64DD

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64DD
Logo 64DD.png
64DD-Attached.jpg
Manufacturer Nintendo
Type Video game console add-on
Generation Fifth generation (32-bit/64-bit era)
Retail availability
  • JP December 1, 1999
Discontinued
  • JP August 29, 2000
Units sold 15,000[1][better source needed]
Media Magneto-optical discs (64 MB)
Storage Cartridge battery, Controller Pak
Online services Randnet[2]
Best-selling game Doshin the Giant

The 64DD (ロクヨンディーディー Roku Yon Dī Dī?) ("DD" being short for "Disk Drive", and originally "Dynamic Drive"), sometimes referred to as the Nintendo 64DD,[3] is a peripheral for the Nintendo 64 game console. It plugs into the N64 through the Extension Port (marked "EXT") on the Nintendo 64's underside, and allows the N64 to use proprietary 64 MB magneto-optical disks for expanded data storage. Although it had been announced in 1995 prior to the N64's 1996 launch, it was repeatedly delayed over the years, and then eventually released in Japan on December 1, 1999. With plans for North American release in 2000 being canceled and all Japanese sales being discontinued by 2001, it was a commercial failure,[4] and was never released outside of Japan.[1]

Nintendo designed the 64DD in order to enable the development of new genres of games, dozens of which were in development for several years, ultimately being delivered only on Nintendo 64 cartridges alone or ported to other consoles upon the decline of 64DD's commercial viability. IGN summarized the 64DD as a "package deal targeted at a certain type of user" comprising "essentially a creativity package and limited online experiment at the same time" which "partially fulfilled Yamauchi's longtime dream of a network that connects Nintendo consoles all across the nation".[3]

History[edit]

It would have been easier to understand if the DD was already included when the N64 first came out. It’s getting harder to explain after the fact. (laughs)

— Nintendo designer Shigesato Itoi[5]

In 1994, during the Nintendo 64's development phase, Nintendo had explored the possibility of complementing the cartridge format with the CD-ROM format;[6] as well as forging an early online strategy with Netscape, whose founding management had recently come directly from SGI, designers of the core Nintendo 64 hardware.[7] Nintendo retained the core impetus of these ideas, but soon drastically altered both plans.

The 64DD was announced at 1995's Nintendo Shoshinkai trade show (now called Nintendo World). The event featured Creator, a music and animation game by Software Creations, the same people that made Sound Tool for the Nintendo Ultra 64 development kit. They touted the game's ability to be implemented into other games, allowing a player to replace any such game's textures and possibly create new levels and characters. There was no playable version of Creator available at this show, but it was later integrated into Mario Artist: Paint Studio. The peripheral was originally planned for release in Japan by the end of 1997, but on May 30, 1997, Nintendo's press release announced its first delay until March 1998, with no comment on an American release schedule.[8] At E3 in June 1997, Nintendo's main game designer, Shigeru Miyamoto, speculated that the first games to be released for the new system would be SimCity 64, Mario Artist, Pocket Monsters, and Mother 3.[9]

In December 1997, Nintendo game developer Shigesato Itoi confessed the inherent difficulty in repeatedly attempting to describe and justify the long-promised potential of the mysterious peripheral to a curious public, saying that it "would have been easier to understand if the DD was already included when the N64 first came out. It’s getting harder to explain after the fact. (laughs)"[5] The delays were reportedly attributed to the protracted development of both the disks and the drive technologies.[8]

The 64DD was launched on December 1, 1999 in Japan. Anticipating that its long-planned peripheral would become a commercial failure, Nintendo sold the system mainly through a subscription service called Randnet and customers would continue to receive games through the mail as well. Only very limited quantities of the 64DD were made available through stores. As a result, the 64DD was only supported by Nintendo for a short period of time and only nine games and one Internet application suite were released for it. Most 64DD games were either cancelled entirely, released as normal Nintendo 64 games as cartridge-based storage sizes had increased, or eventually ported to the next-generation GameCube console.

Hardware[edit]

The 64DD, unattached
Dual storage CD-ROM
Cartridge 64DD
low capacity
4-64 MB
moderate capacity
64 MB
large capacity
650 MB
read/write read/write read-only
major production,
10–12 weeks[10]:3
easier production easiest production,
7–10 days[10]:3
expensive
media
cheaper
media
cheapest
media
cheap system
integration
moderately
priced drive
expensive
drive
fastest
5–50 MB/s[11]
instantaneous
moderate
1 MB/s peak
75 ms avg[12]
slowest
300 kB/s peak
200+ ms avg
proprietary proprietary PC-copyable
durable magnetic scratchable

Nintendo designed the 64DD in order to enable the development of new genres of games, which was principally accomplished by its three main design features: its dual storage strategy; its new real-time clock (RTC); and its Internet connectivity.[13] The dual storage strategy of the Nintendo 64 plus the 64DD involves the introduction of proprietary rewritable mass storage disks, which are large-capacity, rewritable, and cheap but moderately fast, complemented by its host N64's traditional high speed cartridges, which are low-capacity, non-writable, and expensive but very fast.

A magneto-optical drive generally uses a combination of optical laser technology similar to that of a CD-ROM, and rewritable magnetic technology similar to that of a hard drive. Though incompatible in every way with any other consumer electronics product, the 64DD's magneto-optical storage technology resembles a few contemporary products: the magneto-optical technology of Sony's contemporary MiniDisc; and the large and sturdy shell of the Zip disk for personal computers. Complementing their proprietary and copy-protected cartridge strategy, the proprietary 64 MB disk format was Nintendo's faster, more flexible, and copy-protected answer to the commodity Compact Disc format, which is cheaper to produce but is much slower, read-only, and easier to copy on personal computers. Used by several competitors such as Sony's PlayStation, the most advanced CD technology delivered by contemporaneous game consoles can hold at least 650 megabytes (MB) of information with a peak 300 kB/s throughput and over 200 ms seek speed, compared to the Nintendo 64's cartridge's 4 to 64 MB size and 5 to 50 MB/s[11][better source needed] of low latency and instantaneous load times, and the 64DD's 64 MB disk size and 1 MB/s peak speed with 75 ms average seek latency.[12][better source needed] The high seek latency and low maximum throughput of a 2x CD-ROM drive contribute to content stuttering and a very long loading time throughout a gameplay session in many titles.[citation needed]

Similar in proportion of the historical comparison of Famicom Disk System floppy disks to early Famicom cartridges,[14] this disk format's initial design specifications had been set during a time frame when the initial N64 cartridge size was 4 MB as with Super Mario 64, and a 32 MB size became popular over the years. Nonetheless, the 64DD disk would serve as a nontrivial expansion even in the N64's latter days when a few 64 MB cartridges became economically feasible, and their writability would yield enduring benefits to game genre and social gaming like that of the Famicom Disk System.

Nintendo contemplates CDs in 1994, prior to the 64DD

"Right now, cartridges offer faster access time and more speed of movement and characters than CDs. So, we'll introduce our new hardware with cartridges. But eventually these problems with CDs will be overcome. When that happens, you'll see Nintendo using CD as the software storage medium for our 64-bit system."

— Howard Lincoln, chairman of Nintendo of America, 1994[6]

Describing the choice of proprietary disks instead of CD-ROM, Nintendo game designer Shigesato Itoi explained, "CD holds a lot of data, DD holds a moderate amount of data and backs the data up, and [cartridge] ROMs hold the least data and process the fastest. By attaching a DD to the game console, we can drastically increase the number of possible genres." In consideration of the 64DD's actual launch price equivalent of about US$90, Nintendo software engineering manager Jim Merrick warned, "We're very sensitive to the cost of the console. We could get an eight-speed CD-ROM mechanism in the unit, but in the under-$200 console market, it would be hard to pull that off."[15]

For more details on the Nintendo 64's alternate storage strategies and the optimizations involved with cartridges, see Nintendo 64 Game Pak.

Many games that are produced on N64 cartridges have been programmed with the ability to detect the presence of a 64DD drive and DD expansion disks which can provide extra levels, minigames, and can even store personal and user-generated content. Games not connected to a 64DD have access to only the few kilobytes of writable storage on the standard issue Nintendo 64 Controller Pak for storing only the player's progress and preferences, not any substantial user-generated content nor any expansions.

In addition to writable storage, the realtime clock enables the existence of persistent game worlds according to a real-world clock and calendar, backed by a battery even when the system's main power is shut off. Nintendo's lead game designer, Shigeru Miyamoto, said this of the four-year development of the ultimately unreleased 64DD game Cabbage: "We're doing it on the 64DD because I wanted to make a clock function, such that even if the power is cut, can still raise the creature."[16]

A Modem Cartridge is packaged with the system, allowing CPU-powered software modem Internet connectivity through Randnet, in addition to its members-only portal sites.

The 64DD has an onboard chip containing an enhanced font and audio library for all games to share, further saving the potential available space of mass storage on cartridges and disks. The 64DD has a 32-bit coprocessor to help it read disks, and to transfer data to the main console. The main N64 deck uses its RCP and NEC VR4300 to process data from the top cartridge slot and the I/O devices. Like nearly all disc-based consoles, the 64DD can boot up without a cartridge on the top deck, because it has a boot menu. The 64DD is packaged with the 4 MB RAM expansion pack, yielding a total of 8 MB. The 64DD has its own software development kit that works in conjunction with the N64 development kit.

Accessories[edit]

The released version of 64DD includes a modem for connecting to the Randnet network, an audio-video capture port (female RCA jack, and line in) called the Capture Cassette to plug into the main cartridge slot, and a mouse and keyboard that plugs into the controller ports.

Randnet[edit]

Recruit and Nintendo Co., Ltd.
has [sic] established a joint venture "RandnetDD Co., Ltd.," which provides a membership network service through Nintendo 64 and its newly released peripheral device, 64DD in Japan. The joint venture offers several network-based services: web browsing; e-mail services; and publication of digital newspapers and magazines.

— Recruit web site, June 30, 1999[2]

In April 1999, Nintendo ended their partnership with St.GIGA which had created the Super Famicom's proprietary Satellaview online service in Japan, broadcasting from  April 23, 1995 (April 23, 1995-mdy) to  June 30, 2000 (June 30, 2000-mdy). The company then partnered with Japanese media company Recruit to develop the 64DD's completely new proprietary online service called Randnet (a portmanteau of "Recruit and Nintendo network"). The resulting Japanese joint corporation was announced on June 30, 1999 as RandnetDD Co., Ltd.[2] Active only ever in Japan, from December 1999 (December 1999) to February 2001 (February 2001), the Randnet service allowed gamers to compete against each other online, play prerelease game demos, surf the Internet including a members-only portal, share user-generated game data such as levels and animations, read digital magazines, and listen to music.

The Randnet Starter Kit comes packaged with 64DD peripheral and includes everything needed to have accessed the service at a subscription cost of ¥2500 per month, equivalent to about US$25.

  • 64DD: The writable 64 MB disk drive system.
  • Nintendo 64 Modem: The Nexus-developed software modem is housed on a special cartridge that plugs into the N64's cart slot. The Modem Cart has a port to plug in the included modular cable which then connects to the network.
  • Expansion Pak: This 4 MB RAM expansion brings the N64's system RAM to a total 8 MB. Originating with the 64DD bundle, the Expansion Pak was later bundled with Donkey Kong 64 worldwide, and sold separately.
  • Randnet Browser Disc: This let users of the former online service access the "members only" information exchange page as well as the Internet. Once logged on to the service, players could choose from the following options:
    • Battle Mode: Play against other gamers and swap scores.
    • Observation Mode: Watch other players' game sessions.
    • Beta Test: Play sample levels from upcoming games.
    • Information Exchange: Use online message boards and share email with other users.
    • Community: Swap messages with the game programmers and producers.
    • Internet Surfing: Surf the Internet with the custom web browser.
    • Digital Magazine: Check online sports scores, weather, and news.
    • Music Distribution: Listen to music, some of which was yet to be released in stores.
    • Editing Tool: Create custom avatars to interact with other users.

Reportedly peaking at 10,000 to 15,000 users,[1][better source needed] Randnet was a fairly popular service amongst the limited 64DD user base. One of the most substantial series of games to include Randnet support is the Mario Artist series, which allowed users to swap their artwork creations with others. Contests and other special events occurred periodically. However, the service was not successful enough to justify its continued existence, so in February 2001 it was closed. Nintendo bought back all the Randnet related hardware and gave all users free service from the announcement of closure, until the day it actually went offline.

Released software[edit]

Title Release date
Randnet Disk
(ランドネットディスク?)
February 23, 2000
F-Zero X Expansion Kit
(エフゼロ エックス エクスパンション キット?)
April 21, 2000
Japan Pro Golf Tour 64
(日本プロゴルフツアー64 Nippon Puro Gorufu Tsua 64?)
May 2, 2000
Doshin the Giant
(巨人のドシン1 Kyojin no Doshin 1?)
December 1, 1999
Doshin the Giant:
Tinkling Toddler Liberation Front! Assemble!

(巨人のドシン解放戦線 チビッコチッコ大集合
Kyojin no Doshin Kaihō Sensen Chibikko Chikko Daishūgō?)
May 17, 2000
Mario Artist: Paint Studio
(マリオアーティスト ペイントスタジオ?)
December 1, 1999
Mario Artist: Talent Studio
(マリオアーティスト タレントスタジオ?)
February 23, 2000
Mario Artist: Communication Kit
(マリオアーティスト コミュニケーションキット?)
June 29, 2000
Mario Artist: Polygon Studio
(マリオアーティスト ポリゴンスタジオ?)
August 29, 2000
SimCity 64
(シムシティー64?)
February 23, 2000

Proposed software[edit]

Several games were announced for the Nintendo 64DD that ended up either canceled due to the system's failure, being released on Nintendo 64 cartridge format only, or ported to another console such as the Sony PlayStation or the next-generation Nintendo GameCube. The following is a list of those games:

Legacy[edit]

New genres of games were developed due to the advent of 64DD's rewritable mass storage, real-time clock (RTC), and Internet appliance functionality. However, the system's commercial failure required many 64DD games to be released on traditional N64 cartridges alone or ported to later consoles.[3]

Some of these standalone N64 cartridge releases include the equivalent of the 64DD's RTC chip directly on board the cartridge, as with Japan's Animal Forest. Originally packaged with the 64DD, the N64's 4 MB RAM Expansion Pak became a sometimes mandatory staple of N64 game development, being packaged along with some games. All subsequent Nintendo consoles would directly include RTC functionality.

The conception of today's popular multiplatform Animal Crossing series was based on the 64DD's rewritable storage and RTC, though its eventual initial release was adapted to utilize only the N64 cartridge format with an embedded RTC, in the form of Japan's Animal Forest. That game was cosmetically adapted for GameCube (with its built-in RTC and its removable memory cards) with the new name of Animal Crossing. All games in the series are played in real time with the passage of time being recorded each player's stored game world which reflects real seasons, holidays, plant growth, development of relationships, and other events. Interactivity between human players on different systems has been enabled through the swapping of various Nintendo consoles' writable mass storage cards or through online communications.[22]

The concept of a personal avatar creator app which had begun on the Famicom is solidified in Mario Artist: Talent Studio and then seen on all subsequent Nintendo consoles. Those Talent Studio avatars can be imported into other 64DD apps including the SimCity 64 game.[14][23][24]

The premise of 3D printing was roughly implemented by way of modeling the characters in Mario Artist: Polygon Studio and then utilizing Mario Artist: Communication Kit to upload the data to Randnet's online printing service, and then cutting, folding, and pasting the resulting colored paper into a physical 3D figure.[14][25]

The concept of graphical stamps that are seen in various Miiverse-supported games is found in Mario Artist: Paint Studio.

The user-creation of graphics, animations, levels and minigames which are seen in the Mario Artist series and F-Zero X Expansion Kit are revisited in later console generations. The idea of minigames was popularized generally during the Nintendo 64's fifth generation of video game consoles and some early minigames can be actually created in Mario Artist: Polygon Studio in the style that would later be used in the WarioWare series of games. Certain minigames literally originated there, as explained by Goro Abe of Nintendo R&D1's so-called Wario Ware All-Star Team: "In Polygon Studio you could create 3D models and animate them in the game, but there was also a side game included inside. In this game you would have to play short games that came one after another. This is where the idea for Wario Ware came from."[26]:p.2

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "NUS: Nintendo64". Maru-chang.com. Retrieved 2014-02-25. 
  2. ^ a b c "Partners". Recruit. Archived from the original on August 22, 2002. Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c Schneider, Peer (February 9, 2001). "Everything About the 64DD". IGN. Retrieved June 12, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Super Nintendo Entertainment System Unrivaled Champion of the Fourth Generation". gameconsoles.co.uk. 2007. Archived from the original on June 27, 2008. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Miyamoto, Shigeru; Itoi, Shigesato (December 1997). "A friendly discussion between the "Big 2"". The 64DREAM: 91. Retrieved June 12, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Gillen, Marilyn A. "Q&A With Nintendo's Howard Lincoln." Billboard 106.26 (1994): 77. Business Source Complete. Web. 23 July 2013.
  7. ^ Lashinsky, Adam (July 25, 2005). "Remembering Netscape: The Birth Of The Web". Fortune. 
  8. ^ a b Johnston, Chris (May 30, 1997). "Nintendo Says 64DD Delayed". GameSpot. Retrieved June 12, 2014. 
  9. ^ Imamura, Takao; Miyamoto, Shigeru (August 1997). "Pak Watch E3 Report "The Game Masters"". Nintendo Power. (Interview) (Nintendo): 104–105. 
  10. ^ a b "The Making Of: PlayStation". Edge (Future Publishing Limited). April 24, 2009. Retrieved June 18, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Getman, Courtney; Reeser, Collin. "Nintendo 64 Architecture". Retrieved June 13, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b "Nintendo NEXUS: 64DD" (in Japanese). Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  13. ^ Rogers, Emily (July 13, 2012). "Why Netscape Almost Never Happened". Not Enough Shaders. Retrieved June 13, 2014. 
  14. ^ a b c Fletcher, JC (Aug 28, 2008). "Virtually Overlooked: Mario Artist". Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  15. ^ Kasten, Alex S. "Off-Computer." Emedia Professional 10.3 (1997): 66. Business Source Complete. Web. 23 July 2013.
  16. ^ a b "Nintendo Still Cooking Cabbage". IGN. 2000-04-04. Retrieved 2014-02-25. 
  17. ^ "Epic and DMA Go to 64DD Again". IGN. 1997-03-20. Retrieved 2014-02-25. 
  18. ^ "Titus Makes Games 64DD Compatible". IGN. Retrieved 2014-02-25. 
  19. ^ IGN staff (January 16, 1997). "Enix/Sony Update". IGN.com. Retrieved 2008-07-19. 
  20. ^ Nintendo Magazine (France) January 2004, Oriental Blue GBA preview
  21. ^ "Project Cairo". IGN.com. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  22. ^ Schneider, Peer (May 30, 2002). "Animal Crossing Preview". IGN. 
  23. ^ "64DD English (Engrish) user document". 64DD Institute. Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  24. ^ Mii Prototype Development History From NES to Wii GCD 2007 on YouTube
  25. ^ "Mario Artist: Polygon Studio". Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  26. ^ Sakamoto, Yoshio; Nakada, Ryuichi; Takeuchi, Ko; Abe, Goro; Sugioka, Taku; Mori, Naoko (April 7, 2006). Nintendo R&D1 Interview. (Interview). Video Games Daily. Retrieved June 14, 2014. 

External links[edit]