Nikolai Trofimovich Fedorenko (Russian: Николай Трофимович Федоренко) (9 November [O.S. 27 October] 1912, Pyatigorsk - October 2, 2000) was a Soviet philologist, orientalist, statesman, public figure, professor (1953), and corresponding member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1958).
Nikolai Fedorenko authored a number of works on the history of Chinese and Japanese culture, Chinese classical and modern literature. He was an honorary member of the Tokyo Sinology Institute (1961) and honorary academician of the Florentine Art Academy (1975). Nikolai Fedorenko was awarded two Orders of Lenin, four other orders, and numerous medals.