Nikodim (or Nikodeme) Pavlovich Kondakov (Russian: Никоди́м Па́влович Кондако́в; November 1 (13), 1844, village of Khalan, Kursk Governorate, Russian Empire–February 17, 1925, Prague, Czechoslovakia), was a Russian historian, specialist in history of Byzantine art. Attended Moscow University under Fedor Buslaev in 1861–1865. Taught in the Moscow Art School after graduation. In 1870 became a lecturer (professor since 1877) in the University of Novorossia, Odessa (now Odessa National University, Ukraine), and since 1888 taught in the St. Petersburg University. Member of the Russian Academy of Fine Arts since 1893 and the Russian Academy of Sciences since 1898. In 1895, founded (with Fyodor Uspensky) Russian Archaeological Institute in Constantinople. During the Revolution and the Civil War in Russia, lived in Odessa and Yalta. In 1920, emigrated to Bulgaria and then to Czechoslovakia, where continued to teach in the Prague University until his death in 1925.
In his first book, on Greek manuscript illumination, published in 1877, Kondakov approached stylistic evolution of Byzantine art through the use of artistic ideal. He collaborated with Salomon Reinach in Antiquités de la Russie Méridionale (published in 1891). His lectures greatly influenced many future Russian historians, among others, Michael Rostovtzeff. Kondakov authored numerous works on the history of Ancient Greek, Russian, Georgian and Byzantine art. He founded modern method in Byzantine art history.
- Klejn, Leo. "Nikodim Pavlovich Kondakov, 1844–1925", Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Part I, The Great Archaeologists. Santa-Barbara, CA; Denver, CO; Oxford, England: ABC-Clio, 1999 (hardcover, ISBN 1-57607-199-5), Vol. I, pp. 165–174.
- Iconography of Mother of God, vol. 1-2. Saint Petersburg 1914; Prague 1915 (Russian)
- History of Byzantine Miniature Painting (1876/2012) (Russian)