Night eating syndrome

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Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder, characterized by a delayed circadian pattern of food intake.[1] Although there is some degree of comorbidity with binge eating disorder,[2] it differs from binge eating in that the amount of food consumed in the evening/night is not necessarily objectively large nor is a loss of control over food intake required. It was originally described by Dr. Albert Stunkard in 1955 [3] and is currently included in the “Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder” category of the DSM-5.[4] Research diagnostic criteria have been proposed[5] and include evening hyperphagia (consumption of 25% or more of the total daily calories after the evening meal) and/or nocturnal awakening and ingestion of food two or more times per week.  The person must have awareness of the night eating to differentiate it from the parasomnia sleep-related eating disorder (SRED).  Three of five associated symptoms must also be present: lack of morning hunger, urges to eat in the evening/at night, belief that one must eat in order to fall back to sleep at night, depressed mood, and/or difficulty sleeping.  NES affects both men and women,[6] between 1 and 2% of the general population,[7] and approximately 10% of obese individuals.[8] The age of onset is typically in early adulthood (spanning from late teenage years to late twenties) and is often long-lasting[9], with children rarely reporting NES.[10]  People with NES have been shown to have higher scores for depression and low self-esteem, and it has been demonstrated that nocturnal levels of the hormones melatonin and leptin are decreased.[11]  The relationship between NES and the parasomnia SRED is in need of further clarification.  There is debate as to whether these should be viewed as separate diseases, or part of a continuum.[12]

Co-morbidities[edit]

NES is sometimes associated with excess weight; as many as 28% of individuals seeking gastric bypass surgery were found to suffer from NES in one study.[13]  However, not all individuals with NES are overweight.[11][14]  Night eating has been associated with diabetic complications.[15]  Many people with NES also experience depressed mood [11][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] and anxiety disorders.[21][22][24][25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Allison; et al. (2010). International Journal of Eating Disorders 43: 241–247. 
  2. ^ Allison; et al. International Journal of Eating Disorders 43: 241–247. 
  3. ^ Stunkard, A.J., Grace, W.J., & Wolff, H.G. (1955). The night-eating syndrome; a pattern of food intake among certain obese patients. The American Journal of Medicine, 19, 78-86.
  4. ^ American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  5. ^ Allison, K.C., Lundgren, J.D., O’Reardon, J.P., Geliebterm A., Gluck, M.E., Vinai, P., et al. (2010). Proposed diagnostic criteria for night eating syndrome. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43, 241-247.
  6. ^ Striegel-Moore, R.H., Franko, D.L., Thompson, D., Affenito, S., & Kraemer, H.C. (2006). Night eating: Prevalence and demographic correlates. Obesity, 14, 139–147.
  7. ^ Rand, C.S.W., Macgregor, M.D., Stunkard, A.J. (1997). The night eating syndrome in the general population and amongst post-operative obesity surgery patients. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 22, 65–69.
  8. ^ Stunkard, A.J., Berkowitz, R., Wadden, T., Tanrikut, C., Reiss, E., & Young, L. (1996). Binge eating disorder and the night-eating syndrome. International Journal of Obesity, 20, 1–6.
  9. ^ Wal, Jillon S. Vander. "Night eating syndrome: A critical review of the literature." Clinical Psychology Review 32.1 (2012): 49-59. Print.
  10. ^ Lundgren, J.D., Drapeau, V., Allison, K.C., Gallant, A.R., Tremblay, A., Lambert, M.A., . . . Stunkard, A.J. (2012). Prevalence and familial patterns of night eating in the Quebec adipose and lifestyle investigation in youth (QUALITY) study. Obesity, 20, 1598-1603.
  11. ^ a b c Birketvedt, G., Florholmen, J., Sundsfjord, J., Østerud, B., Dinges, D., Bilker, W., & Stunkard, A.J. (1999). Behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics of the night-eating syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 657-663.
  12. ^ Auger, R.R. (2006). Sleep-related eating disorders. Psychiatry, 3, 64-70.
  13. ^ O'Reardon, J.P.,  Stunkard, A.J., & Allison, K.C. (2004). Clinical trial of sertraline in the treatment of night eating syndrome. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35, 16-26.
  14. ^ Lundgren, J.D., Shapiro, J.R., & Bulik, C.M. (2008). Night eating patterns of patients with bulimia nervosa: a preliminary report. Eating and Weight Disorders: Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia, and Obesity, 13, 171–175.
  15. ^ Morse, S.A., Ciechanowski, P.S., Katon, W.J., & Hirsch, I.B. (2006). “Isn’t this just bedtime snacking? The potential adverse effects of night-eating symptoms on treatment adherence and outcomes in patients with diabetes” (full free text). Diabetes Care, 29, 1800–1804.
  16. ^ Gluck, M.E., Geliebter, A., & Satoy, T. (2001). Night eating syndrome is associated with depression, low self-esteem, reduced daytime hunger, and less weight loss in obese patients. Obesity Research, 9, 264-267.
  17. ^ Calugi, S., Grave, R.D., & Marchesini, G. (2009). Night eating syndrome in class II-III obesity: Metabolic and psychopathological features. International Journal of Obesity, 33, 899-904.
  18. ^ Boseck, J.J., Engel, S.G., Allison, K.C., Crosby,R.D., Mitchell, J.E., & de Zwaan, M. (2007). The application of ecological momentary assessment to the study of night eating. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40, 271–276.
  19. ^ Allison, K.C., Ahima, R.S., O'Reardon, J.P., Dinges, D.F.,Sharma, V., Cummings, D.E., . . . Stunkard, A.J. (2005). Neuroendocrine profiles associated with energy intake, sleep, and stress in the night eating syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 9, 6214-6217.
  20. ^ Striegel-Moore, R.H., Franko, D.L., Thompson, D., Affenito, S., May, A., & Kraemer, H.C. (2008). Exploring the typology of night eating syndrome. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41, 411–418.
  21. ^ a b de Zwaan, M., Roerig, D.B., Crosby, R.D., Karaz, S., & Mitchell, J.E. (2006). Nighttime eating: a descriptive study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 224–232. 
  22. ^ a b Lundgren, J.D., Allison, K.C., O’Reardon, J.P., & Stunkard, A.J. (2008). A descriptive study of non-obese persons with night eating syndrome and a weight-matched comparison group. Eating Behaviors, 9, 343–351.
  23. ^ Thompson, S.H., & DeBate, R.D. (2010). An exploratory study of the relationship between night eating syndrome and depression among college students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 24, 39-48.
  24. ^ Sassaroli, S., Ruggiero, G.M., Vinai, P., Cardetti, S.,Carpegna, G., Ferrato, N., . . . Sampietro, S. (2009). Daily and nightly anxiety amongst patients affected by night eating syndrome and binge eating disorder. Eating Disorders, 17, 140–145.
  25. ^ Napolitano, M.A., Head, S., Babyak, M.A., & Blumenthal, J.A. (2001). Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome: psychological and behavioral characteristics. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 30, 193–203.