Nikola Pašić

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His Excellency
Nikola Pašić
NikolaPasic--serbiaherpeopleh00petruoft.png
Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
In office
6 November 1924 – 8 April 1926
Monarch Alexander I
Preceded by Ljubomir Davidović
Succeeded by Nikola Uzunović
In office
1 January 1921 – 28 July 1924
Monarch Peter I
Alexander I
Preceded by Milenko Vesnić
Succeeded by Ljubomir Davidović
In office
1 December 1918 – 22 December 1918
Monarch Peter I
Preceded by Position Established
Succeeded by Stojan Protić
Prime Minister of Serbia
In office
12 September 1912 – 1 December 1918
Monarch Peter I
Preceded by Marko Trifković
Succeeded by Position Abolished
In office
24 October 1909 – 4 July 1911
Monarch Peter I
Preceded by Stojan Novaković
Succeeded by Milovan Milovanović
In office
29 April 1906 – 20 July 1908
Monarch Peter I
Preceded by Sava Grujić
Succeeded by Petar Velimirović
In office
10 December 1904 – 28 May 1905
Monarch Peter I
Preceded by Sava Grujić
Succeeded by Ljubomir Stojanović
In office
23 February 1891 – 22 August 1892
Monarch Alexander I
Preceded by Sava Grujić
Succeeded by Jovan Avakumović
Personal details
Born (1845-12-18)18 December 1845
Zaječar, Serbia
Died 10 December 1926(1926-12-10) (aged 80)
Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Political party People's Radical Party
Spouse(s) Đurđina Duković
Children 3
Religion Serbian Orthodox
Signature

Nikola P. Pašić (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола П. Пашић, Serbian pronunciation: [nǐkola pe pâʃit͡ɕ], at the time also transcribed as Pashitch or Pachitch; 18 December 1845 – 10 December 1926) was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat who was the most important Serbian political figure for almost 40 years, leader of the People's Radical Party who, among other posts, was twice a mayor of Belgrade (1890–91 and 1897) several times Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbia (1891–92, 1904–05, 1906–08, 1909–11, 1912–18) and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918, 1921–24, 1924–26.)

He was an important politician in the Balkans, who, together with his counterparts like Eleftherios Venizelos in Greece, managed to strengthen their small, still emerging national states against strong foreign influences, most notably those of Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia.

Early life[edit]

Pašić was born in Zaječar, in the Principality of Serbia. In Bulgarian literature there are numerous claims that his parents had come from the village of Golyam Izvor, Teteven area in Ottoman Bulgaria, and that Pašić's ethnicity was Bulgarian[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] According to this claims his mother later re-married to a Serbian baker who adopted him and gave him his surname, Pašić. In this relation, he was called Bugarash by his political opponents.[8] Indeed, Pašić having relatives in Bulgaria proved indispensable during his 6 years exile from Serbia, when he lived with relatives in Bulgaria, supported by the Bulgarian government. Another view, stated by the Serbian Association of Cincars (Srpsko Cincarsko Društvo) states that he was born to a Cincar (or Aromanian) family that came from Tetovo, Ottoman Macedonia.[9][10] But in Serbian literature, it is stated that his father and grandfather were both born in Zaječar same as him, and that he was not adopted from any previous marriages of his mother [11]

Pašić studied at the Zaječar gymnasium, but as the gymnasium was returned to Negotin (where it was first founded) for political reasons, he also studied in Negotin and Kragujevac. In 1866, he enrolled in the Belgrade Higher School, where he excelled in his studies and in 1868 received a state scholarship to study at the Polytechnical School in Zürich, for further specialization. Pašić graduated as an engineer but, apart from his brief participation in the construction of the Vienna-Budapest railroad, he never worked in this field.

Radical Party[edit]

Origins[edit]

A colony of Serbian students lived in Switzerland where they became acquainted with the ideas of socialism. They would later become the core of the Socialist and Radical movement in Serbia. One of them was Svetozar Marković, who would become the first major socialist ideologue in Serbia. During his studies in Zürich, Pašić befriended Marković, as well as Pera Todorović, Pera Velimirović, Lazar Paču, Jovan Žujović, Mita Rakić and others.

After returning to Serbia, Pašić distanced himself from Marković, though they never argued, and went to Bosnia to support the anti-Ottoman uprising of Nevesinjska puška. The Socialists started publishing Samouprava (Cyrillic: самоуправа; home rule) which later became the official bulletin of the Radical Party. After Marković's death in 1875, Pašić became the leader of the movement and in 1878 was elected to the National Assembly of Serbia, even before the party was formed. In 1880, he made an unprecedented move in the Serbian political scene by forming an opposition deputies' club in the assembly. Finally, a party program was completed in January 1881 and the Radical Party, the first systematically organized Serbian party, was officially established, with Pašić unanimously elected its first president.

Timok rebellion[edit]

The party and Pašić quickly gained popularity; the Radicals received 54 percent of the vote in the September 1883 elections, while the Progressive Party, favored by King Milan Obrenović IV only got 30 percent. Despite the Radicals' clear victory, the pro-Austrian king, who disliked the pro-Russian Pašić and the Radical party, nominated old non-partisan hardliner Nikola Hristić to form a government. By one decree Hristić opened the assembly and then he read a second one, dismissing it.

This already heated atmosphere was made worse by the decision to take away guns from the population, as a regular army was to be established. As a result, clashes began in eastern Serbia, in the Timok valley. King Milan blamed the unrest on the Radicals and sent troops to crush the rebellion. Pašić was sentenced to death in absentia and he narrowly avoided arrest by fleeing to Bulgaria. Twenty-one others were sentenced to death and executed, and 734 more were imprisoned.

Emigration in Bulgaria[edit]

For the next six years, Pašić lived with relatives in Bulgaria, supported by the Bulgarian government. He lived in Sofia, where he worked as building contractor and for a short time in the Ministry of Interior. He also made attempt to participate in Bulgarian policy. The official Bulgarian support became one of several reasons for Milan's decision to start the Serbo-Bulgarian War in 1885. After suffering a decisive defeat, Milan granted an amnesty for those sentenced for Timok rebellion, but not for Pašić, who remained in Bulgarian exile until Milan's abdication in 1889. A few days later the newly formed Radical cabinet of Sava Grujić pardoned Pašić.

High politics 1890–1903[edit]

President of assembly and mayor[edit]

On 13 October 1889, Nikola Pašić was elected president of the National Assembly, a duty he would perform (de jure though, not de facto) until 9 January 1892. He was also elected mayor of Belgrade from 11 January 1890 to 26 January 1891. His presiding over the assembly saw the largest number of laws being voted in the history of Serbian parliamentarism, while as the mayor of Belgrade he was responsible for cobbling the muddy city streets. He was reelected twice as president of the National Assembly from 13 June 1893 to April 1895 (though from September 1893 only in name; his deputy Dimitrije Katić acted for him) and 12 July 1897 to 29 June 1898 and once more mayor of Belgrade 22 January 1897 to 25 November 1897.

First government[edit]

After wisely not accepting to head the government immediately after his return from exile, Nikola Pašić became prime minister for the first time on 23 February 1891. However, ex-king Milan returned to Serbia in May 1890 and again began campaigning against Pašić and the Radicals. On 16 June 1892, Kosta Protić, one of three regents during the minority of Alexander Obrenović V, died. Under the constitution, the National Assembly was to elect a new regent, but as the assembly was on a several months vacation, Pašić had to call for an emergency session. Jovan Ristić, the most powerful regent, fearing Pašić might be elected co-regent and thus undermine his position, refused to allow the extra session, and Pašić resigned as prime minister on 22 August 1892. During his tenure, he was also foreign minister from 2 April 1892 and acting finance minister from 3 November 1891.

Alexander's coup d'état[edit]

After King Alexander declared himself of age ahead of time and dismissed the regency, he offered a moderate Radical Lazar Dokić to form a government. Though he received approval from some members of the Radical party to participate in the government, Pašić refused. In order to exclude him from the political scene in Serbia, Alexander sent Pašić as his extraordinary envoy to Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1893–1894. In 1896, the king managed to force Pašić to back off from pushing for constitutional reforms. However, since 1897 both kings, Milan and Alexander, ruled almost jointly; as both disliked Pašić, in 1898 they had him imprisoned for 9 months because Samouprava published a statement about his previous opposition to King Milan. Pašić claimed he was misquoted, with no effect.

Ivandan's assassination attempt[edit]

Former fireman, Đura Knežević, who was sentenced to death, tried to assassinate ex-king Milan in June 1899 (Serbian: Ивандањски атентат). The same evening, Milan declared that the Radical Party tried to kill him and all heads of the Radical Party were arrested, including Pašić who had just been released from prison from his previous sentence. Milan's anti-Radical accusations were groundless and even Austria-Hungary, his major ally, admitted that the Radical Party was not involved, despite Milan's insistence that at least Nikola Pašić and Kosta Taušanović be sentenced to death. Austria-Hungary feared that the execution of the pro-Russian Pašić would force Russia to intervene, abandoning an 1897 agreement to leave Serbia in status-quo. A special envoy was sent from Vienna to Milan to warn him that Austria would boycott the Obrenović dynasty if Pašić was executed. Noted Serbian historian Slobodan Jovanović later claimed that the entire assassination was staged so that Milan could get rid of the Radical Party.

Imprisoned and unaware of Austria-Hungary's interference, Pašić confessed that the Radical Party had been disloyal to the dynasty, which probably saved many people from prison. As part of the deal reached with the interior minister Đorđe Genčić, government officially left its own role out of the statement, so it looked like Pašić behaved cowardly and succumbed to the pressure. Pašić was sentenced to five years but released immediately. This caused future conflict within the Radical Party as younger members considered Pašić a coward and traitor, and split from the party.

For the rest of King Alexander's rule, Pašić retired from politics. Although the young monarch disliked Pašić, he was often summoned for consultations but would refrain from giving advice and insist that he is no longer involved with politics.

Golden age of democracy 1903–1914[edit]

Royal assassination[edit]

Nikola Pašić was not among the conspirators who plotted to assassinate King Alexander. The assassination took place on 11 June 1903, and both the King and Queen Draga Mašin were killed, as well as Prime Minister Dimitrije Cincar-Marković and Defence Minister Milovan Pavlović. The Radical Party did not form the first cabinet after the coup d'état, but after winning the elections on 4 October 1903, they remained in almost uninterrupted power for the next 15 years. Wisely, Pašić didn't lead all the Radical cabinets, letting other members of his party (or sometimes outside of it) be prime ministers. In the beginning, the Radicals opposed the appointment of a new king, Peter I Karađorđević, calling his appointment illegal. But Pašić later changed his mind after seeing how people willingly accepted the new monarch as well as king Peter I, educated in Western Europe, was a democratic, mild ruler, unlike the last two despotic and erratic Obrenović sovereigns. As it will be shown in the next two decades, the major clash between the king and the prime minister will be Pašić's refusal to raise to royal appanage.[citation needed]

Nikola Pašić became foreign minister on 8 February 1904 in Sava Grujić's cabinet and headed a government under his own presidency 10 December 1904 to 28 May 1905, continuing as foreign minister as well. In the next 10 years under the leadership of Pašić and the Radical Party (especially Lazar Paču, finance minister) Serbia grew into such a prosperous state that many historians call this period the modern golden age of Serbia. The country evolved into a European democracy and with financial and economic growth, political influence also grew which caused constant problems with Serbia's largest neighbor, Austria-Hungary, which even developed plans to turn Serbia into one of its provinces (already in 1879 German chancellor Otto von Bismarck said that Serbia is the stumbling-block in Austria's development).

Austro-Hungarian customs war[edit]

As Austro-Hungarian latent provocations of Serbia concerning Serbs living in Bosnia and Herzegovina, officially still part of the Ottoman Empire but occupied by Austria-Hungary since 1878 and causing problems to Serbian export which mainly went through Austria (as Serbia is landlocked) didn't bring results, Austria-Hungary began open customs war in 1906. Pašić formed another cabinet 30 April 1906 to 20 July 1908. Pressured by the Austrian government which asked from Serbia to buy everything from Austrian companies, from salt to cannons, he replied to Austrian government that he personally would do that, but that the assembly is against it and in democratic countries that's what counts.[citation needed] Austria closed the borders which did cause severe blow to Serbian economy initially, but later it will bounce back even more developed than it was, thanks to the Pašić swift change towards the Western European countries. He forced conspirators of the 1903 coup into retirement which was a condition for reestablishing diplomatic connections with the United Kingdom, he bought cannons from France, etc. In the midst of the customs war, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 which caused mass protests in Serbia and political instability, but Pašić managed to calm the situation down. In this period, Pašić's major ally, Imperial Russia, was not much of a help being defeated by Japan in Russo-Japanese War and under series of revolutions.

Balkan wars[edit]

Pašić formed two more cabinets (24 October 1909 to 4 July 1911 and from 12 September 1912). He was one of the major players in the forming of the Balkan League which later resulted in the First Balkan War (1912–13) and the Second Balkan War (1913) which almost doubled the size of Serbia with the territories of what was at the time considered Old Serbia (Kosovo, Metohija and Vardar Macedonia), retaken from the Ottomans after five centuries.

He clashed with some military structures about the handling of the newly acquired territories. Pašić believed the area should be included into the Serbian political and administrative system through the democratic elections, while the army sought to keep the areas under the military occupation. After one year of tensions Pašić dismissed the military administrator of Old Serbia and scheduled new elections for 1914 but the outbreak of World War I prevented it.

Outbreak of the Great War[edit]

After the Assassination in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 when members of the Serbian revolutionary organization Young Bosnia assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir-apparent Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the Austro-Hungarian government immediately accused the Serbian government of being behind the assassination. The general consensus today is that government did not organize it, but how much Pašić knew about it is still a controversial issue and it appears that every historian has its own opinion on the subject: Pašić knew nothing (Ćorović); Pašić knew something is about to happen and told Russia Austria would attack Serbia before the assassination (Dragnić); Pašić knew but as the assassins were connected to the powerful members of the Serbian intelligence was afraid to do anything about it personally so he warned Vienna (Balfour).

Austria presented him the July Ultimatum, written together with the envoys of the German ambassadors in such a vein which pro-Serbians claim that no country could accept it. After extensive consultations in country itself and formidable pressure from outside to accept it, Pašić told the Austrian ambassador Giesl (who had already packed his bags) that Serbia accepts all the ultimatum demands except that Austrian police can independently travel throughout Serbia and conduct its own investigation. This refusal confirmed to Austria that the Serbian government, at least indirectly via the "Black Hand", lay behind the assassination which was thus seen as a declaration of war against Austria in all except words. Austria-Hungary aswered by formally declaring war on Serbia on 28 July 1914, playing right into the hands of Serbia who could now count on support from Russia in the quest for Bosnia-Herzegovina. World War One had started.

World War I and Yugoslavia[edit]

Glory, defeat and the South Slav state[edit]

From the left: A. Trumbić, Nikola Pašić, Milenko Vesnić and Ivan Žolger.

Serbian defeat was considered to be imminent, at least by external onlookers, compared to the strength of the Austria-Hungary. Serbia had obviously prepared well, however, and after a series of battles in 1914–1915 (Battle of Cer, Battle of Kolubara), the loss and recapture of Belgrade, and a Serbian counter-offensive with occupation of some Austrian territories (in Syrmia and eastern Bosnia), the Austrian army backed off. On 5 July 1914, things changed as old King Peter I relinquished his duties to the heir apparent Alexander, making him his regent.

On 17 September 1914, Pašić and Albanian leader Essad Pasha Toptani signed in Niš the secret Treaty of Serbian-Albanian Alliance.[12] The treaty had 15 points which focused on setting up joint Serbian-Albanian political and military institutions and military alliance of Albania and Kingdom of Serbia. Also treaty envisaged building of the rail-road to Durres, a financial and military support of Kingdom of Serbia to Essad Pasha's position of Albanian ruler and drawing of the demarcation by special Serbo-Albanian commission.[13] In October 1914, Essad Pasha returned to Albania. With Italian and Serbian financial backing, he established armed forces in Dibër and captured the interior of Albania and Dures. Pašić ordered that his followers be aided with money and arms.[14]

Unlike Peter, Alexander was not a democratic spirit, rather a dictatorial one and personally disliked Pašić and all his talks about democracy. Open strife began very soon, when Serbia was proposed the London Pact by which it was supposed to expand into most of the ethnic Serbian territories to the west, including a section of the Adriatic coast and some ethnic Albanian territories in northern Albania. In return, Serbia was supposed to relinquish part of Vardar Macedonia to Bulgaria so that the latter would enter the war on the Entente side. Both Pašić and regent Alexander were against this as they considered it to be the betrayal of the Croatians, Slovenians and Serbian sacrifices in the Balkan Wars, as negotiations for the future South Slav state already began. However, Pašić and king Peter were not personally much for the Yugoslav idea unlike the regent who pushed the issue for creating as large a state as possible. Serbia refused the pact and was attacked by Austria-Hungary, Germany and Bulgaria. The Government and the army retreated to the south in the direction of Greece, but were cut off by Bulgarian forces and had to go through Albania and to the Greek island of Corfu where the Corfu Declaration was signed in 1917 preparing the ground for the future South Slav state of Yugoslavia.

Creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes[edit]

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SHS) was officially proclaimed on 1 December 1918, and, being the Prime Minister of Serbia at that time, Pašić was generally considered the de facto Prime Minister of the new South Slav state, as well. The political agreement was reached that Pašić would continue on as Prime Minister when the first government of the new state was to be formed, but as a result of his longtime dislike of Pašić, regent Alexander nominated Stojan Protić to form the government. Consequently, Pašić stepped down on 20 December 1918.

Despite being removed from the government, as the most experienced of politicians, Nikola Pašić was the main negotiator for the new state at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. In an effort to secure the maximalist agenda of the regent, he did not push on the question of the Czech Corridor, Timişoara, and Szeged, managed to secure borders with Albania and Bulgaria, but failed to annex Fiume (which became an independent state) and most of Carinthia (which remained part of Austria). At the time when Benito Mussolini was willing to modify the Treaty of Rapallo, which cut off a quarter of Slovene ethnic territory from the remaining three-quarters of Slovenes living in the Kingdom of SHS, in order to annex the independent state of Rijeka to Italy, Pašić's attempts to correct the borders at Postojna and Idrija were also undermined by regent Alexander preferring "good relations" with Italy.[15]

Elections held on 28 November 1920 showed that the Radical Party was the second strongest in the country, having just one seat less than the Yugoslav Democratic Party (91 to 92, respectively, out of 419 seats). However, Pašić managed to form a coalition and became prime minister again on 1 January 1921.

Vidovdan Constitution[edit]

As soon as talks about the constitution of the new state began, two diametrically opposite sides, Serbian and Croatian, were established. Both Pašić and regent Alexander wanted a unitary state but for different reasons. Pašić considered that the Serbs could be outvoted in such a state and that an unconsolidated and heterogeneous entity would fall apart if it was a federal one, while the regent simply didn't like to share power with others, which was shown 8 years later when he conducted a coup d'état. Stjepan Radić, a leading Croatian politician who didn't hide his agenda that a joint Serbian-Croatian state is just a temporary solution on the way for Croatian full independence, asked for a federal republic. As Pašić had majority in the assembly, a new constitution was proclaimed on Vidovdan (St. Vitus day), 28 June 1921, organizing the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as a parliamentary (albeit highly unitary) monarchy, abolishing even the remaining shreds of autonomy which had Slovenia, Croatia, Dalmatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Vojvodina (provincial governments).

In the early 1920s, the Yugoslav government of Prime Minister Pašić used police pressure over voters and ethnic minorities, confiscation of opposition pamphlets[16] and other measures of election rigging to keep the opposition, mainly the autonomy-minded Croats, in minority in the Yugoslav parliament.[17][18]

Pašić remained Prime Minister until 8 April 1926, with a short break 27 July 1924 to 6 November 1924, when the government was headed by Ljuba Davidović. After relinquishing temporarily the post to his party colleague Nikola Uzunović, now a king, Alexander refused to reappoint Pašić using as a pretext the scandals of Pašić's son Rade. The following day, on 10 December 1926, Nikola Pašić suffered a heart attack and died in Belgrade. He was buried on Belgrade's Novo Groblje.

Criticism[edit]

Pašić was widely criticized by the Communists as he prevented them from participating in the political life after the 1920 elections and the series of terrorist attacks by the Communists on government officials, and banned the Communist party officially proclaiming it a criminal organization on 21 August 1921.

In the early 1920s, he was accused of using police pressure over voters and ethnic minorities, confiscation of opposition pamphlets[16] and other measures of election rigging to keep the opposition, mainly the separatist Stjepan Radić, in minority in Yugoslav parliament.[17]

After 1945, he was condemned by the new Communist authorities and was labeled a leader of the great Serbian hegemony, while his accomplishments in building modern Serbia were completely pushed aside. The same rhetoric is still used by the Croatian critics. Pašić is heavily attacked because of the unitary composition of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and his opinion that Serbs, being the majority in the state, should always have the leading role (except for Slovenian Anton Korošec 1928–29, all prime ministers 1918–41 were Serbs). Being against the joint South Slave state from the beginning, he was accused of pushing the Greater Serbian agenda, national concept of concentrated power in the hands of Belgrade.[18] Croatian Communist theoretician Otokar Keršovani coined a phrase about Pašić: His name will remain in history more because it is connected to historical events, rather than the historical events being connected to his name, which was widely used and cited during the Communist regime from 1945 to 1991.

He was also criticized from the Serbian side. His former party colleague Pera Todorović wrote that Pašić was clumsy and indecisive. Historian Vladimir Ćorović openly wrote that Pašić had not a shred of courage, while Swiss doctor and Serbian benefactor Archibald Reiss criticized his weakness towards his scheming son Rade.

Private life[edit]

Marriage[edit]

Nikola Pašić married Đurđina Duković, daughter of a wealthy Serbian grains trader from Trieste, Italy. They were married in the Russian church in Florence to avoid the gathering of the numerous Serbian colony in Trieste and had three children: son Radomir-Rade and daughters Dara and Pava.

Rade, a playboy and participant in many corruption affairs, was a constant embarrassment for Pašić. He had two sons, Vladislav, an architect (died in 1980 in Geneva, Switzerland) and Nikola II, an Oxford law graduate (born in 1918) who resides in Toronto, Canada where he has founded a Serbian National Academy.

Often accused for marrying into money, when he died, Archibald Reiss wrote: "Look, son of the plain and poor peasants left one of the largest wealth in the country... you will say that his wife brought him nice dowry. But what is that dowry compared to what he has left when he died? A crumb and nothing more."

Trivia[edit]

Monument to Nikola Pašić, Nikola Pašić Square, Belgrade

One of the central squares in Belgrade is named after him, Square of Nikola Pašić (Serbian: Трг Николе Пашића/Trg Nikole Pašića). During Communist regime, the square was named after Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The 4.2 meter tall bronze statue of Pašić is erected on the square, overlooking the building of the assembly.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Чилингиров, Стилиян (1938, 1939, 1941, 1991, 2006). Какво е дал българинът на другите народи. pp. (IV издание, 1993, стр. 90–91).  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. ^ ...Никола Пашич, по народност българин от с. Голям извор, Тетевенско... Mezhdunarodni dogovori svŭrzani s voĭnite za obedinenieto na bŭlgarskiia narod ot 1912–1913 g. Anastas Iordanov Totev, Gabriela N. Vladimirova, TOGA, 1994, p.87.
  3. ^ ...Техният водач е Никола Пашич, по народност българин, от с. Голям извор, Тетевенско. Сърбите го наричат "бугараш", а той казва, че е българин по произход, но сърбин по съзнание...Ruskata imperia sreshtu Bŭlgaria, Част 1 Брой 7 от Biblioteka Site Bŭlgari zaednoр Iаnko Gochev, Aniko, 2006, p. 330.
  4. ^ ...За куриоз той спомена, че днешният сръбски министър-председател Пашич е от български произход, родом от Зайчар, и че родителите му и днес са си българи... Българите в световните хроники: 1912–1919, Том 1, Автор Стоян Райчевски, Издател Народна култура, 2000, стр. 135.
  5. ^ ...Nikola Pashich (1846–1926), spoke a broken Serbian (he was of Bulgarian origin from eastern Serbia)... The Linguistic Identity of Europe: Macrolinguistics and demostatistics of Europe, Gyula Décsy, Eurolingua, 2000, ISBN 0-931922-67-4, p. 335.
  6. ^ ...Nikola Pashitch, who is part Bulgarian, recently celebrated his 80th birthday...Time, Henry Robinson Luce, Briton Hadden, Time Inc., 1924.
  7. ^ Fontes historiae Bulgaricae, Institut za bŭlgarska istoria, (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences), Tchechoslovashki izvori za Bŭlgarskata istorija, 1985, p. 125.
  8. ^ Електронно издателство LiterNet, Величко Тодоров "Знам ги аз тях!" Сърбия и сърбите в българската литература. Варна:2002.
  9. ^ {{cite web This s\is very probable since the Aromanians community from Macedonia is supporting the same point of view. | url = http://www.scd-lunjina.org/znameniti_cincari/index.html | title = POZNATI CINCARI I LJUDI CINCARSKOG POREKLA | first = Pribislav B. | last = Marinković | author = | authorlink = | coauthors = | date = | month = | year = 2008 | work = | publisher = Srpsko Cincarsko Društvo | location = Belgrade | page = | pages = | at = | language = Serbian | trans_title = | doi = | archiveurl = | archivedate = | accessdate = 12 January 2011 | quote = Nikola Pašić,veliki srpski državnik Nikola Pašić bio je poreklom iz poznate cincarske porodice Pasku. Precisu mu bili Cincari iz sela Rogačeva u blizini Tetova. | ref = | separator = | postscript = }}
  10. ^ Alexandru Gica (8 February 2011). "The Recent History of the Aromanians in Southeast Europe". Trumbull, CT, US: The Society Farsarotul. Retrieved 2013-01-17. As an aside, let us mention that Nikola Pašić, the Serbian Prime Minister of the period (when the Treaty of Bucharest was signed in 1913 and when Romanian schools for Aromanians were closed in 1914) was himself Aromanian[17]. [...] [17] See Gossiaux J.F., Pouvoirs ethniques dans les Balkans, Paris, 2002, p. 166. His Aromanian name was Nikola Pasku. 
  11. ^ Димитријевић, Миодраг (2004). Никола Пашић у ходу историје. pp. (стр. 61). 
  12. ^ Bataković, Dušan T.. "Serbian government and Essad Pasha Toptani". The Kosovo Chronicles. Belgrade, Serbia: Knižara Plato. ISBN 86-447-0006-5. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2011. Essad Pasha signed a secret alliance treaty with Pasic on September 17. 
  13. ^ Bataković, Dušan T.. "Serbian government and Essad Pasha Toptani". The Kosovo Chronicles. Belgrade, Serbia: Knižara Plato. ISBN 86-447-0006-5. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2011. The 15 points envisaged the setting up of joint political and military institutions,... focused on a military alliance, the construction of an Adriatic railroad to Durazzo and guarantees that Serbia would support Essad Pasha's election as the Albanian ruler. ...The demarcation between the two countries was to be drawn by a special Serbo-Albanian commission 
  14. ^ Serbian government and Essad Pasha Toptani
  15. ^ Čermelj, L. (1955). Kako je prišlo do prijateljskega pakta med Italijo in kraljevino SHS (How the Friendship Treaty between Italy and the Kingdom of SHS Came About in 1924), Zgodovinski časopis, 1-4, p.195, Ljubljana
  16. ^ a b Balkan Politics, TIME Magazine, 31 March 1923
  17. ^ a b Elections, TIME Magazine, 23 February 1925
  18. ^ a b The Opposition, TIME Magazine, 6 April 1925

Further reading[edit]

  • Carlo Sforza, Pachitch et l'union des Yougoslaves, Paris, Gallimard 1938.
  • Georges Devas, La nouvelle Serbie. Origines et bases sociales et politiques. Renaissance de l'État politique et développement historique, dynastique. Revendications libératrices, Paris, Berger-Levrault 1918.
  • Alex N. Dragnich, Nikola Pašić, Serbia and Yugoslavia, New Brunswick, New Jersey 1974.
  • Alex N. Dragnich, The Development of Parliamentary Government in Serbia, East European Monographs, Boulder Colorado 1978.
  • Vasa Kazimirović, Nikola Pašić i njegovo doba 1845–1926, 2 vols.Belgrade, Nova Evropa 1990.
  • Đorđe Đ. Stanković, Nikola Pašić i Hrvati, Belgrade, BIGZ 1995.
  • Miloš Trifunović, Istorija Radikalne stranke', SRS, Belgrade, 1997.
  • Vladimir Ćorović, Ilustrovana istorija Srba, Vol. VI, Politika NM & Narodna Knjiga, Belgrade 2006:
  • Dušan T. Bataković, “Nikola Pašić, les radicaux de et la “Main noire” : Les défis à la démocratie parlementaire serbe (1903–1917)“, Balcanica, vol. XXXVII (2006), Belgrade 2007, pp. 143–169.
Government offices
Preceded by
Sava Grujić
Prime Minister of Serbia
1891–1892
Succeeded by
Jovan Avakumović
Preceded by
Sava Grujić
Prime Minister of Serbia
1904–1905
Succeeded by
Ljubomir Stojanović
Preceded by
Sava Grujić
Prime Minister of Serbia
1906–1908
Succeeded by
Petar Velimirović
Preceded by
Stojan Novaković
Prime Minister of Serbia
1909–1911
Succeeded by
Milovan Milovanović
Preceded by
Marko Trifković
Prime Minister of Serbia
1912–1918
Succeeded by
himself in Yugoslavia
Preceded by
Himself in Serbia
Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
1918
Succeeded by
Stojan Protić
Preceded by
Milenko Vesnić
Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
1921–1924
Succeeded by
Ljubomir Davidović
Preceded by
Ljubomir Davidović
Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
1924–1926
Succeeded by
Nikola Uzunović
Party political offices
Preceded by
Post established
President of the People's Radical Party
1881–1926
Succeeded by
Aca Stanojević