In 1959 he graduated from the law faculty of Tomsk university. He worked in KGB from 1963 on (for many years as an officer in the Fifth department that aimed at suppressing 'ideological diversions' and political dissent).
From 1992 deputy and later the first deputy of the minister of security of the Russian Federation. From September to December 1993 Golushko served as the minister of security of the Russian Federation. From December 1993 to February 1994 he was the director of the Federal Service of Counter-intelligence of the Russian Federation. According to Yevgenia Albats, Golushko was forced to step down in 1994, after he had refused Yeltsin's request to bar State Duma from granting amnesty to the October 1993 rebels.
Golushko's military rank is Colonel General.
- Yevgenia Albats KGB: State Within a State, 1995. p.350
- the newly elected parliament had granted amnesty to the leaders of the October 1993 rebellion. - Albats, p. 357. (For the same reason, the prosecutor general Kazannik resigned in 1994.)
- Голушко Н. М. В спецслужбах трех государств. М., 2009.