Nighthawk (Marvel Comics)
Nighthawk #1 (Sept. 1998), featuring Nighthawk in various costumes.
Cover art by Richard Case.
|First appearance||(Kyle: Earth-616)
The Avengers #69 (Oct. 1969)
The Last Defenders #1 (May 2008)
The Avengers #85 (March 1971)
Squadron Supreme: New World Order #1 (Sept. 1998)
|Created by||(Kyle Richmond)
Roy Thomas (writer)
Sal Buscema (artist)
Joe Casey (writer)
Keith Giffen (writer & artist)
Jim Muniz (artist)
|Alter ego||- Kyle Richmond (616)
- Joaquin Pennysworth (616)
|Team affiliations||(Kyle: Earth-616)
Legion of the Unliving
Enhanced strength, agility, reflexes, and stamina when night
Highly trained S.H.I.E.L.D. Agent, Olympic-level athlete, wearing special high tech suit
Olympic-level athletes, geniuses and advanced weaponry
|Marvel Comics Alternate Universes|
|Marvel stories take place primarily in a mainstream continuity called the Marvel Universe. Some stories are set in various parallel, or alternate, realities, called the Marvel Multiverse.
The Official Handbook to the Marvel Universe: Alternate Worlds 2005 designates the mainstream continuity as "Earth-616", and assigns another Earth-numbers to each specific alternate reality.
In this article the following characters, or teams, and realities are referred to:
Nighthawk is the name of several fictional characters that appear in publications published by Marvel Comics. There have been five versions of the character: a supervillain-turned-superhero from the mainstream Marvel Universe continuity, Kyle Richmond, who belonged to the team Squadron Sinister; and four from alternate universes, who belonged to various permutations of team Squadron Supreme.
Publication history 
Kyle Richmond, the original Nighthawk, debuted as a supervillain in the final panel of The Avengers #69 (Oct. 1969), a superhero team in the mainstream Marvel Comics continuity the company designates Earth-616. This story is the first chapter of a three-issue arc by writer Roy Thomas and penciller Sal Buscema. The story arc introduced the supervillain team the Squadron Sinister, whose four members were loosely based on heroes in DC Comics' Justice League of America, with Nighthawk based on Batman.
Following this arc, Nighthawk appeared in a solo adventure in the title Daredevil, before reappearing with the Squadron as antagonists in the superhero team title The Defenders #13-14 (May–July 1974). Nighthawk then reformed, and after adopting a new costume joined the team the following issue.
Nighthawk appeared on a regular basis in The Defenders and a number of other Marvel titles, including Giant-Size Defenders 2-5 (Oct. 1974 - July 1975); Marvel Team-Up #33-34 and 101 (May–June 1975, Jan. 1981); The Incredible Hulk #206-207 (Dec. 1976 - Jan. 1977); Marvel Two-In-One #34 (Dec. 1977); The Avengers #167 and 182 (Jan. 1978, April 1979); Doctor Strange vol. 2, #29 (June 1978); The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #15 (Dec. 1981); Captain America #268 (April 1982); and with other heroes in the graphic novel The Death of Captain Marvel (April 1982) and the humorous Fantastic Four Roast (April 1982).
Following a solo adventure in Tales To Astonish vol. 2, #13 (Dec. 1980), he apparently sacrifices his life in The Defenders #106 (April 1982). The supervillain Dead Ringer briefly impersonated him in Captain America #429 (July 1994), but is captured. In the three-issue miniseries Nighthawk (Sept.-Nov. 1998) Richmond was revealed to be alive, but in a coma and brain dead. Through supernatural means, he was revived and resumed his crime-fighting career, and co-starred in the 12-issue run of The Defenders vol. 2 (March 2001 - Feb. 2002) and the miniseries The Order #1-6 (April - Sept. 2002). Afterward, he appeared in the team comics New Thunderbolts #15-18 (Jan.-April 2006) and Thunderbolts #100-108 (May 2006 - Jan. 2007), and was among the many heroes featured in the miniseries Civil War #1-7 (July 2006 - Jan. 2007). He went onto to appear sporadically in Avengers: The Initiative, beginning with issue #1 (June 2007). Nighthawk formed a short-lived version of the Defenders with the mutant Colossus, the Blazing Skull, and She-Hulk, as part of the Initiative, and depicted in the miniseries The Last Defenders #1-6 (May - Oct. 2008).
Fictional character biography 
Nighthawk and three other supervillains are created as the Squadron Sinister by the cosmic entity the Grandmaster to battle the superhero team the Avengers, which has been forced to act as the champions of the time-traveling conqueror Kang. Nighthawk battles the Avenger Captain America, who outfights the villain. The Avengers eventually defeat the Squadron.
Reunited by the alien Nebulon, the villains receive greater power in exchange for the planet Earth, and create a giant laser cannon in the Arctic with a plan to melt the polar ice caps and flood the entirety of the Earth's surface. Despite being asked to join the venture, Nighthawk asks for the aid of superhero team the Defenders, who prevent the scheme and defeat the villains and Nebulon.
The character suffers several setbacks as a superhero, including being charged with tax evasion and fraud by the United States government, and arrested by the FBI for operating as a hero while charges were pending. This stipulation was waived after he was forced to reveal his secret identity. Nighthawk's cumulative wounds from battle eventually leave him paralyzed. Recovering to the point that he can move at night, Nighthawk continues to aid the Defenders, until resigning from the team. He is advised he is to be cleared of all charges if a predetermined amount is repaid to the government.
After apparently sacrificing his life to stop an organization bent on attacking the Soviet Union, Richmond turns up alive but comatose. He has a vision of an angel that facilitates his healing and bestows on him a "second sight", which enables him to see criminal acts before they are committed. In return, he must punish the would-be criminals. Once healed, Richmond becomes Nighthawk once again and fights crime until forced into a confrontation with Daredevil, whom he kills. The "angel" then reveals itself to be the demon Mephisto, who transports Nighthawk and Daredevil's corpse to Hell, intending to claim Daredevil's soul. Nighthawk battles the demons of Hell and manages to revive Daredevil, and together they escape. A sorcerer later purges him of Mephisto's gift.[volume & issue needed]
After an adventure with Fantastic Four member the Thing Nighthawk discovers his abilities are increasing, and learns that his former Squadron Sinister teammate Speed Demon has joined the superhero team the New Thunderbolts. After encountering teammate Hyperion, apparently resurrected after being thought dead, and a new Doctor Spectrum (Alice Nugent), Nighthawk briefly joins the New Thunderbolts, but upon discovering he is being used for his fortune, leaves and rejoins the Squadron Sinister. That team learns that the Grandmaster, using an interdimensional source of superhuman abilities, the Wellspring of Power, has been increasing the team-members' powers. After a battle between the Squadron and the New Thunderbolts, Nighthawk and the other members of the Squadron Sinister scatter and escape.
Nighthawk is initially opposed to the Superhuman Registration Act, but following the death of superhero Black Goliath in the physical confrontations that follow, Nighthawk joins the pro-registration side, but is defeated in a skirmish with anti-registration heroes the Falcon and Storm. He later joins the US government's Fifty State Initiative of registered heroes, and forms a short-lived Initiative version of the Defenders with the mutant Colossus, the Blazing Skull, and She-Hulk. With She-Hulk and later the Atlantean warrior Krang, Nighthawk battles the group the Sons of the Serpent, which culminates in a confrontation with his old Defenders foe Yandroth. Yandroth manipulates time and forces Nighthawk to battle a twisted version of his old team the Squadron Sinister before being rescued by a future incarnation of the Defenders. Noting that one of the future members is Joaquin Pennyworth, an agent of S.H.I.E.L.D. and the son of the one-time leader of the Sons of the Serpent, Richmond asks him to commence training to become the new Nighthawk.
Powers and abilities 
Nighthawk is a superb athlete, who courtesy of an alchemical potion possesses mild super-strength and increased agility and durability from dusk till dawn. He has also used several costume aids, such as a jet-powered artificial wing system; artificial claw tips; lasers and projectile weapons.
Other versions 
Kyle Richmond (Earth-712) 
Roy Thomas and penciller John Buscema created an alternate-universe team of heroes called the Squadron Supreme, who debut in The Avengers #85 (Feb. 1971). After an initial skirmish with four Avengers, the teams unite to stop a common threat. The characters (including Nighthawk) were identical in name and appearance to the Squadron Sinister, which caused confusion in Marvel's production department, as the covers of The Avengers #85 and #141 (Nov. 1975) "cover-blurbed" appearances by the Squadron Sinister, when in fact it was the Squadron Supreme that appeared in both issues.
The heroic Nighthawk and the Squadron Supreme have another series of skirmishes with the Avengers engineered by the group the Serpent Cartel, but eventually team together and prevent the use of the artifact the Serpent Crown. The character and his teammates briefly feature in the title Thor, when the evil version of Hyperion attacks the Earth-712 version and then Thunder God Thor. The Squadron are mind-controlled by the entities the Over-Mind and Null the Living Darkness, but are freed by the Defenders and aid the heroes in defeating the villains.
The Squadron Supreme feature in a self-titled 12-issue miniseries (Sept. 1985 - Aug. 1986) by writer Mark Gruenwald. The series reveals each character's origin and explains why the Squadrons Sinister and Supreme are similar: the Grandmaster creates the Squadron Sinister modeled on the already-existing Squadron Supreme of the Earth-712 universe.
Led by Hyperion, the Squadron believe they have the knowledge and power to recreate the world and create a Utopia. Nighthawk resigns in protest, believing that the Squadron should serve and not rule. The Squadron assume overall control of the government of the United States and remake the nation into a virtual utopia. The team implement a series of sweeping changes, including revealing their secret identities; instituting a program of behavior modification in prisons; enforcing a strict gun control policy, and developing medical technology to resurrect the dead. Despite the economic and technological advances, there are setbacks.[volume & issue needed]
Member the Golden Archer abuses the behavior modification technology by forcing fellow member Lady Lark to love him, resulting in his eventual removal from the team. Fellow member Amphibian resigns in protest over the misuse of the behavior modification technology while Nuke inadvertently kills his own parents (via unnoticed and uncontrollable release of radiation) and after a rampage dies battling Doctor Spectrum. Predicting a nightmarish outcome, Nighthawk attempts in vain to solicit the aid of the Avengers in the title Captain America and is eventually forced to confront his old teammates with a new team. A brutal battle ensues in which several members of both teams are killed, including Nighthawk. A horrified Hyperion realizes Nighthawk was in fact right and ends the battle, and the Squadron disband and release control of the United States to the government.[volume & issue needed]
The Earth-712 versions lack powers but possess extensive training and use a variety of advanced weaponry.
Neil Richmond (Earth-712) 
When the remnants of the Squadron Supreme returns to their home universe in the one-shot Squadron Supreme: New World Order, they encounter a new version of Nighthawk, who is the son of old Kyle Richmond foe The Huckster. Earth-712 is now dominated by corporations using the Squadron's own Utopia technologies, with the characters eventually reinstating democracy. For years prior to the return of the Squadron Supreme to his universe, Neil had organized and supervised his elite Nighthawks who battled the Blue Eagles enlisted by the corporate New World Order. Nighthawk later joins the Squadron, acting as the team's conscience. Nighthawk and the Squadron also come into conflict with a new government when interdimensional team the Exiles, traveling from the Earth-616 universe, reveal that the government had rigged the election with a worldwide vote fraud. The Squadron and the Exiles depose the new government, and attempt to allow society to progress without superhuman involvement. The Earth-712 versions lack powers but possess extensive training and use a variety of advanced weaponry.
Kyle Richmond (Earth-9997) 
In the Earth X series and its spin-offs, created by Alex Ross, John Paul Leon, and Jim Krueger, Kyle Richmond is an elderly retired superhero. Kyle Richmond's eyes, given by a disguised Mephisto, allow him to see into the future. He dictates what he sees to his colleague, Isaac Christians, so that a record can be kept of what will become of history. The Earth-9997 version lacks powers but possess extensive training and use a variety of advanced weaponry.
Kyle Richmond (Earth-31916) 
The mature-audience Marvel MAX imprint showcases the adventures of the Earth-31916 version of the Squadron Supreme. An African-American, this version of Kyle Richmond first appears in the limited series Supreme Power, and utilizes his wealth to train and develop advanced weaponry and devices to aid in his campaign on crime as a vigilante. Although the character aids the loose formation of heroes that eventually become the Squadron Supreme, Nighthawk chooses to remain aloof and only interacts when necessary. The character also has a solo adventure, featuring in the six issue Supreme Power: Nighthawk. The character investigates an epidemic of drug addiction in the city of Chicago, and discovers it is the work of serial killer Whiteface, who has circulated a shipment of poisoned drugs. Nighthawk apprehends and then executes Whiteface, but not before the criminal causes the deaths of the Mayor and his family.
Ultimate Nighthawk (Earth-1610) 
The Ultimate Marvel alternate universe title The Ultimates features a non-powered version of Nighthawk who is the leader of a version of the Defenders. Nighthawk's only attempt at heroics involves leaping from the shadows at a group of petty criminals - only to break his ankle and be severely beaten. In Ultimate Comics: New Ultimates, he and the Defenders are seen to have gained superhuman powers from a mysterious source.
In other media 
- Nighthawk appears in The Super Hero Squad Show episode "Whom Continuity Would Destroy!", voiced by Adam West. He is shown as a member of the Squadron Supreme. Grandmaster and Thanos pit Nighthawk against Iron Man. During the fight, Nighthawk mentioned that he once owned a pet turtle.
- In 2009, Marvel planned to hire a team of writers to help come up with creative ways to launch its lesser-known properties, such as Black Panther, Cable, Doctor Strange, Iron Fist, Nighthawk and Vision.
- Interview with Roy Thomas and Jerry Bails in The Justice League Companion (2003) pp. 72–73
- The Avengers #69-71 (Oct.-Dec. 1969)
- The Defenders #13-14 (May–July 1974)
- The Defenders #70 (April 1979)
- The Defenders #81 (March 1980)
- The Defenders #87 (Sept.1980)
- Marvel Team-Up #101 (Jan. 1981)
- The Defenders #93 (March 1981)
- The Defenders #95 (May 1981)
- The Defenders #98 (Aug. 1981)
- The Defenders #103 (Jan. 1982)
- Nighthawk #1-3 (miniseries; Sept.-Nov. 1998)
- The Thing vol. 2, #1-3 (Jan.-March 2006)
- New Thunderbolts #15-16 (Jan.- Feb. 2006)
- New Thunderbolts #17-18 (March–April 2006), Thunderbolts #100-101 (May–June 2006)
- Thunderbolts #102-108 (July 2006 - Jan. 2007)
- Civil War:Front Line #6 (Oct. 2006):Civil War: Front Line #1-11 (Aug. 2006 - Jan. 2007)
- Black Panther vol. 4, #25 (April 2007)
- Beginning in Avengers: The Initiative#1 (June 2007)
- The Last Defenders #1-6 (May-Oct. 2008)
- The Avengers #86 (March 1971)
- Avengers #141 - 144 (Nov. 1975 - Feb. 1976) & #147 - 149 (May - July 1976)
- Thor #280 (Feb. 1979)
- Defenders #112-114 (Oct.-Dec. 1982)
- Squadron Supreme #1-12 (Sept. 1985 - Aug. 1986)
- Squadron Supreme #8 (May 1986)
- Captain America #314 (Feb. 1986)
- Avengers #5-6 (June–July 1998) & Avengers/Squadron Supreme Annual '98
- Squadron Supreme: New World Order (1998)
- Exiles vol. 2, #77-78 (April–May 2006)
- Marvel Encyclopedia Volume 6: Fantastic Four
- Official Handbook to the Marvel Universe: Alternate Universes 2005
- Supreme Power #1-18 (Jan. 2003 - Oct. 2005)
- Supreme Power: Nighthawk #1-6 (Nov. 2005 - April 2006)
- Ultimates vol. 2, #6 (Aug. 2002)
- New Ultimates #1
- "TV stars invade Marvel Super Hero Squad | Robot 6 @ Comic Book Resources – Covering Comic Book News and Entertainment". Robot6.comicbookresources.com. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
- Marc Graser (2009-03-26). "Marvel's hiring writers". Variety. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- Revolving Door of Death 13 - The Peculiar Resurrection of Nighthawk
- Nighthawk III at the Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe
- Nighthawk I at the Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe
- Nighthawk (Richmond) at the Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe