Nikola Šubić Zrinski

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Nikola Šubić Zrinski
Miklós Zrínyi
Ban of Croatia
Nicolaus Zrin.jpg
Nikola Šubić Zrinski on a 17th-century print
Ban of Croatia
Reign 1542–1556
Predecessor Petar Keglević
Successor Péter Erdődy
Spouse(s) Katarina Frankopan
Eva of Rosenberg
Noble family House of Zrinski
Father Nikola III Zrinski
Mother Jelena Karlović
Born c. 1508
Zrin (today Croatia)
Died September 6, 1566(1566-09-06)
Szigetvár (today Hungary)
Buried Pauline monastery, Sveta Jelena near Čakovec
Religion Roman Catholic

Nikola Šubić Zrinski (Croatian pronunciation: [nǐkɔla ʃûbitɕ zrîːɲskiː][1]) or Miklós Zrínyi[2] (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈmikloːʃ ˈzriːɲi]) (1508 – September 7, 1566) was a Croatian[3][4] nobleman and general in service of Habsburg Monarchy, ban of Croatia[5] from 1542 to 1556, and member of the Zrinski noble family. He was known across Europe for his involvement with the Battle of Szigetvár and is today seen as a hero by both Hungarians and Croatians.

Biography[edit]

Portrait by Oton Iveković
A portrait by Miklós Barabás

Nikola was born in 1508 as the son of Nikola III Zrinski and Jelena Karlović (sister of future Croatian ban Ivan Karlović) He distinguished himself at the siege of Vienna in 1529, and in 1542 saved the imperial army from defeat before Pest by intervening with 400 Croats, for which service he was appointed ban of Croatia. In 1542 he routed an Ottoman force at the Battle of Somlyo.

In 1543 he married Catherine (Katarina) Frankopan, a sister of Count Stjepan Frankopan Ozaljski ("Stephen Frankopan of Ozalj" in English), who placed the whole of her vast estates at his disposal. She bore him many children, among which was his successor Juraj IV Zrinski. The king Ferdinand I gave him large possessions in Hungary and Croatia, and henceforth the Zrinskis–Zrínyis became as much Magyar as Croatian magnates.

As a compebsation for his battles with the Ottomans, he was granted the whole area of Međimurje on 12 March 1546 from King Ferdinand, hence the centre of the Zrinski family has moved from Zrin to the city of Čakovec, where he rearranged the egzisting castle.[6][7]

In 1556 Zrinski won a series of victories over the Ottomans, culminating in the battle of Babócsa and thus preventing the fall of Szigetvár.[6] In 1563, on the coronation of the Emperor Maximilian as king of Hungary, Zrinski attended the ceremony at the head of 3000 Croatian and Magyar mounted noblemen, in the vain hope of obtaining the dignity of palatine, vacant by the death of Tamás Nádasdy. Shortly after marrying (in 1564) his second wife, Eva of Rožmberk (Rosenberg), a great Bohemian heiress, he hastened southwards to defend the frontier, and defeated the Ottomans at Szeged.

The tomb of Zrinski in Čakovec

In 1566, from August 5 to September 7, his small force (2,300 soldiers) heroically defended the little fortress of Szigetvár against the whole Ottoman host (102,000 soldiers), led by Suleiman the Magnificent in person. The Battle of Szigetvár ended with Zrinski perishing with every member of the garrison in a last desperate sortie.[8] Suleiman had died shortly previous.[9]

Legacy[edit]

The Croatian Renaissance poet and writer Brne Karnarutić, from Zadar, wrote The Conquest of the City of Sziget (Croatian: Vazetje Sigeta grada) sometime before 1573.[10]

He was the great-grandfather of Croatian Ban (Viceroy) and Croatian/Hungarian poet Nikola Zrinski, as well as his younger brother Petar Zrinski. The former wrote the Hungarian epic poem, the Peril of Sziget, of which Zrinski is the hero, which has assured Zrinski's place in Hungarian culture. The epic remains in print today and is considered one of the landmarks of Hungarian literature.[2] Nikola Šubić Zrinski is honoured both in Croatia and in Hungary as a national hero. A park in the Croatian capital Zagreb is named Trg Nikole Šubića Zrinskog after him.[11] Zrinski's last battle was made the subject of a tragedy, Zrinyi: Ein Trauerspiel, by Theodor Körner.[12] The Order of Nikola Šubić Zrinski is one of the highest Croatian national decorations.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pravopisna komisija (1960). Pravopis srpskohrvatskoga književnog jezika. Novi Sad, Zagreb: Matica srpska, Matica hrvatska. 
  2. ^ a b Miklós Zrínyi. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 09, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/658207/Miklos-Zrinyi
  3. ^ The Coasts of Bohemia: A Czech History, Derek Sayer
  4. ^ The Rise and Fall of the Hubsburg Monarchy, Victor-L. Tapie, 1972 - "One of the richest lords of the region, Nicholas Zrinsky, a Croat whose name took the form of Zrinyi in ..."
  5. ^ Mucha, Dalibor Kusák, Marta Kadlečíková and Alphonse Marie Mucha, 1992
  6. ^ a b Ferdo Šišić: Povijest Hrvata - Pregled povijesti hrvatskog naroda 1526. - 1918. - drugi dio, p. 295
  7. ^ "Zrinski, Nikola IV.", Croatian Encyclopedia (in Croatian), Leksikografski zavod Miroslav Krleža, 1999–2009, retrieved April 19, 2014 
  8. ^ Count Miklos Zrinyi (1508—1566), Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  9. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Zrinyi, Miklós". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 
  10. ^ Karnarutić (1866), pp. 1–83.
  11. ^ Nikola Šubić Zrinski square, as seen from the map of Zagreb
  12. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Zrinyi, Niklas". Encyclopedia Americana. 

References[edit]

  • Lendvai, Paul: Die Ungarn: Eine tausendjährige Geschichte, C. Bertelsmann Verlag, Munich, 1999 (Title No.021/00218), Chapter 12.
  • Treaty of peace with Germany: Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Relations... ...signed at Versailles on June 28, 1919, and submitted to the Senate on July 10, 1919 - "the Slavs rescued them from a strangle-hold, namely, Nicholas Zrinsky and John Sobieski. one a Croatian and the other a Pole."
Attribution

External links[edit]

Nikola Šubić Zrinski
Born: c. 1508 Died: 6 September 1566
Preceded by
Petar Keglević
Ban of Croatia
1542–1556
Succeeded by
Péter Erdődy