|Traded as||NYSE: NKE
Dow Jones Industrial Average Component
S&P 500 Component
|Founded||1964 (as Blue Ribbon Sports)
1971 (as Nike, Inc.)
|Headquarters||Washington County, Oregon, United States
(Near Beaverton, Oregon)
|Key people||Phil Knight
(President and CEO)
|Products||Athletic footwear and apparel, sport equipments and other athletic and recreational products|
|Revenue||US$25.3 billion (FY 2013)|
|Operating income||US$3.040 billion (FY 2012)|
|Net income||US$2.223 billion (FY 2012)|
|Total assets||US$15.465 billion (FY 2012)|
|Total equity||US$10.381 billion (FY 2012)|
Nike, Inc. (officially pronounced //, but sometimes pronounced //) is an American multinational corporation that is engaged in the design, development, manufacturing and worldwide marketing and selling of footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories and services. The company is headquartered near Beaverton, Oregon, in the Portland metropolitan area. It is one of the world's largest suppliers of athletic shoes and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipment, with revenue in excess of US$24.1 billion in its fiscal year 2012 (ending May 31, 2012). As of 2012, it employed more than 44,000 people worldwide. In 2014 the brand alone was valued at $19 billion, making it the most valuable brand among sports businesses.
The company was founded on January 25, 1964, as Blue Ribbon Sports, by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight, and officially became Nike, Inc. on May 30, 1971. The company takes its name from Nike (Greek Νίκη, pronounced [nǐːkɛː]), the Greek goddess of victory. Nike markets its products under its own brand, as well as Nike Golf, Nike Pro, Nike+, Air Jordan, Air Force 1, Nike Dunk, Foamposite, Nike Skateboarding, and subsidiaries including Brand Jordan, Hurley International and Converse. Nike also owned Bauer Hockey (later renamed Nike Bauer) between 1995 and 2008, and previously owned Cole Haan and Umbro. In addition to manufacturing sportswear and equipment, the company operates retail stores under the Niketown name. Nike sponsors many high-profile athletes and sports teams around the world, with the highly recognized trademarks of "Just Do It" and the Swoosh logo.
- 1 Origins and history
- 2 Products
- 3 Headquarters
- 4 Controversy
- 5 Environmental record
- 6 Marketing strategy
- 7 Sponsorship
- 7.1 Current sponsorships
- 7.2 Golf
- 7.3 Boxing
- 7.4 Mixed Martial Arts
- 7.5 US colleges
- 8 Causes
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Origins and history
Nike, originally known as Blue Ribbon Sports (BRS), was founded by University of Oregon track athlete Philip Knight and his coach Bill Bowerman in January 1964. The company initially operated as a distributor for Japanese shoe maker Onitsuka Tiger (now ASICS), making most sales at track meets out of Knight's automobile.
According to Otis Davis, a student athlete whom Bowerman coached at the University of Oregon, who later went on to win two gold medals at the 1960 Summer Olympics, Bowerman made the first pair of Nike shoes for him, contradicting a claim that they were made for Phil Knight. Says Davis, "I told Tom Brokaw that I was the first. I don't care what all the billionaires say. Bill Bowerman made the first pair of shoes for me. People don't believe me. In fact, I didn't like the way they felt on my feet. There was no support and they were too tight. But I saw Bowerman make them from the waffle iron, and they were mine."
In 1964, in its first year in business, BRS sold 1,300 pairs of Japanese running shoes grossing $8,000. By 1965 the fledgling company had acquired a full-time employee, and sales had reached $20,000. In 1966, BRS opened its first retail store, located at 3107 Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, California next to a beauty salon, so its employees no longer needed to sell inventory from the back of their cars. In 1967, due to rapidly increasing sales, BRS expanded retail and distribution operations on the East Coast, in Wellesley, Massachusetts.
By 1971, the relationship between BRS and Onitsuka Tiger was nearing an end. BRS prepared to launch its own line of footwear, which would bear the Swoosh newly designed by Carolyn Davidson. The Swoosh was first used by Nike on June 18, 1971, and was registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office on January 22, 1974.
In 1976, the company hired John Brown and Partners, based in Seattle, as its first advertising agency. The following year, the agency created the first "brand ad" for Nike, called "There is no finish line", in which no Nike product was shown. By 1980, Nike had attained a 50% market share in the U.S. athletic shoe market, and the company went public in December of that year.
Together, Nike and Wieden+Kennedy have created many print and television advertisements, and Wieden+Kennedy remains Nike's primary ad agency. It was agency co-founder Dan Wieden who coined the now-famous slogan "Just Do It" for a 1988 Nike ad campaign, which was chosen by Advertising Age as one of the top five ad slogans of the 20th century and enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution. Walt Stack was featured in Nike's first "Just Do It" advertisement, which debuted on July 1, 1988. Wieden credits the inspiration for the slogan to "Let's do it", the last words spoken by Gary Gilmore before he was executed.
Throughout the 1980s, Nike expanded its product line to encompass many sports and regions throughout the world. In 1990, Nike moved into its eight-building World Headquarters campus in Beaverton, Oregon.
Nike has acquired several apparel and footwear companies over the course of its history, some of which have since been sold. Its first acquisition was the upscale footwear company Cole Haan in 1988, followed by the purchase of Bauer Hockey in 1994. In 2002, Nike bought surf apparel company Hurley International from founder Bob Hurley. In 2003, Nike paid US$309 million to acquire Converse, makers of the Chuck Taylor All-Stars line of sneakers. The company acquired Starter in 2004 and Umbro, known as the manufacturers of the England national football team's kit, in 2008.
In order to refocus on its core business lines, Nike began divesting of some of its subsidiaries in the 2000s. It sold Starter in 2007 and Bauer Hockey in 2008. The company sold Umbro in 2012, and Cole Haan in 2013. As of 2013, Nike owns two key subsidiaries: Converse Inc. and Hurley International.
Nike Inc. will buy back $8 billion of Nike's class B stock in 4 years after the current $5 billion buyback program is completed in second quarter of fiscal 2013. Up to September 2012, Nike Inc. has bought back $10 billion of stock.
On December 19, 2013, Nike Inc's quarterly profit rose as a result of global orders for merchandise for delivery by April increased 13 percent. Future orders of shoes or clothes for delivery between December and April, rose to $10.4 billion. Nike shares (NKE) rose 0.6 percent to $78.75 in extended trading.
Nike produces a wide range of sports equipment. Their first products were track running shoes. They currently also make shoes, jerseys, shorts, cleats, baselayers, etc. for a wide range of sports, including track and field, baseball, ice hockey, tennis, association football (soccer), lacrosse, basketball, and cricket. Nike Air Max is a line of shoes first released by Nike, Inc. in 1987. Additional product lines were introduced later, such as Air Huarache, which debuted in 1992. The most recent additions to their line are the Nike 6.0, Nike NYX, and Nike SB shoes, designed for skateboarding. Nike has recently introduced cricket shoes called Air Zoom Yorker, designed to be 30% lighter than their competitors'. In 2008, Nike introduced the Air Jordan XX3, a high-performance basketball shoe designed with the environment in mind.
Nike sells an assortment of products, including shoes and apparel for sports activities like association football, basketball, running, combat sports, tennis, American football, athletics, golf, and cross training for men, women, and children. Nike also sells shoes for outdoor activities such as tennis, golf, skateboarding, association football, baseball, American football, cycling, volleyball, wrestling, cheerleading, aquatic activities, auto racing, and other athletic and recreational uses. Nike is well known and popular in youth culture, chav culture and hip hop culture for their supplying of urban fashion clothing. Nike recently teamed up with Apple Inc. to produce the Nike+ product that monitors a runner's performance via a radio device in the shoe that links to the iPod nano. While the product generates useful statistics, it has been criticized by researchers who were able to identify users' RFID devices from 60 feet (18 m) away using small, concealable intelligence motes in a wireless sensor network.
On July 15, 2009, the Nike+ Sports Band was released in stores. The product records distance run and calories expended, keeps time, and also gives runners new programs online they could try running.[clarification needed]
The 2010 Nike Pro Combat jersey collection were worn by teams from the following universities: Miami, Alabama, Boise State University, Florida, Ohio State, Oregon State University, Texas Christian University, Virginia Tech, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh. Teams will wear these jerseys in key matchups as well as any time the athletic department deems it necessary.
Nike's world headquarters are surrounded by the city of Beaverton, but are within unincorporated Washington County. The city attempted to forcibly annex Nike's headquarters, which led to a lawsuit by Nike, and lobbying by the company that ultimately ended in Oregon Senate Bill 887 of 2005. Under that bill's terms, Beaverton is specifically barred from forcibly annexing the land that Nike and Columbia Sportswear occupy in Washington County for 35 years, while Electro Scientific Industries and Tektronix receive the same protection for 30 years.
Nike has contracted with more than 700 shops around the world and has offices located in 45 countries outside the United States. Most of the factories are located in Asia, including Indonesia, China, Taiwan, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Philippines, and Malaysia. Nike is hesitant to disclose information about the contract companies it works with. However, due to harsh criticism from some organizations like CorpWatch, Nike has disclosed information about its contract factories in its Corporate Governance Report.
Nike has been criticized for contracting with factories (known as Nike sweatshops) in countries such as China, Vietnam, Indonesia and Mexico. Vietnam Labor Watch, an activist group, has documented that factories contracted by Nike have violated minimum wage and overtime laws in Vietnam as late as 1996, although Nike claims that this practice has been stopped. The company has been subject to much critical coverage of the often poor working conditions and exploitation of cheap overseas labor employed in the free trade zones where their goods are typically manufactured. Sources for this criticism include Naomi Klein's book No Logo and Michael Moore documentaries.
As of July 2011, Nike stated that two-thirds of its factories producing Converse products still do not meet the company's standards for worker treatment. A July 2011 Associated Press article stated that employees at the company's plants in Indonesia reported constant abuse from supervisors.
Child labor allegations
During the 1990s, Nike faced criticism for the use of child labor in Cambodia and Pakistan in factories it contracted to manufacture soccer balls. Although Nike took action to curb or at least reduce the practice, they continue to contract their production to companies that operate in areas where inadequate regulation and monitoring make it hard to ensure that child labor is not being used.
In 2001, a BBC documentary uncovered occurrences of child labor and poor working conditions in a Cambodian factory used by Nike. The documentary focused on six girls, who all worked seven days a week, often 16 hours a day.
Strike in China factory
In April 2014, one of the biggest strikes in mainland China took place at the Yue Yuen Industrial Holdings Dongguan shoe factory, producing amongst others for Nike. Yue Yuen did underpay an employee by 250 yuan (40.82 US Dollars) per month. The average salary at Yue Yuen is 3000 yuan per month. The factory employs 70,000 people. This practice was in place for nearly 20 years.
According to the New England-based environmental organization Clean Air-Cool Planet, Nike ranks among the top three companies (out of 56) in a survey of climate-friendly companies. Nike has also been praised for its Nike Grind program (which closes the product lifecycle) by groups like Climate Counts. One campaign that Nike began for Earth Day 2008 was a commercial that featured basketball star Steve Nash wearing Nike's Trash Talk Shoe, which had been constructed in February 2008 from pieces of leather and synthetic leather waste from factory floors. The Trash Talk Shoe also featured a sole composed of ground-up rubber from a shoe recycling program. Nike claims this is the first performance basketball shoe that has been created from manufacturing waste, but it only produced 5,000 pairs for sale.
Another project Nike has begun is called Nike's Reuse-A-Shoe program. This program, started in 1993, is Nike's longest-running program that benefits both the environment and the community by collecting old athletic shoes of any type in order to process and recycle them. The material that is produced is then used to help create sports surfaces such as basketball courts, running tracks, and playgrounds.
A project through the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill found workers were exposed to toxic isocyanates and other chemicals in footwear factories in Thailand. In addition to inhalation, dermal exposure was the biggest problem found. This could result in allergic reactions including asthmatic reactions.
Nike promotes its products by sponsorship agreements with celebrity athletes, professional teams and college athletic teams.
In 1982, Nike aired its first national television ads, created by newly formed ad agency Wieden+Kennedy (W+K), during the broadcast of the New York Marathon. The Cannes Advertising Festival has named Nike its Advertiser of the Year in 1994 and 2003, making it the first company to receive that honor twice.
Nike also has earned the Emmy Award for best commercial twice since the award was first created in the 1990s. The first was for "The Morning After," a satirical look at what a runner might face on the morning of January 1, 2000 if every dire prediction about the Y2K problem came to fruition. The second was for a 2002 spot called "Move," which featured a series of famous and everyday athletes in a variety of athletic pursuits.
Nike was criticized for its use of the Beatles song "Revolution" in a 1987 commercial against the wishes of Apple Records, the Beatles' recording company. Nike paid US$250,000 to Capitol Records Inc., which held the North American licensing rights to the recordings, for the right to use the Beatles' rendition for a year.
Apple sued Nike Inc., Capitol Records Inc., EMI Records Inc. and Wieden+Kennedy for $15 million. Capitol-EMI countered by saying the lawsuit was "groundless" because Capitol had licensed the use of "Revolution" with the "active support and encouragement of Yoko Ono Lennon, a shareholder and director of Apple."
Nike discontinued airing ads featuring "Revolution" in March 1988. Yoko Ono later gave permission to Nike to use John Lennon's "Instant Karma" in another advertisement.
New media marketing
Minor Threat advertisement
In late June 2005, Nike received criticism from Ian MacKaye, owner of Dischord Records, guitarist/vocalist for Fugazi and The Evens, and front man of the defunct punk band Minor Threat, for appropriating imagery and text from Minor Threat's 1981 self-titled album's cover art in a flyer promoting Nike Skateboarding's 2005 East Coast demo tour.
On June 27, Nike Skateboarding's website issued an apology to Dischord, Minor Threat, and fans of both and announced that they have tried to remove and dispose of all flyers. They stated that the people who designed it were skateboarders and Minor Threat fans themselves who created the advertisement out of respect and appreciation for the band. The dispute was eventually settled out of court between Nike and Minor Threat.
As part of the 6.0 campaign, Nike introduced a new line of T-shirts that include phrases such as "Dope", "Get High" and "Ride Pipe" – sports lingo that is also a double entendre for drug use. Boston Mayor Thomas Menino expressed his objection to the shirts after seeing them in a window display at the city's Niketown and asked the store to remove the display. "What we don't need is a major corporation like Nike, which tries to appeal to the younger generation, out there giving credence to the drug issue," Menino told The Boston Herald. A company official stated the shirts were meant to pay homage to extreme sports, and that Nike does not condone the illegal use of drugs. Nike was forced to replace the shirt line.
Nike pays top athletes in many sports to use their products and promote and advertise their technology and design.
Nike's first professional athlete endorser was Romanian tennis player Ilie Năstase. The first track endorser was distance runner Steve Prefontaine. Prefontaine was the prized pupil of the company's co-founder, Bill Bowerman, while he coached at the University of Oregon. Today, the Steve Prefontaine Building is named in his honor at Nike's corporate headquarters.
Nike has also sponsored many other successful track and field athletes over the years, such as Carl Lewis, Jackie Joyner-Kersee and Sebastian Coe. The signing of basketball player Michael Jordan in 1984, with his subsequent promotion of Nike over the course of his career, with Spike Lee as Mars Blackmon, proved to be one of the biggest boosts to Nike's publicity and sales.
Nike is a major sponsor of the athletic programs at Penn State University and named its first child care facility after Joe Paterno when it opened in 1990 at the company's headquarters. Nike originally announced it would not remove Paterno's name from the building in the wake of the Penn State sex abuse scandal. After the Freeh Report was released on July 12, 2012, Nike CEO Mark Parker announced the name Joe Paterno would be removed immediately from the child development center. A new name has yet to be announced.
Nike also sponsored soccer players such as Ronaldinho, Ronaldo, Cristiano Ronaldo, Didier Drogba, Neymar, Zlatan Ibrahimović, Mario Balotelli, Wesley Sneijder, Wayne Rooney, Landon Donovan among others.
In January 2013, Nike signed Rory McIlroy, the then No 1 golfer in the world to a 10-year sponsorship deal worth $250 million. The deal includes using Nike's range of golf clubs, a move Nick Faldo previously described as "dangerous" for McIlroy's game.
In January 2014, it was widely reported that Nike had entered negotiations with Manchester United F.C. over a "billion dollar" kit manufacturing deal, extending their current contract beyond 2015.
Nike manufactures and provides kit uniforms for a wide range of teams around the world. Some of the most important clubs and associations sponsored by the company are:
Basketball (national teams)
- Blackburn Rovers (Since 2012–13)
- Charlton Athletic (Since 2012–13)
- Leyton Orient (Since 2013–14)
- Manchester City (Since 2013–14)
- Manchester United (Since 2002–03)
- Peterborough United (Since 2014–15)
- Preston North End (Since 2013–14)
- Queens Park Rangers (Since 2014–15)
- Southend United (Since 2014–15)
- Monaco (Since 2014–15-at last 2018–19)
- Nancy (Starting in the 2014–15 season)
- Metz (Since 2014–15)
- Châteauroux (Starting in the 2014–15 season)
- Le Havre
- Montpellier 
- Paris St. Germain 
- Brest 
- Tours (Since 2014–15)
- Créteil (Starting in the 2014–15 season)
- Mainz 05 (until the 2014–15 season)
- Dynamo Dresden
- Eintracht Braunschweig
- Eintracht Frankfurt (Starting in the 2014–15 season)
- FC Augsburg (Starting in the 2014–15 season)
- Hertha BSC
- MSV Duisburg
- SC Freiburg 
- VfL Bochum
- Werder Bremen (Since 2009–10)
- Roma  (Starting in the 2014–15 season)
- Atalanta (Since 2014–15)
- Hellas Verona
- Internazionale (Since 1998–99 - at least 2017–18)
- Juventus (Since 2003–04 - at least 2014–15)
- Venezia (Since 2014–15)
- Burgan SC (since 2014–15)
- Dinamo Bucharest 
- Petrolul Ploiești  (Starting in the 2014–15 season)
- Steaua Bucharest 
- Saudi Arabia
- FK Metalac (Since 2006)
- Olimpija (Since 2014–15)
- South Africa
- Mamelodi Sundowns (Since 2013–14)
- Athletic Bilbao (Since 2013–14 - at least 2016–17)
- Atlético Madrid (Since 2001–02)
- Barcelona (Since 1998–99)
- Levante (Since 2014–15)
- Málaga 
- Badajoz (Since 2014–15)
- UE Olot
- United Arab Emirates
- United States
Football (national teams)
- Australia (since 2004) 
- Belize 
- Brazil (since 1996) 
- Croatia (since 2000) 
- England (since 2013)
- Estonia (since 1997)
- Greece (since 2013) 
- Hong Kong 
- India (since 2006)
- Indonesia (since 2007) 
- Netherlands (1997 - at least 2026) 
- Norway (Since 2015 - at least 2021)
- France (since 2011 - at least 2018) 
- Malaysia (since 2007) 
- New Zealand 
- Poland (Since 2009) 
- Portugal (Since 1998) 
- Saudi Arabia (since 2011)
- Singapore 
- Slovenia (since 2007 - 2016)
- South Africa (since 2014)
- South Korea (since 1995) 
- Turkey (since 2003) 
- United States (since 1995 - at least 2014) 
- Zambia (since 2004) 
- Campeonato Brasileiro – Official Tournament ball
- Super League - All teams uniforms 
- Premier League – Official Tournament ball 
- FA Cup – Official Tournament ball
- Coupe de France – Official Tournament ball
- Serie A – Official Tournament ball 
- Malaysia Cup - Official Tournament ball
- Malaysia Super League - Official Tournament ball
- La Liga – Official Tournament ball 
- Segunda División – Official Tournament ball 
- AFC – Official Tournament ball
- CONMEBOL – Official Tournament ball 
- United Soccer Leagues 
Mixed Martial Arts
- Air Force Falcons
- Alabama Crimson Tide 
- Albany Great Danes
- Appalachian State Mountaineers
- Arizona State Sun Devils
- Arizona Wildcats
- Arkansas Razorbacks
- Army Black Knights
- Baylor Bears football 
- Boise State Broncos
- Buffalo Bulls
- Butler Bulldogs
- BYU Cougars
- California Golden Bears 
- Cal Poly Mustangs
- Citadel Bulldogs
- Clemson Tigers
- Colorado Buffaloes
- Cornell Big Red
- Davidson Wildcats
- Duke Blue Devils
- East Carolina Pirates
- Florida Gators
- Florida State Seminoles
- Fresno State Bulldogs
- Georgia Bulldogs
- Georgia Southern Eagles
- Houston Cougars
- Idaho Vandals
- Illinois Fighting Illini
- Illinois State Redbirds
- Iowa Hawkeyes
- Iowa State Cyclones
- James Madison Dukes
- Kansas State Wildcats
- Kent State Golden Flashes
- Kentucky Wildcats
- Louisiana Tech Bulldogs
- LSU Tigers
- Marshall Thundering Herd
- Memphis Tigers
- Miami Hurricanes
- Michigan State Spartans
- Minnesota Golden Gophers
- Missouri Tigers
- Montana Grizzlies
- Nevada Wolf Pack
- North Carolina Tar Heels
- Northern Iowa Panthers
- Ohio State Buckeyes
- Oklahoma Sooners
- Oklahoma State Cowboys
- Old Dominion Monarchs
- Ole Miss Rebels
- Oregon Ducks
- Oregon State Beavers
- Penn State Nittany Lions
- Pitt Panthers
- Portland State Vikings
- Purdue Boilermakers
- Redlands Bulldogs
- Rutgers Scarlet Knights
- San Diego State Aztecs
- San Diego Toreros
- San Francisco Dons
- SMU Mustangs 
- Southern Miss Golden Eagles
- Stanford Cardinal
- Syracuse Orange
- TCU Horned Frogs
- Texas Longhorns
- Tulsa Golden Hurricane
- UAB Blazers
- UCF Knights
- UConn Huskies
- UNLV Rebels
- USC Trojans
- UTEP Miners
- Vanderbilt Commodores
- Villanova Wildcats
- Virginia Cavaliers
- Virginia Tech Hokies
- Wake Forest Demon Deacons
- Washington Huskies
- Washington State Cougars
- West Virginia Mountaineers
In 2012, Nike is listed as a partner of the (RED) campaign, together with other brands such as Girl, American Express and Converse. The campaign's mission is to prevent the transmission of the HIV virus from mother to child by 2015 (the campaign's byline is "Fighting For An AIDS Free Generation").
- Nikebiz : Company Overview : History : 1960s, Nike, Inc., Retrieved on August 12, 2010.
- Nike, Inc. Reports Fiscal 2013 Fourth Quarter and Full Year Results, Transworld Business
- "2012 Form 10-K, Nike, Inc.". United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
- Collins, Paul (29 May 2014). "Nike IS pronounced Nikey, chairman of shoe giant finally confirms". Daily Mail. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Sage, Alexandria (June 26, 2008). "Nike profit up but shares tumble on U.S. concerns". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
- Ozanian, Mike (July 10, 2014). "The Forbes Fab 40: The World's Most Valuable Sports Brands 2014". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- "Nike sells Bauer Hockey for $200 Million". The Sports Network. February 21, 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- "Company Overview : History : 1950s". Nikebiz. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- Hague, Jim (May 14, 2006). "Truant officer was Olympic hero Emerson High has gold medalist in midst". The Hudson Reporter. Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- "Nike Company History".
- "Logos that became legends: Icons from the world of advertising". The Independent (London). 2008-01-04. Retrieved 2010-02-11.
- "Registration Number 72414177". TSDR. U.S. Patent & Trademark Office. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- "Company Overview : History : 1970s". Nikebiz. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- "Company Overview : History : 1970s". Nikebiz. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- "Nike's 'Just Do It' slogan celebrates 20 years | Oregon Business News". OregonLive.com. July 18, 2008. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- Peters, Jeremy W. (August 19, 2009). "The Birth of 'Just Do It' and Other Magic Words". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-30.
- Porter, Jeff; Harris, Mark; Yeung, Gavin (December 11, 2002). "Nike" (PDF). Management 296 – International Business Management. Archived from the original on 2003-12-05. Retrieved 2013-02-06.
- Brettman, Allan (February 2, 2013). www.oregonlive.com/playbooks-profits/index.ssf/2013/02/as_nike_looks_to_expand_it_alr.html "As Nike looks to expand, it already has a 22-building empire". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2013-02-06. "The first phase of the Nike World Headquarters campus opened in 1990 and included eight buildings. Now, there are 22 buildings."
- "Cole-Haan to Nike For $80 Million". The New York Times. 26 April 1988. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Connelly, Laylan (22 January 2013). "Bob Hurley: Success built on everyone's inner surfer". Orange County Register. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Partlow, Joshua (July 2003). "Nike Drafts An All Star". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- "Nike unloads Starter for $60M". Portland Business Journal. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Townsend, Matt (24 October 2012). "Iconix Brand Buys Nike’s Umbro Soccer Unit for $225 Million". BloombergBusinessweek. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Dezember, Ryan (24 October 2012). "After Umbro, Nike Turns to Cole Haan Sale". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Austen, Ian (22 February 2008). "Hockey Fan, and Investor, Buys Bauer From Nike". The New York TImes. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Stevens, Suzanne (3 December 2012). "Nike completes Umbro sale to Iconix". Portland Business Journal. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Nike completes Cole Haan sale". Portland Business Journal. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Nike Completes Sale of Cole Haan to APAX Partners, LLP". Barrons / Business Wire. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Brettman, Allan (16 November 2012). "With Cole Haan sale, Nike can focus on more important things, analysts say". The Oregonian. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Prasad, Sakthi (September 20, 2012). "Nike approves $8 billion share repurchase program". Reuters.
- "Nike Fiscal 2nd-Quarter Profit Jumps 40 Percent". December 19, 2013.
- "Nike Soccer – World-class soccer cleats. World-class pros.". Nike.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Nike launches cricket shoe Air Zoom Yorker". The Hindu Business Line. September 2, 2006. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- "Nike Air Zoom Control II FS Futsal Shoes at Soccer Pro". Soccerpro.com. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- T. Scott Saponas, Jonathan Lester, Carl Hartung, Tadayoshi Kohno. "Devices That Tell On You: The Nike+iPod Sport Kit".
- Tom Espiner (2006-12-13). "Nike+iPod raises RFID privacy concerns". CNet.
- "Latest materials improve sportswear performance". ICIS Chemical Business. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
- "Nike Pro Combat Jersey Info". WVU Sports Insider. September 1, 2010.
- "Appellate court rejects Beaverton annexation | The Oregonian Extra". Blog.oregonlive.com. 2006-06-16. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- NikeBiz | Investors | Corporate[dead link]
- "India's 50 most trusted brands". rediff.com. 2011-01-20.
- [dead link]
- Nike Labor Practices in Vietnam[dead link]
- "Sweatfree Campus Campaign Launch". Studentsagainstsweatshops.org. 2005-09-28. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Associated Press, "Nike still dogged by worker abuses", Japan Times, July 15, 2011, p. 4.
- "MIT" (PDF). Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Sun Thyda, 12 (2000-10-15). "Programmes | Panorama | Archive | Gap and Nike: No Sweat? October 15, 2000". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- More than ten thousand workers stage strike at massive Dongguan shoe factory, 2014-04-14
- Yue Yuen shoe factory workers' strike at Dongguan plants continues, 2014-04-17.
- Yue Yuen strikers vow to continue until benefit contribution deficit paid in full, South China Morning Post, 2013-04-18.
- Zabarenko, Deborah (2007-06-19). "Reuters report". Reuters. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- "Nike". ClimateCounts. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- [dead link] April 23, 2008. Retrieved: May 4, 2008
- "Wicked Local". April 29, 2008. Retrieved May 4, 2008
- Todd, L. A.; Sitthichok, T. P.; Mottus, K.; Mihlan, G.; Wing, S. (2008). "Health Survey of Workers Exposed to Mixed Solvent and Ergonomic Hazards in Footwear and Equipment Factory Workers in Thailand". Annals of Occupational Hygiene 52 (3): 195–205. doi:10.1093/annhyg/men003. PMID 18344534
- Todd, L. A.; Mottus, K.; Mihlan, G. J. (2008). "A Survey of Airborne and Skin Exposures to Chemicals in Footwear and Equipment Factories in Thailand". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 5 (3): 169–181. doi:10.1080/15459620701853342. PMID 18213531
- "Nike's Knight Is Advertiser of the Year | Marketing & Advertising > Marketing & Advertising Overview from". AllBusiness.com. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- Fass, Allison (2000-08-31). "The Media Business - Advertising - Addenda - The Media Business - Advertising - Addenda - Nike Spot Wins An Emmy Award". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- Rutenberg, Jim (2002-09-20). "The Media Business - Advertising - Addenda - The Media Business - Advertising - Addenda - Nike Spot Wins An Emmy Award". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- According to a July 28, 1987 article written by the Associated Press.
- "Skateboarding". Nike. Retrieved September 18, 2010.
- Brettman, Allan (June 22, 2011). "Nike courts controversy, publicity with drug-themed skater shirts". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
- "Nike Inc. (NYSE:NKE) Facing Slogan Backlash". stocksandshares.tv. June 24, 2011.
- "Team India's new NIKE ODI kit". Cricbuzz.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Indian Cricket team's NIKE ODI kit". Cricketliveguide.com. 2010-09-29. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Paterno's name off child care center". FOX Sports. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- "Joe Paterno's Name Removed From Child Development Center at Nike Headquarters". NESN.com. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- "Jogadores de Futebol Patrocinados pela Nike". Nike Brasil. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- Tom Fordyce (2013-01-14). "Rory McIlroy, Nike and the $250m, 10-year sponsorship deal". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- Scott, Roxanna (February 21, 2013). "Oscar Pistorius dropped by Nike". USA Today. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Ogden, Mark (30 January 2014). "Nike favourites to beat Adidas and Puma and remain Manchester United kit supplier in 'billion dollar deal'". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "NFL Signs Football Deal With Nike". Ubscure.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Breaking news: NFL signs Nike", 12 October 2010
- ""Nike's Korean national baseball team uniforms", 18 January 2013". Nikeinc.com. 2013-01-18. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike to be official kit supplier to Spanish Basketball Federation from 2013", 5 September 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-09-05. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""USA basketball teams photographed", 16 July 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike unveils innovative kit for t20 cricket team", 16 August 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- PTI (2011-04-26). ""Nike extends Team India's apparel sponsorship", "The Hindu", April 26, 2011". Chennai, India: Thehindu.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Manchester City and Nike Announce New Partnership". Manchester City FC. Retrieved 5 Mar 2013.
- Football kits by Nike, retrieved 22 Feb 2013
- ""Montpellier Nike 2011/12 Home and Away Kits / Maillots" at FootballFashion". Footballfashion.org. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Maillott Nike Paris St. Germain 2012-13". Todosobrecamisetas.blogspot.com.ar. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""New Stade Brestois Kits 2012-2013- Nike Brest Home, Away and Third Shirts 12-13" at FootballKitNews". Footballkitnews.com. 2012-05-16. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""SC Freiburg agree Nike kit deal", FootballShirtCulture.com, 20 Jan 2009". Footballshirtculture.com. 2009-01-20. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Werder Bremen Nike HeimTrikot 2012/2013" at TodosobreCamisetas". Todosobrecamisetas.blogspot.com.ar. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Al Shorta release new kits for AFC Cup". Al Shorta website. Retrieved 2014-03-17.
- ""Nike unveils Maccabi Haifa kit for 2012-13", 2 Aug 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-08-02. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""AS Roma Teams Up With Nike", Nike,Inc". Nikeinc.com. 2013-03-13. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Japan club teams head to the pitch in 2013", 29 Jan 2013". Nikeinc.com. 2013-01-29. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "JDT jersey launching!!". johorsoutherntigers.com.my. 2013-12-21. Retrieved 2014-02-28.
- Lagencita | SparkSWD (2013-01-17). ""América presentó su tercer uniforme", Club América official site". Clubamerica.com.mx. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- Vito Garcia (2012-12-26). ""Nike volverá a vestir al Atlas en 2013", LaCiudadDeportiva.com, 26 Dec 2012". Laciudaddeportiva.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Atlas vuelve a vestir Nike", Publisport, 26 Dec 2012[dead link]
- ""PSV sign new Nike kit deal" at Footballshirtculture, 9 Jan 2009". Footballshirtculture.com. 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Camiseta Nike de Libertad 2013" on Todosobrecamisetas website". Todosobrecamisetas.blogspot.com.ar. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Alianza Lima lucirá esta camiseta por todo el 2013" at Libero, 5 Feb 2013". Libero.pe. 2013-02-02. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- Equipamentos 2013\2014. ""Equipamentos 2013\2014" at LusoFans". Lusofans.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Conheça aquele que deverá ser o próximo equipamento do Vitória" at Guimarães Digital". Guimaraesdigital.com. 2013-07-03. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Official partners of FC Dinamo Bucharest" at Fcdinamo". Fcdinamo.ro. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Petrolul Ploiesti's the kits". Prosport.ro. 2014-06-17. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- ""Official partners of FC Steaua Bucharest" at Steauafc". Steauafc.com. 1987-02-18. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Celtic secure £25m sponsorship deal with Nike" at guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. 2009-03-12. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Dundee United announce Nike extension" at". Dundeeunitedfc.co.uk. 2013-05-02. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Hibernian announce Nike" at". Hibernianfc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Football: New LionsXII jersey unveiled" at Red Sports, 5 Jan 2013". Redsports.sg. 2012-01-05. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Official Apparel" at LionsXII.sg, 5 Dec 2011". Lionsxii.sg. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Málaga CF y Nike Team Sports amplían su vinculación hasta la temporada 2013-14" at Malaga official site, 6 Jul 2012". Malagacf.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike Thailand unveils Chonburi FC kits" at NikeInc.com, 12 Feb 2013". Nikeinc.com. 2013-02-12. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike unveils Galatasaray FC kits for 2012-13", 18 Jul 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""New Trabzonspor 2012-13 kit unveiled", 28 Jun 2013". Turkish-football.com. 2012-07-04. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike unveils FC Shakhtar away kit for 2012-13 season", 19 Jul 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Dutch Lions Sign Partnership With Nike" at uslpro.uslsoccer.com,2 Feb 2014". Uslsoccer.com. 2013-05-24. Retrieved 2014-07-13.
- ""Nike named official kit supplier for the NY Cosmos" at NikeInc.com, 24 May 2013". Nikeinc.com. 2013-05-24. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike partners with Football Federation Australia" by Georgi Dwiggins at SneakerReport, 16 October 2012". Sneakerreport.com. 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- F.F.B. shows off new jerseys and jaguar teammates | Channel5Belize.com. Edition.channel5belize.com (2013-06-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- "Nike Unveils New Brasil National Team Jersey", TheOriginalWinger.com, 1 February 2011
- "Nike football unveils national home kits", Nike.com, 16 April 2012
- ""Nike and Hellenic Football Federation announce partnership", 10 April 2013". Nikeinc.com. 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike unveils Hong Kong national team kits", 28 May 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-05-28. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""New Indonesia Soccer Jersey 2013- Nike Indonesia Home AFF Suzuki Cup 2012 Kit" at Footballkitnews, 12 November 2012". Footballkitnews.com. 2012-11-12. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Malaysia defends championship title in Nike's uniform", 15 November 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-11-15. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ByDavid Fischer. ""Nike Football Unveils Nation Home Kits for Croatia, France, Netherlands, Poland and Portugal" at Footballshirtculture, 16 April 2012". Highsnobiety.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike extend sponsorship of Singapore football until 2016" at Red Sports, 18 November 2012". Redsports.sg. 2012-11-26. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike Football unveils Korea away national team kit", NikeFootball.com, 23 February 2013". Nikeinc.com. 2012-02-23. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike Football unveils Turkey away national team kit", NikeFootball.com, 27 February 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "U.S. Men's and Women's National Teams Unveil New Nike Home Jersey", USSoccer.com, 16 April 2012
- ""Zambia 2014 Nike Home Football Shirt", footballshirtculture.com, 28 February 2014". footballshirtculture.com. 2014-02-28. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
- ""Nike China Super League Team Kits 2013" at TodosobreCamisetas". Todosobrecamisetas.blogspot.com.ar. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike: Official Ball Supplier of the Premier League", Premier League official web, 12 February 2013". Premierleague.com. 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Serie A and Nike find back of the net" at SportsPro.com, 10 November 2011". Sportspromedia.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Balón oficial LPF" at LFP website". Lfp.es. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Copa Libertadores: Nike Maxim, la nueva pelota para el 2013", ''La Nación'' of Paraguay, 21 December 2012". Lanacion.com.py. 2012-12-21. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike announces United Soccer League sponsorship", 11 December 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Los Pumas cambian de casaca: dejan Adidas y se calzarán las Nike", InfobaeProfesional, 27 December 2011". Iprofesional.com. 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike presentó la nueva camiseta de Los Pumas para el Rugby Championship", ''La Voz del Interior'', 22 August 2012". Mundod.lavoz.com.ar. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Nike launches jersey for the Pumas", 18 August 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Juan Martín Del Potro diseñando las zapatillas Nike Zoom Breathe 2K11" at SomosTenis website, 13 September 2011
- ""Nike tennis unveils new look for Paris", 2 May 2012". Nikeinc.com. 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- Rossingh, Danielle (2011-07-31). ""Li Na Nears Top Earner Sharapova With $42 Million in Endorsement Contracts" at Bloomberg, Jul 31, 2011". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Sharapova Said to Renew Nike Contract for 8 Years, $70 Million" by Danielle Rossingh at Bloomberg Businessweek, 11 January 2010
- ""Top-Earning Tennis Players" by Kurt Badenhausen, 9 April 2009". Forbes.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- Mark Hodgkinson (2012-01-14). ""Boom time for brand Federer" by Mark Hodgkinson, 14 January 2012". Thetennisspace.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- View Comments (2013-01-08). ""Serena Williams Holds Nike Training Camp", 8 January 2013". Bossip.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "Tide now has most lucrative Nike deal in college sports" on NBC Sports, 15 May 2010
- "Alabama extends deal with Nike through 2018" on CBS Sports, 14 May 2010
- ""Baylor Football upgraded to Nike Tier 1 for 2013", by Mark Moore on SBNation, 3 Jan 2013". Ourdailybears.com. 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""Cal Athletics unveils updated brand identity", 10 April 2013". Nikeinc.com. 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- ""SMU signs 5-year deal with Nike for school’s sports apparel, equipment", DallasNews.com, 24 January 2012". Collegesportsblog.dallasnews.com. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- "(RED) Partners". (RED). (RED), a division of The ONE Campaign. 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nike, Inc..|
- Official website
- Nikeinc.com – Business Site
- Oregon Senate Bill 887, as signed by Governor Ted Kulongoski
- Company summary, from the New York Stock Exchange website
- Nike at the Open Directory Project