Ninja in popular culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Three people in black costumes
People dressed as ninja during the Himeji Castle Festival in Himeji, Hyōgo, Japan in 2009

A ninja is a stock character in Japanese and international popular culture. The cultural references listed below are separated by category: novels, comics, anime and manga, games, television and music. Live-action films and video games are discussed in separate articles.

Overview[edit]

Ninja killing a snake with a sword
Jiraiya battles a snake with the help of a toad; woodblock print on paper by Utagawa Kuniyoshi, about 1843

Depictions of ninja range from realistic to exaggerated. A stereotypical, stylized ninja character commonly wears a dark hood or mask, and can move stealthily. Ninja characters are identified by their use of traditional blade weapons and their superhuman abilities, such as running on water and up walls. Although they are depicted as nearly invincible when they are the heroes of a story, they may also be "redshirts" to be dispatched by a story's protagonist. Modern ninja depictions show them attacking in large numbers or as nearly-invulnerable, solitary warriors.[1]

People posing in costume
Members of Kyushu Ninja Preservation Society, 2012

According to a 2011 article in The Guardian, "in Japan, ninja are now something of a national myth, a slightly cartoonish composite of old folk tales and modern pop culture."[2] Ninja are popular characters in Japanese folklore, jidaigeki literature and the performing arts; Ishikawa Goemon was the subject of a number of kabuki plays, and Sarutobi Sasuke has appeared in Japanese children's stories since 1911. Koga Unôn Ninjutsu Kogaryû is a 1916 silent film.[3] Ninja-themed films and books became popular in Japanese culture during the 1950s and early 1960s. In Japan the word shinobi and its variants are often used, rather than "ninja".

The first major appearance of ninja in Western pop culture was a secret commando force used by Japanese intelligence in the James Bond film, You Only Live Twice (1967). The 1960s TV series The Samurai sparked interest in ninja among young Australian viewers, but ninja were unnoticed in other Western countries until later. Western interest in ninja increased during the 1980s, particularly in the United States where several American ninja movies starring Sho Kosugi were released early in the decade, contributing to worldwide "ninja-mania". Later ninja-themed international hit media franchises include Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (introduced in the late 1980s) and Naruto (introduced in the late 1990s).[4][5]

Film[edit]

Main article: List of ninja films

Anime and manga[edit]

For ninja anime theatrical films and OAVs, see the list of ninja films.
Four people in costume
Ninja Hattori-kun cosplayers at Comiket 76

The following manga and anime series feature ninja:

Young person in costume, holding a scroll and artist's brush
Naruto character cosplayer

Sanpei Shirato has written ninja-themed manga, including Akame – The Red Eyes,[18] Band of Ninja (Ninja Bugeicho) (later adapted into an anime film),[19] Kaze no Ishimaru,[20] Ninpou Hiwa, Ookami Kozou, Ninja Senpuu, The Legend of Kamui and Watari (later adapted into the live-action film, Watari, the Ninja Boy).[21]

Although the following stories feature a ninja character, they are not ninja-themed:

Supporting ninja appearances include Ah! Itoshi no Banchousama (Hirayama Hayaka's ninja bodyguard), Bobobo-bo Bo-bobo (OVER's Ninja Assassin Corp and the Ultimate Five Assassins), Code Geass (Sayoko Shinozaki), Cutey Honey, Dinosaur King (episode "Ninja Nightmare"),[24] F-Zero: GP Legend (Dream), Hero Tales, Hunter x Hunter (Hanzo and Machi), Hyper Police (Kasumi), Kamen no Maid Guy (ninja maids Shizuku and Tsurara), King Arthur, Kinnikuman (the Ninja), Kirby: Right Back at Ya! (Kirby becomes a ninja and works with Benikage and Yamikage in the episode "Visiting Ninja, Benikage!"), Kotetsu no Daibouken (Kagari), Lone Wolf and Cub, Machine Robo: Battle Hackers, Magical Nyan Nyan Taruto (Rakugan), Magical Princess Minky Momo ("Ninja Arrived! Momo is Ninja"), Mega Man Star Force (the Tribe-On transformation Green Ninja), Metal Fighter Miku ("Pretty Four vs The Lady Ninjas"), Miami Guns, My-HiME/My-Otome (Akira Okuzaki), Nagasarete Airantou (Mikoto),[25] Oh My Goddess! (Marller's ninja trio), Planetes (Tanabe's neighbors in "The Lunar Flying Squirrels"),[26] the Pokémon series and Pokémon: The Electric Tale of Pikachu (Aya, Koga-Kyō and Janine-Anzu), PQ Angels, Raimuiro Ryuukitan X (Kasuri Hattori),[27] Ranma 1/2 (Konatsu, Sasuke Sarugakure, and Shirokuro), Saber Marionette, Sailor Moon (the villain of the week Oniwabandana[28]), Sakura Wars, Samurai Champloo ("Bogus Booty" and "Baseball Blues"), Samurai Girl: Real Bout High School, Sengoku Collection (Kotaro Fuuma), Sonic X (the E-91 Lady Ninja and Espio the Chameleon), Sorcerer Hunters, The King of Braves GaoGaiGar (Yūsha Ō GaoGaiGā) (Volfogg), Those Who Hunt Elves, Tower of Etruria (Palmyra),[29] Ultraman (Alien Baltan), Yami to Bōshi to Hon no Tabibito, Yakitate! Japan ("Nin Nin Nin!! My Way of Ninja!"), Yoshimune (Kunoichi), YuYu Hakusho (Team Shadow Channelers).

Literature[edit]

Novels[edit]

Ninja-themed novels include:

Ninja have minor roles in Shōgun, Thief of Time, Vineland,[35] and the Young Samurai series.

Non-Japanese comics[edit]

Scantily-clad young woman with a sword
Psylocke cosplayer, 2014

In the Marvel Universe ninja have appeared as both heroes, such as Spider-Man's foe White Ninja,[36] X-Men members Psylocke and Revanche, along with supporting character Yukio, Ghost Rider's foes Deathwatch and Death Ninja,[37] Wolverine's mentor Ogun, Hawkeye (as Ninja Ronin), the Punisher's friend Katherine Yakamoto (from Shadowmasters),[38] and Pacific Overlords operative Kuroko (Aya Komatsu). In the Marvel Mangaverse, Spider-Man is the last member of a ninja clan. A sinister ninja cult, the Hand, appears in X-Men and Daredevil. The cult and its associates were responsible for the martial training of Psylocke, Elektra, Daredevil, Black Tarantula, Kitty Pryde, Lady Bullseye and Wolverine. The Hand's heroic counterpart is The Chaste, which struggles with its Korean offshoot the True Believers,[39] including Dragonfly (Meiko Yin).[40] Characters with ninja abilities also appear in the DC Universe; one is martial artist and assassin Lady Shiva, who kills Armless Master. DC's The New 52 relaunch introduced the character Kunoichi, a member of the Blackhawks.

Characters with the sort of mystical and superhuman martial arts abilities attributed to the ninja occur in the DC Universe. One character who is portrayed in a fashion similar to a ninja is master martial artist and assassin Lady Shiva; Shiva also killed Armless Master, who had trained both Catwoman and Hellhound. The fourth Batgirl, Cassandra Cain, also has the qualities of the Western perception of a ninja (there is also a book titled Batman and the Ninja). The retconned stealth and martial arts training of the recent Batman incarnations has led many latter day Batman fans to assume that Batman is a ninja; Ra's Al Ghul specifically mentions ninja during his training of Bruce Wayne. One alternative-universe comic even substitutes Batman with a Japanese female ninja named Komori (Bat).[41] One alternative version of Robin has him named Tengu and raised by Cat-Ninja (Catwoman) in the feudal Japan.

In the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (TMNT) series, all four main characters and many of their friends and foes are ninja, mostly from the Foot Clan (a pastiche of Marvel's group The Hand), including Donatello, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Splinter, Shredder and Karai. The franchise achieved a high popularity, resulting in a franchise of multiple films, television series, video games, and a wide range of toys and other merchandise.

The G.I. Joe of comic books has featured ninja far more than the cartoon series, and many story arcs revolved around Scarlett, Snake Eyes, Storm Shadow, Jinx, Kamakura, Firefly and the Arashikage ninja clan, which consisted of an extended family of ninja characters (never featured in the toyline or cartoon). Other characters in the comic who received ninja training from the Arashikage clan and their associates were Cobra Commander's son Billy Kessler and the shapeshifter Zartan.

Other ninja-themed comics include:

Less notable or short-lived titles include Codename: Ninja,[52] Corporate Ninja,[53] Savage Ninja,[54] Surban Jersey Ninja She-Devils,[55] and Zombee.[56] The Amelia Rules! series included A Very Ninja Christmas.

Ninja have supporting roles in Chastity, G.I. Combat (Kana[57]), Karate Kommandos,[58] Lucha Libre (the Pom Pom Ninjas),[59] Les Naufragés d'Ythaq, Masters of the Universe (Ninjor),[60] Rebirth (the hero's ally, Eiji Inaba),[61] Sam Noir (villains),[62] Scott Pilgrim (Roxanne "Roxie" Richter), Spike: Shadow Puppets, Sonic the Hedgehog (Uma Arachnis and the Arachne), The Order of the Stick (Therkla and others), The Tick (Oedipus),[63] Usagi Yojimbo (ninja of the Neko,[64] Mogura and Komori clans, including Kashira Chizu),[65] Y: The Last Man (Toyota).[66]

Television[edit]

Television series[edit]

Non-anime, ninja-themed TV series include:

Ninja-themed Super Sentai and Power Rangers shows include Hikari Sentai Maskman and Ninpū Sentai Hurricaneger; footage of Ninja Sentai Kakuranger was used in season three of Mighty Morphin Power Rangers. Ninja villains also appear in other Super Sentai series, such as GoGo Sentai Boukenger (Negative Syndicate's Dark Shadow clan: Gekkou, Yaiba and Shizuka), Power Rangers: Operation Overdrive (Miratrix and some other of Kamdor's henchmen), Hyakujuu Sentai Gaoranger (Ninja Org Duke Dorodoro; Onikage in Power Rangers: Wild Force), Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger (Dora Ninja; Dark Warrior in Mighty Morphin Power Rangers season one), Denkou Choujin Gridman (Shinobilar), and Mahou Sentai Magiranger (Kirikage).

In live-action television series, ninja characters appeared in Arrow ("League of Assassins"), Baretta ("The Ninja"), Big Wolf on Campus ("Play It Again, Samurai"), Castle ("The Way of the Ninja"), Charmed ("Awakened"), Criminal Minds ("True Night"), Danger Theatre ("Tropical Punch: Lethal Luau"), Dude, What Would Happen ("Ninja Slicing"), Knight Rider (1982) ("Knight of the Rising Sun"), Kyojuu Tokusou Juspion (the Five Space Ninjas), Kung Fu ("The Assassin"), Loiter Squad, Magnum P.I. ("The Arrow That is Not Aimed"), Mito Kōmon (Tsuge no Tobizaru and Kagerō Ogin), Mortal Kombat: Konquest (alternative versions of Kitana, Mileena, Reptile, Scorpion and Sub-Zero), Murdoch Mysteries ("Kung Fu Crabtree"), Quincy, M.E. ("Touch of Death"), She Spies ("Fondles"), Shōgun,[77] Simon & Simon ("Opposites Attack"), Space Sheriff Shaider (Girls' Army), That '70s Show ("Jackie Moves On"), The Greatest American Hero ("Thirty Seconds Over Little Tokyo"), Verbotene Liebe.

In non-anime cartoon series, ninja characters appeared in The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius ("Crouching Jimmy, Hidden Sheen"), Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog ("Robo-Ninja"), The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 ("Sneaky Lying Cheating Giant Ninja Koopas"), American Dragon: Jake Long (Huntsman and Rose), Batman Beyond (Curaré of the League of Assassins[78]), Batman: The Animated Series (Kyodai Ken in the episodes "Night of the Ninja" and "Day of the Samurai"[79]), Beware the Batman ("Family" and "Sacrifice"), Black Dynamite ("Just Beat It or Jackson Five Across Yo' Eyes"),[80] Chop Socky Chooks (Ninja Chimps),[81] Karate Kommandos (Super Ninja), Code Monkeys ("Revenge of Matsui"), Codename: Kids Next Door (Teen Ninjas), Conan the Adventurer ("Shadow Walkers",[82] "Dragon's Breath" and "Sword, Sai and Shuriken"), Danny Phantom (Bertrand), Digimon Data Squad (Falcomon), Eon Kid (Black Beauty and her ninja robot army), Family Guy (in "Wasted Talent" and "I Take Thee Quagmire"), Happy Tree Friends (Generic Tee Ninjas), Jackie Chan Adventures (the Shadowkhan), Johnny Test (one of Johnny's transformation is Ninja Johnny), Kim Possible (the Yamanouchi ninja school), The Legend of Prince Valiant ("The Ghost"),[83] The Legend of Zelda (Sing), The Penguins of Madagascar ("Mental Hen/Siege the Day" and "Street Smarts/Nighty Night Ninja"), Phineas and Ferb ("What a Croc!/Ferb TV"), Planet Sketch (Ninja Handyman),[84] The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest ("Night of the Zinja"),[85] Robot Chicken, Road Rovers ("Let Sleeping Dogs Lie"), Samurai Jack ("Samurai versus Ninja"),[86] The Simpsons (in "The Telltale Head" Bart Simpson disguises as a ninja; in "Treehouse of Horror XVIII" one of the aliens is dressed as a ninja, in "Husbands and Knives" the Comic Book Guy has ninja weapons, and in "Yokel Chords" Bart plays a spoof video game with a female ninja), Skunk Fu (Ninja Monkeys), South Park ("Good Times with Weapons" and "Fantastic Easter Special"), Stroker and Hoop ("Ninja Worrier" and "Chopping Spree"),[87] Superman: The Animated Series (Death Fist Ninja), Teen Titans (in "Masks", Beast Boy has a video game "Super Ninja Showdown 8"), The Transformers (Greatshot, Nightbird and Prowl), The Venture Bros. (Otaku Senzuri), Wolverine and the X-Men, Xiaolin Showdown (Tubbimura).

There is also a number of television series which have featured characters that are mistaken for ninja, or are merely characters dressed in ninja-like costumes (usually done as a spoof). In Chuck (the pilot episode "Chuck vs the Intersect", 2007) Sarah is dressed in a ninja-like costume for one scene; in Hill Street Blues (episode "Look Homeward, Ninja", 1986) a mentally unstable character believes himself to be a ninja and dresses as a ninja in one scene; in Knight Rider (2008 TV series) (episode "Knight Fever", 2008) so-called "motorcycle ninja" are merely wearing ninja-like black hoods under their helmets; Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman (episode "Chi of Steel") (1995) features a Chinese Yi Chi Master who wears mystical bracelets and is dressed in a ninja-like costume; in MacGyver (episode "Murderers' Sky", 1988) opening scene features a character dressed in a ninja-like costume; in Perfect Strangers (episode "Karate Kids", 1987) Balki dresses as a ninja in a spoof of the Cato surprise attack scenes in the Pink Panther movies.

Other[edit]

Ninja Warrior (Sasuke) and Women of Ninja Warrior (Kunoichi) are two Japanese sports entertainment shows that are featuring (respectively) male and female competitors on an obstacle course. In the Prank Patrol shows, "ninja" are the show helpers setting up the pranks.

Shows that featured ninja characters of motifs include American Idol (contestant Danny Noriega, a self-proclaimed "sexy intense ninja pickle"), Big Brother Australia (the people who have to enter the house would to do things such as maintenance are referred to, even by Big Brother himself, as "ninja"; on the Friday Night Live show, the "ninja" are much more prominent, are given personalities and have segments dedicated to them), Cheat! (episode "Cheat-jitsu"), Deadliest Warrior (in one episode a ninja fights against a Spartan), Gamers, In Living Color (an episode features a skit about a ninja home security system in which a ninja was used to kill intruders), Late Night with Conan O'Brien (Conan and Jim Carrey fight ninja), The Lance Krall Show, The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson (Craig Ferguson fights a ninja), MadTV (in some of their Steven Seagal parodies), Mystery Science Theater 3000 (an episode features Joel and the 'bots singing a song called "Master Ninja Theme Song", which became a popular song from the show), Mythbusters (a ninja special of the show tests classic ninja myths such as walking on water, catching a sword and catching an arrow), Screen Test, Splatalot! (Shaiden), You Don't Know Jack (in one episode the host was attacked by ninja).

Ninja appared in television advertisements for Alior Sync bank,[88] Anime Network,[89] Bombay Sapphire,[90] Clamato,[91] FedEx,[92] Free Realms,[93] Honda Civic Si,[94] Mitsubishi UFJ Securities,[95] MyHome.ie,[96] Nicorette,[97] Nike,[98] Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection,[99] Oregon Lottery,[100] Pepsi,[101] Pop-Tarts,[102] and Sure.[103][104]

Games[edit]

Video games[edit]

In addition to video games, several game-development companies use "ninja" in their name: Ninja Studio, Ninja Theory, Ninjaforce,[105] NinjaKiwi,[106] and Team Ninja.

In massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) "ninja", "loot ninja" or "ninja looter" describes a player who has stolen something from another player. This is pejorative; if a player is called a "ninja" in a game they may be rejected by the community and find it difficult to join guilds or raid parties.[107]

Traditional games[edit]

There are several ninja-themed role-playing games (RPGs):

Ninja ara also featured in collectible card games, such as Legend of the Five Rings CCG, Magic: The Gathering (where the ability Ninjutsu was introduced in the set Betrayers of Kamigawa[120]) and Mortal Kombat Kard Game, and in some miniature wargaming games, such as Heroscape.[121]

Music[edit]

Several musicians and bands have the word "ninja" in their names:

Shadow Warriors, a side project of guitarist Sam Totman of British metal band DragonForce, utilizes ninja-related themes in their music. Their EP Power of the Ninja Sword was released in 2001.[123]

A number of titles have the word "ninja" or "ninjas":

The bands 7 Seconds of Love, Concord Dawn (in Uprising), Europe (in The Final Countdown), ICP (in Tunnel of Love) and Jay Chou have songs entitled "Ninja". GO!GO!7188 and Afrirampo each have a song entitled "Kunoichi" (on Ryūzetsuran and A', respectively).

Songs with "ninja" in their title include "Deadly Lethal Ninja Assassin" by Reuben (on We Should Have Gone To University), “Hoodie Ninja” by mc chris (on mc chris is dead), "Imaginary Ninjas" by Vince Dicola (on Falling off a Clef), "Inner Ninja" by Classified (on Classified),[125] "Ninja Goon" by Gruvis Malt (on Sound Soldiers), "Ninja Hi-skool" by Bis (on Play Some Real Songs: the Live Album), "We Are Ninja" by Frank Chickens (on We Are Frank Chickens), "Ninja Highschooool" by Peelander-Z (on P-Pop-High School), "Ninja Rap" by Vanilla Ice (on the TMNT II soundtrack), "Ninja Step" by RZA (on the Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai soundtrack), "Ninja Quiet" by Marco Beltrami (on World War Z: Music from the Motion Picture), "Supa Ninjaz" by Method Man (on The Pillage, and "This Secret Ninja" by AFI (on Very Proud of Ya).

Ninja are featured in the music video for the Presidents of the United States of America's song "Peaches". The singer Cheryl Cole dressed as female ninja and performed with a group of similarly-themed dancers in the TV special Cheryl Cole's Night In.[129] Members of the girls band Momoiro Clover Z dressed up as ninja for the music video for the single D' no Junjō.[130]

Sports[edit]

Teams:

Individuals:

Tourism and other business[edit]

Subway train with cartoon characters and lettering on its side
Iga Railway Line ninja-themed trains in Mie Prefecture, Japan in 2010
Four young women dressed in black
Attendees at a one-day ninja camp in Koga Ninja Village, Kōka, Shiga, 2011[134]

Iga Ueno Ninja Festa, the annual ninja festival in the Japanese city of Iga in the former province of Iga, has had ninja-inspired performances, competitions and opportunities to practice ninja skills since 1964.[135] Iga also has the Iga-ryu Ninja Museum, ninja-style restaurants and cafes.[2] In the United States, ninja-themed restaurants include Ninja New York in New York City[136] and the Flying Ninja sushi bar in San Francisco.[137] There are American roller coasters named Ninja in California and The Ninja in Missouri.

Other ninja attractions in Japan[2][138][139] include the Koga Ninja Village[140] and Kogaryu Ninjutsu Yashiki (Ninja Houses)[141] in Koga-gun, Shiga Prefecture, the Togakushi Ninja Village for Children,[142] the Togakushi Ninpo Museum and Karakuri Yashiki (Ninja House)[143] in Togakushi, Nagano, the Edo Wonderland[144] theme park in Nikkō, Tochigi, restaurants Men no Sato[145] and Ninja Akasaka in Tokyo,[146] and Ninja Kyoto in Kyoto.[147]

Businesses include Ninja Jump, an American company producing licensed inflatables;[148] Web Ninja, an Australian e-commerce website-design team;[149] Ninja Message, an Australian direct-to-voicemail service;[150] Ninja Tracking Systems, a British GPS developer;[151] Ninja Polish, an online nail-polish retailer;[152] Ninja Pyrate, a fire show equipment workshop;[153] Crystal Ninja, a crystal design studio;[154] Lactose Ninja, a manufacturer of lactose-intolerance remedies[155] and the Ninja Company, a Eurasian toy manufacturer.[156]

Internet[edit]

Ninja-themed websites include:

In information technology, "cyber ninja" are sophisticated counter-hackers.[161]

Products[edit]

Scantily-clad young woman on black-and-green motorcycle
Sony model on Kawasaki Ninja motorcycle at Importfest 2013 in Canada

Products named for ninja include:

  • Ninja-IDE, a cross-platform integrated development environment.
  • Fuwa Maru, "ninja snacks" by Tohato.[162]
  • The Lego Ninja Lego bricks, succeeded by LEGO Ninjago.
  • Lego Minifigures Series 1 includes a ninja mini-figure.
  • Liquid Ninja, an energy drink[163]
  • N.I.N.J.A. MITES, an Italian bootleg keshi.
  • Ninja, a series of sport bikes by Kawasaki.
  • Ninja, a brand of food processors manufactured by Euro-Pro.[164]
  • Ninja, a brand of web tools.[165]
  • Ninja 4WD, a competition buggy by Tokyo Marui.
  • Ninja Blocks, a sensor-control system.[166]
  • Ninja Paintball, a brand of paintball accessories.[167]
  • Nodal Ninja, a photographic-equipment manufacturer.[168]
  • Stage Ninja, a brand of music accessories.[169]

Other products are CardNinja, a wallet phone case;[170] Majestouch NINJA Tenkeyless, a computer keyboard from Diatec Corp;[171] Modela Ninja Pibow, an enclosure for the Raspberry Pi computer;[172] Ninja Driver, a USB stick wrap;[173] Ninja Flex, a type of safety glove;[174] NINJA Plus, a CPU cooler by the Japanese company Scythe;[175] Ninja Remote, a television-control device and IR jammer;[176] and SwimmingNinja, a swimbait lure.[177]

In software, CartNinja is a browser application,[178] Ninja Email Security is the former name of the VIPRE Email Security for Exchange antivirus and antispam filter,[179][180] Ninja Lite is a video telephony program,[181] and Photo Ninja is a RAW converter program.[182]

Armed groups[edit]

Several paramilitary, police and militia groups use the names (or nickname) "Ninja" or "Ninjas":

Other[edit]

NINJA loan is a slang name for a type of subprime loan to someone with "No Income, No Job, or Assets". The so-called ninja miners are Mongolian miners that dig small unauthorised mines for gold. According to data compiled by Indeed.com, there was 7,000 percent growth in the number of job listings that include the term "ninja" over the period of 2006-2012.[192]

Sometimes, petty criminals are nicknamed as "ninja", such as in the case of the so-called "ninja murders". For example, an American burglar reported to have used a nunchaku on one of his victims was known by the media as the "Staten Island Ninja", while a former Russian soldier who engaged in robberies in Italy using a black attire and a bow was called "Russian ninja" by the media.[193] "Ninja rocks" is also a type of burglary tools.

In 2006, Miss Japan Kurara Chibana appeared in a ninja/samurai-style national costume during the Miss Universe competition.[194][195] Goth Ninja is a type of Japanese street fashion which became popular in 2009.[196]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Conservation Of Ninjutsu – Television Tropes & Idioms". TV Tropes. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  2. ^ a b c Dressed to kill: Japan's ninja festival, The Guardian, 26 February 2011
  3. ^ Koga unôn ninjutsu kogaryû at the Internet Movie Database
  4. ^ "FROM THE ARCHIVES – Black Belt Magazine". Blackbeltmag.com. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  5. ^ The State of the Ninja, Slate, June 26, 2007.
  6. ^ "̎m:N}K:i䍋 - dqЁER~bNeBookJapan". Ebookjapan.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  7. ^ "Black Lion : Anime Reviews : AAW". Animeworld.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  8. ^ "アニメ「BRAVE10」公式サイト". Brave10.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  9. ^ "Vintage Ninja". Vintage Ninja. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  10. ^ "ڳŷԾۡۤΰ6仳/硧̡Ź ɴ̴ ŷԾŹ". ŷԾ. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  11. ^ "Last Kunoichi Vol. #1". Mania.com. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  12. ^ a b "Kyoto International Manga Museum". Kyotomm.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  13. ^ "さすがの猿飛 1巻【電子書籍のソク読み】豊富な無料試し読み". ソク読み. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  14. ^ "さすがの猿飛DVD-BOX". Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  15. ^ "Amazon.co.jp: さすがの猿飛 (1) (MF文庫): 細野 不二彦: 本". Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  16. ^ "残念くのいち伝 - 日本最大級の無料Webコミック[COMICメテオ]". Comic-meteor.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  17. ^ "Vintage Ninja". Vintage Ninja. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  18. ^ "Sampei Shirato – Unofficial Italian Fansite v.02". Lancollective.altervista.org. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  19. ^ "Vintage Ninja". Vintage Ninja. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  20. ^ "Visionary character design". Vintage Ninja. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  21. ^ "Vintage Ninja". Vintage Ninja. 2012-07-31. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  22. ^ Tobias, Scott (2009-04-30). "Millennium Actress | Film | The New Cult Canon". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  23. ^ "Sailor Victory". Mania.com. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  24. ^ 4KidsTV (June 9, 2010). "Dinosaur King: Ninja Nightmare – YouTube" (YouTube). 
  25. ^ "Mikoto". Animecharactersdatabase.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  26. ^ Morton, Bryan (January 3, 2006). "Planetes Vol. #2". Mania.com. Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  27. ^ "Kasuri Hattori". Animecharactersdatabase.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  28. ^ "the oracle :: Oniwabandana". Soul-hunter.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  29. ^ Ross, Carloss. "THEM Anime Reviews 4.0 - Tower of Etruria". Themanime.org. Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  30. ^ "#4 New York Ninjas". Americanchillers.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  31. ^ a b "Vintage Ninja". Vintageninja.net. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  32. ^ "Tulku, a tale of modern Ninja – Stephen K. Hayes". Google Books. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  33. ^ "ニンジャスレイヤー書籍公式サイト". Ninjaslayer.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  34. ^ "The Unofficial Shinobi no Mono Page". Shinobinomono.oninohana.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  35. ^ Beckett, Andy (2012-11-09). "Rereading: Vineland by Thomas Pynchon | Books". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  36. ^ "White Ninja (Spider-Man foe)". Marvunapp.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  37. ^ "Death Ninja (Ghost Rider foe)". Marvunapp.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  38. ^ "Katherine Yakamoto (comic book character)". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  39. ^ "True Believers (Spider-Man foes)". Marvunapp.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  40. ^ "Dragonfly (Meiko Yin, Spider-Man character)". Marvunapp.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  41. ^ Justice League of America: Shogun of Steel (Elseworlds, 2002).
  42. ^ "Ninjette (comic book character)". Comicvine.com. 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  43. ^ "Executive Assistant: IRIS". Facebook. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  44. ^ "Executive Assistant Iris (Volume) - Comic Vine". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  45. ^ Brian Truitt (7 May 2013). "'Half Past Danger' is adventure time for Stephen Mooney". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  46. ^ "Legend of the Shadow Clan". Facebook. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  47. ^ "Hollowpoint Ninja (comic book character)". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  48. ^ "Samurai: Legend (Volume) - Comic Vine". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  49. ^ "Eric's Image Comics Review: SAMURAI'S BLOOD #5". Gotham-news.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  50. ^ "Tales of the Ninja Warriors (Volume) - Comic Vine". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  51. ^ "WHISPER covers". Vintage Ninja. 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  52. ^ "Codename: Ninja (Solson Publications comic book) - 1 issues". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  53. ^ "Corporate Ninja (Slave Labor comic book) - 2 issues". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  54. ^ "Savage Ninja (comic book)". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  55. ^ "Surban Jersey Ninja She-Devils (Marvel comic book)". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  56. ^ "Zombee Review – Comics Review at IGN". Uk.comics.ign.com. 2006-10-24. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  57. ^ "Kana (comic book character)". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  58. ^ "Stupid Comics". Misterkitty.org. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  59. ^ "589-The Pom Pom Ninjas / Muttpop Blog / Muttpop Site – muttpop". Us.muttpop.com. 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  60. ^ "Ninjor". He-Man.org. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  61. ^ "Eiji Inaba (anime/manga character)". Animevice.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  62. ^ "Sam Noir". Thrillingdetective.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  63. ^ Michael R. Legg (1998-09-27). "The Tick comics gallery of superheroes". Thetick.ws. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  64. ^ "Neko Ninja – Usagi Yojimbo Dojo". Usagiyojimbo.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  65. ^ "Usagi Yojimbo Dojo – Kashira Chizu". Usagiyojimbo.com. 2004-01-13. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  66. ^ "Toyota". Comicvine.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  67. ^ "ninja ex". ninja ex. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  68. ^ "Judy Ongg as KAGERO". Vintage Ninja. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  69. ^ Igadevil's Kamen Rider Page: Ishinomori Week: Henshin Ninja Arashi[dead link]
  70. ^ "ƔnV猩Q`YƁuƔnVv`". 5f.biglobe.ne.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  71. ^ "ŷ - 餤 ʣ֤Τä". Diaryblog.otchan.lolipop.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  72. ^ "ѥ󥳥ӥʥѥӥ ѥ󥳡ѥȳ˥塼 ƣCRŷٿȯɽ". ѥ󥳥ӥ. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  73. ^ "Majin Hunter Mitsurugi". Vintage Ninja. 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  74. ^ "The Official Nakamura Hashinosuke Home Page". Kabuki-japan.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  75. ^ "不朽の時代劇ライブラリー 第2集 忍法かげろう斬り DVD-BOX 1". Amazon.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  76. ^ Dore, Shalini (2008-09-04). "Variety Reviews – Samurai Girl". Variety.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  77. ^ "Ninja scenes in SHOGUN". Vintageninja.net. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  78. ^ Fitzpatrick, Kevin (2011-01-31). "Curare – The Silent Killers of Film and TV". UGO.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  79. ^ "Bios – Kyodai Ken | The World's Finest – Batman: The Animated Series". Worldsfinestonline.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  80. ^ "'Jackson Five Across Yo' Eyes' or 'Just Beat It' - Black Dynamite on Adult Swim Video". Adult Swim. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  81. ^ "Chop Socky Chooks – Characters". Chopsockychooks.weebly.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  82. ^ "Shadow Walkers". ConanTheAdventurer.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  83. ^ "Episode Summaries". Valarnrow.i8.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  84. ^ "Ninja Handyman". Planet Sketch. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  85. ^ "Night of the Zinja". QuestFan. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  86. ^ ""Samurai Jack" Samurai Versus Ninja (TV Episode 2003)". IMDb. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  87. ^ Stroker and Hoop : Ninja Worrier - Adult Swim Gold Episodes[dead link]
  88. ^ "Ninja reklamuje Alior Sync (wideo)". Wirtualnemedia.pl. 2012-06-18. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  89. ^ "Funny Ninja Commercial". YouTube. 2008-11-23. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  90. ^ "Ninja Commercial – Bombay Sapphire". YouTube. 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  91. ^ "Motts Clamato Commercial – Ninjas (kung foo fighting)". YouTube. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  92. ^ "Funny FedEx Commercial – Bear, hunter, ninja". YouTube. 2006-12-04. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  93. ^ "Free Realms Ninja Prank Commercial". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  94. ^ "2012 Honda Civic Ninja Commercial from JL Freed Honda". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  95. ^ "Pub UFJ Tsubasa Securities Ninja". YouTube. 2009-09-15. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  96. ^ "Ninja Nuns". YouTube. 2006-11-27. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  97. ^ "Nicorette Ad Ninjas". YouTube. 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  98. ^ "Nike Ninja Commercial". Youtube.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  99. ^ "Nintendo WiFi Ninja Commercial". YouTube. 2008-02-02. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  100. ^ "Oregon State Lotto Sudoku Ninja Commercial". YouTube. 2008-01-12. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  101. ^ "Pepsi ninjas". YouTube. 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  102. ^ "Pop Tarts Ninja". YouTube. 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  103. ^ "Sure Ninja". YouTube. 2006-07-09. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  104. ^ "Sure Ninjas". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  105. ^ "Ninjaforce - News". Ninjaforce.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  106. ^ "Free Online Games". Ninja Kiwi. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  107. ^ Becky Cunningham, Top 10 Ninjas In Video Games, Cheat Code Central, 2011
  108. ^ "Secret of the Ninja". Gamebooks.org. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  109. ^ "Return of the Ninja". Gamebooks.org. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  110. ^ "The Lost Ninja". Gamebooks.org. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  111. ^ "Ninja Cyborg". Gamebooks.org. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  112. ^ "Ninja Avenger". Gamebooks.org. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  113. ^ "Iron & Silk – Atlas Games: Charting New Realms of Imagination". Atlas Games. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  114. ^ Legend of the Five Rings -- Roleplaying Game - Products[dead link]
  115. ^ "Test of the Ninja". Gamebooks.org. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  116. ^ "Palladium Books Store Rifts® World Book 8: Japan". Palladium-store.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  117. ^ "Review of Street Fighter: The Storytelling Game – RPGnet". Rpg.net. 2003-11-24. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  118. ^ "OgreCave.com – Reviews – Shinobi: Shadows of Nihon". Index.rpg.net. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  119. ^ Alex Flagg, Scott Gearin, Patrick Kapera (2007-12-24). "World on Fire". Crafty Games. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  120. ^ "Betrayers of Kamigawa Theme Deck – Ninjutsu". Wizards.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  121. ^ "Heroscape - Search Results". Search.atomz.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  122. ^ "#43. Ninja Crew "We Destroy" (1986) — The 50 Best New Orleans Rap Songs". Complex. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  123. ^ Shadow Warriors - Power of the Ninja Sword - April 13, 2008. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
  124. ^ Fraser McAlpine. "Chart Blog: Die Antwoord - 'Enter The Ninja'". BBC. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  125. ^ "Classified feat. David Myles - Inner Ninja [Official Video]". YouTube. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  126. ^ "BOWLING FOR SOUP". rockonmagazine.com. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  127. ^ "BUILT BY NINJAS >> ABOUT". builtbyninjas.com. 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011. 
  128. ^ "In the Land of the Juggalos". VICE. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  129. ^ Sophie Freeman (2009-12-10). "Cheryl Cole prepares for Saturday's X Factor fight with Ninja routine on TV special | Mail Online". London: Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  130. ^ "D'の純情/ももいろクローバーZ Full ver.(D'NO JUNJOU/MOMOIRO CLOVER Z)". YouTube. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  131. ^ "伊賀フットボールクラブ くノ一". Igafc.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  132. ^ Julian Cram. "dbmagazine au dv ivNinjaChops". dBmagazine.com.au. Retrieved 2010-06-30. [dead link]
  133. ^ "womenswrestlingxposed.com  » Blog Archive  » WWE 2008 Cyber Sunday Halloween Costume Contest Results". Womenswrestlingxposed.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  134. ^ "Become a Ninjutsu expert at the Ninja’s hometown – Koka Ninja Village : Travel Guide of Shiga Prefecture - go.biwako". En.biwako-visitors.jp. 2010-11-28. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  135. ^ Kim Kyung Hoon (2008-04-08). "Japan village exposes secret world of ninja fighters | World | Reuters". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  136. ^ Hiro Odaira. "NINJA NEW YORK Restaurant, Finest Japanese Cuisine". Ninjanewyork.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  137. ^ "Flying Ninja". Facebook. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  138. ^ "Guide to Japanese Ninja attractions – Japan Travel Guide". Gojapan.about.com. 2013-07-25. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  139. ^ "Touring Famous Ninja Villages – Travel – Kids". Web Japan. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  140. ^ "甲賀の里 忍術村". Koka.ninpou.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  141. ^ "甲賀流忍術屋敷 公式ホームページ". Kouka-ninjya.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  142. ^ "チビッ子忍者村ー信州戸隠 そばと忍者の里 | 信州戸隠・子供から大人まで楽しめる忍者アミューズメントパーク". Ninjamura.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  143. ^ "戸隠民俗館・からくり屋敷・忍法". Flame.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  144. ^ "Edo Wonderland 日光江戸村". Edowonderland.net. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  145. ^ Brian Ashcraft. "Female Ninja Serve Up Noodles Amidst Silly Complaints". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  146. ^ "Ninja Akasaka". Ninja Akasaka. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  147. ^ "NINJA KYOTO Restaurant&Labyrinth|忍者京都迷宮殿". Ninja-kyoto.co.jp. 2009-11-14. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  148. ^ "home of licensed bounce houses, waterslides, jumpers and games". Ninja Jump. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  149. ^ "Ecommerce Accounting Software Integrated into Website Design". Web Ninja. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  150. ^ "| Home". Ninjamessage.com.au. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  151. ^ "Ninja Tracking Systems | GPS Tracking | GPS Tracker". Ninjatracking.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  152. ^ "Ninja Polish". Ninja Polish. 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  153. ^ "NinjaPyrate.com". NinjaPyrate.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. [dead link]
  154. ^ "Custom, MADE WITH SWAROVSKI速 ELEMENTS Cell Phone Bling & Clothing Accessories". Crystal Ninja. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  155. ^ ">> Taking the Scary Out of Dairy!". Lactose Ninja. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  156. ^ "Tube Town toys and Pop-up toys from". The Ninja Corporation. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  157. ^ "Ikenhisu full episodes". YouTube. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  158. ^ "One Warm Night - Original Series". YouTube. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  159. ^ "Vexika™ - A Web Series". Vexika.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  160. ^ "Zombies vs. Ninjas". Youtube.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  161. ^ Drew, Christopher (2009-12-29). "Cybersecurity – Wanted - 'Cyber Ninjas'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  162. ^ "株式会社 東ハト/商品カタログ/ふわ丸". Tohato.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  163. ^ "Liquid Ninja Energy Drink". Liquidninjaenergy.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  164. ^ "Ninja®: Kitchen Products for Every Culinary Conquest | Official Site". Ninjakitchen.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  165. ^ "Ninja Web Systems :: CMS, E-Marketing, Catalogue, E-Store. Perth, West Australia". Ninja-web.com.au. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  166. ^ "The Ninja Platform". Ninja Blocks. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  167. ^ "index". Ninjapaintball.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  168. ^ "Nodal Ninja website". Nodalninja.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  169. ^ "Stage Ninja® - The World's First Retractable Audio and Power Cables for the Music & Entertainment Industries". Stageninja.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  170. ^ "Combine Your Wallet & Your Smartphone". CardNinja. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  171. ^ "Diatec Corp / Products Information". Diatec.co.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  172. ^ "Modela Ninja Pibow - Enclosure for Raspberry Pi Model A Computer ID: 1319 - $14.95 : Adafruit Industries, Unique & fun DIY electronics and kits". Adafruit.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  173. ^ "Ninja Driver - Flash Drive - Figure". Bone Collection. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  174. ^ "Memphis Gloves-Ninja Flex Gloves". Envirosafetyproducts.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  175. ^ "Ninja PLUS Rev.B CPU Kühler: CPU Kühler, Lüfter, Lüftersteuerung, PC Netzteile von Scythe". Scythe-eu.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  176. ^ "Ninja Remote Stealth Television Gadget and IR Jammer". ThinkGeek. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  177. ^ "Jackll Product:Swimming Ninja". Jackall-lures.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  178. ^ "CartNinja - A Shopping Cart That Converts". Cartninja.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  179. ^ "Ninja Email Security". SC Magazine. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  180. ^ "Email Security Software - Antispam Software - Malware Protection - VIPRE Email Security for Exchange". Sunbeltsoftware.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  181. ^ "VoIP Consumer & SOHO Products and Co-Brand & White Labels". Globaliptel.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  182. ^ "PictureCode home page: Photo Ninja". Picturecode.com. 2013-10-18. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  183. ^ Reuters AlertNet (October 10, 2007), Elite "Ninja" police free hostages in Sao Tome, Reuters, retrieved August 26, 2009 
  184. ^ Tsoumou, Christian (June 8, 2007), Congo's Ninja rebels burn weapons and pledge peace, Reuters, retrieved August 26, 2009 
  185. ^ Robinson, Natasha; Madden, James (April 13, 2007), Captain Dragan set for extradition, The Australian, retrieved August 26, 2009 
  186. ^ "Serbian Media Bombard Public With Nazi Footage, 'Kninjas'". Community.seattletimes.nwsource.com. 1991-12-25. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  187. ^ "The Real Captain Dragan – ABC News". Abc.net.au. 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  188. ^ Lane, Max (March 1, 1995), 'Ninja' terror in East Timor, Green Left Online, retrieved August 26, 2009 
  189. ^ BBC News (October 24, 1998), Indonesia's 'ninja' war, BBC News, retrieved August 26, 2009 
  190. ^ Christopher Dickey (1995). "The Ninjas Crack Down". newsweek.com. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  191. ^ Waco – The Inside Story, FRONTLINE, PBS 1995
  192. ^ McMillan, Robert (2012-05-21). "Looking for a Coding Job? Better a Ninja Than a Brogrammer | Wired Enterprise". Wired.com. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  193. ^ Fraser, Christian (2007-06-12). "Europe | Russian 'ninja' arrested in Italy". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  194. ^ "News on Japan – Miss Universe in ninja high heels". News.3yen.com. 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  195. ^ "14 Incredibly Hot Japanese Women (You've Never Heard Of) | Gunaxin Girls". Girls.gunaxin.com. 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  196. ^ Betts, Kate (2009-12-08). "Goth Ninja – The Top 10 Everything of 2009". TIME. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 

External links[edit]