Nilgiri wood pigeon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Nilgiri Wood-pigeon)
Jump to: navigation, search
Nilgiri wood pigeon
Columba elphinstonii.jpg
Nilgiri wood pigeon Columba elphinstonii
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Columbiformes
Family: Columbidae
Genus: Columba
Species: C. elphinstonii
Binomial name
Columba elphinstonii
(Sykes, 1832)[2]
Columba elphinstonii map.png
Synonyms

Alsocomus elphinstonii
Ptilinopus elphinstonii

The Nilgiri wood pigeon (Columba elphinstonii) is large pigeon found in the moist deciduous forests and sholas of the Western Ghats in southwestern India. They are mainly frugivorous and forage in the canopy of dense hill forests. They are best identified in the field by their large size, dark colours and the distinctive checkerboard pattern on their nape.

Description[edit]

Nilgiri wood pigeon photograph from Munnar, Kerala

This pigeon appears dark grey and a black and white patterned patch made of white tipped stiff feathers on the back of the neck is distinctive. The mantle is chestnut. The male has a paler grey crown while the female has a darker grey crown with a pale throat. The most confusable other species is the mountain imperial pigeon but that species has paler underwing coverts.[3] The feet and the base of the bill are red.[4][5]

The species is evolutionarily close to the Ceylon woodpigeon Columba torringtoni and the ashy wood pigeon Columba pulchricollis which form a clade that is basal within the Old World genus Columba.[6][7][8] The binomial commemorates Mountstuart Elphinstone (1779–1859).

Distribution[edit]

The species is mainly found along the Western Ghats and in the Nilgiri Hills.[3] Although found mainly in the hills, it is sometimes seen at lower elevations within the Western Ghats.[9] A few relict populations survive on the high elevations hills of the peninsula such as the Biligirirangan Hills[10] and Nandi Hills near Bangalore.[11][12]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

Nilgiri wood pigeons are usually seen singly, in pairs or in small groups, feeding almost entirely in the trees but sometimes descending to the ground to forage on fallen fruits. Although feeding mainly on fruits they have been recorded taking small snails and other invertebrates.[3] The breeding season is March to July during which time they make a flimsy platform of twigs and lay a single white egg which is usually visible from below the nest.[4] They feed on large fruits and may play an important role in dispersal of the seeds of many forest trees.[13] Fruits of the family Lauraceae are particularly favoured and most of their food is gathered by gleaning on the outer twigs of the middle and upper canopy.[14] They have been recorded ingesting soil that may provide mineral nutrients or aid digestion.[15] They often make movements within the forest according to the fruiting seasons of their favourite trees. Their call is a loud langur-like low-frequency hooting "who" followed by a series of deep "who-who-who" notes.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Columba elphinstonii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Sykes WH (1832). "Catalogue of Birds of the Rasorial, Grallatorial and Natatorial Orders, observed in the Dukhun". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Part 2: 149–172. 
  3. ^ a b c Rasmussen PC and Anderton JC (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Volume 2. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions. p. 206. 
  4. ^ a b Baker, EC Stuart (1913). Indian pigeons and doves. Witherby and Co. pp. 164–167. 
  5. ^ Blanford WT (1898). Fauna of British India. Birds. Volume 4. Taylor and Francis, London. p. 36. 
  6. ^ Goodwin, D. (1959). "Taxonomy of the genus Columba". Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Zool. 6: 1–23. 
  7. ^ Johnston, Richard F (1962). "The taxonomy of pigeons". Condor 64 (1): 69–74. doi:10.2307/1365442. 
  8. ^ Johnson KP; de Kort, Selvino; Dinwoodey, Karen; Mateman, A. C.; ten Cate, Carel; Lessells, C. M.; Clayton, Dale H. and Sheldon, F. (2001). "A molecular phylogeny of the dove genera Streptopelia and Columba". The Auk 118 (4): 874–887. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2001)118[0874:AMPOTD]2.0.CO;2. 
  9. ^ Daniel JC and Amladi SR (1974). "The Nilgiri Wood Pigeon, Columba elphinstonii (Sykes) on Salsette Island, Bombay". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 71 (2): 304. 
  10. ^ Srinivasan U. and Prashanth N.S. (2006). "Preferential routes of bird dispersal to the Western Ghats in India: An explanation for the avifaunal peculiarities of the Biligirirangan Hills". Indian Birds 2 (4): 114–119. 
  11. ^ Karthikeyan, S. (2000). "Circumstantial evidence of breeding of the Nilgiri wood pigeon Columba elphinstonii (Sykes) at Nandi hills, near Bangalore". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 97 (3): 429. 
  12. ^ Subramanya, S., Prasad J.N. and Karthikeyan S. (1994). "Nilgiri Wood Pigeon Columba elphinstonii (Sykes) at Nandi Hills near Bangalore". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 91 (2): 319–320. 
  13. ^ Ganesh T and Priya Davidar (2001). "Dispersal modes of tree species in the wet forests of southern Western Ghats". Current Science 80 (3): 394–399. 
  14. ^ Somasundaram S and Vijayan L (2010). "Foraging ecology of the globally threatened Nilgiri Wood Pigeon (Columba elphinstonii) in the Western Ghats, India". Chinese Birds 1 (1): 9–21. doi:10.5122/cbirds.2009.0017. 
  15. ^ Somasundaram S and Vijayan L (2011). "Soil Feeding Behaviour of Globally Threatened Nilgiri Woodpigeon Columba elphinstonii in the Western Ghats, South India". Podoces 6 (1): 92–94. 
  16. ^ Ali S and Ripley SD (1981). Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 3 (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 132–133. 

External links[edit]