030s in paleontology 2020s in paleontology 2010s in paleontology 2000s in paleontology 1990s in paleontology 1980s in paleontology 1970s in paleontology 1960s in paleontology 1950s in paleontology 1940s in paleontology 1930s in paleontology 1920s in paleontology 1910s in paleontology 1900s in paleontology 1890s in paleontology 1880s in paleontology 1870s in paleontology 1860s in paleontology 1850s in paleontology 1840s in paleontology 1830s in paleontology 1820s in paleontology Tataouinea Nigersaurus Demandasaurus Limaysaurus Cathartesaura Rebbachisaurus Rayososaurus Zapalasaurus Nopcsaspondylus Histriasaurus Comahuesaurus Amazonsaurus 21st century in paleontology 20th century in paleontology 19th century in paleontology 2090s in paleontology 2080s in paleontology 2070s in paleontology 2060s in paleontology 2050s in paleontology 2040s in paleontology 2030s in paleontology 2020s in paleontology 2010s in paleontology 2000s in paleontology 1990s in paleontology 1980s in paleontology 1970s in paleontology 1960s in paleontology 1950s in paleontology 1940s in paleontology 1930s in paleontology 1920s in paleontology 1910s in paleontology 1900s in paleontology 1890s in paleontology 1880s in paleontology 1870s in paleontology 1860s in paleontology 1850s in paleontology 1840s in paleontology 1830s in paleontology 1820s in paleontology

Evolutionary relationships and characteristics[edit]

Nigersaurus taqueti teeth

Although all authorities agree that the rebbachisaurids are members of the superfamily Diplodocoidea, they lack the bifid (divided) cervical neural spines that characterise the diplodocids and dicraeosaurids, and for this reason are considered more primitive than the latter two groups. It is not yet known whether they share the distinctive whip-tail of the latter two taxa.

Rebbachisaurids are distinguished from other sauropods by their distinctive teeth, which have low angle, internal wear facets and asymmetrical enamel.

Unique among sauropods, at least some rebbachisaurids (such as Nigersaurus) are characterised by the presence of tooth batteries, similar to those of hadrosaur and ceratopsian dinosaurs. Such a feeding adaptation has thus developed independently three times among the dinosaurs.

So far, rebbachisaurids are known only from the middle and early part of the Late Cretaceous. Unless the nemegtosaurids are in fact diplodocoids (rather than titanosaurs), then the rebbachisaurids represent the last known representatives of this clade, and lived alongside the titanosaurs until fairly late in the Cretaceous. So far, no rebbachisaurids are known from the very end of the Cretaceous period.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paul C. Sereno, Jeffrey A. Wilson, Lawrence M. Witmer, John A. Whitlock, Abdoulaye Maga, Oumarou Ide, Timothy A. Rowe (2007). "Structural Extremes in a Cretaceous Dinosaur". In Kemp, Tom. PLoS ONE 2 (11): e1230. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001230. PMC 2077925. PMID 18030355. 
  2. ^ Fidel Torcida Fernández-Baldor, José Ignacio Canudo, Pedro Huerta, Diego Montero, Xabier Pereda Suberbiola and Leonardo Salgado (2011). "Demandasaurus darwini, a new rebbachisaurid sauropod from the Early Cretaceous of the Iberian Peninsula". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 56. doi:10.4202/app.2010.0003. 
  3. ^ a b F. Fanti, A. Cau, M. Hassine and M. Contessi. 2013. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Tunisia with extreme avian-like pneumatization. Nature Communications 4(2080):1-7
  4. ^ Carballido, José Luis; Salgado, Leonardo; Pol, Diego; Canudo, José Ignacio; Garrido, Alberto (2012). "A new basal rebbachisaurid (Sauropoda, Diplodocoidea) from the Early Cretaceous of the Neuquén Basin; evolution and biogeography of the group". Historical Biology 24 (6): 631–654. doi:10.1080/08912963.2012.672416.  edit
  5. ^ John A. Whitlock (2011). "A phylogenetic analysis of Diplodocoidea (Saurischia: Sauropoda)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (4): 872–915. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00665.x.