Nippenose Township, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania
|• Total||11.2 sq mi (29.1 km2)|
|• Land||10.7 sq mi (27.7 km2)|
|• Water||0.5 sq mi (1.4 km2)|
|Elevation||1,467 ft (447 m)|
|• Density||68.2/sq mi (26.3/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1216765|
Nippenose Township is a township in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The population was 729 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Williamsport, Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Nippenose Township was formed as part of Northumberland County in 1786 by a session of the Northumberland County court that was held in Sunbury. It did not become part of Lycoming County until Lycoming County was also formed from Northumberland County in 1795. Nippenose Township was originally much larger than it is today. It spread over parts of what are now, Clinton, Centre and Lycoming Counties. The population of Nippenose Township was 588, in 1890, compared to the slightly higher population of 729 as of the 2000 census.
The story behind the name of Nippenose Township is unclear. There are two competing stories. One states that it is named for the Indian phrase, "Nippeno-wi", meaning a warm and genial summer like place. The other story behind the name is traces back an old Indian named Nippenose. The early settlers told the story of the old man who lingered in the valley after it was settled by whites. Apparently this man's nose had been "nipped" by exposure to the frost, hence the name "Nippenose." An additional source of the name is that there is only one way into and out of the valley without going over a mountain. This gap is bordered on the west by a mountain with nip in the end of it, like a nipped nose.
Colonel John Henry Antes
The first colonial settlers arrived in the Nippenose area in 1769. Henry Clark was the first to arrive with a "warrant" to the land from the colonial Pennsylvania government. One of the most prominent eary settlers was Colonel John Henry Antes. He is thought to have arrived as early as 1772. His last name is featured prominently in place names in Nippenose Township. Antes Creek the main creek in the valley and Antes Fort a small village both bear his name. Antes built stockade around his home, his neighbors came to call it "Antes Fort" and the name has lived on to today. Colonel Antes also built a grist mill at the mouth of Antes Creek on the West Branch Susquehanna River in 1777. This mill was burned during the Revolutionary war.
During the American Revolutionary War, settlements throughout the Susquehanna valley were attacked by Loyalists and Native Americans allied with the British. After the Wyoming Valley battle and massacre in the summer of 1778 (near what is now Wilkes-Barre) and smaller local attacks, the "Big Runaway" occurred throughout the West Branch Susquehanna valley. Settlers fled feared and actual attacks by the British and their allies. Homes and fields were abandoned, with livestock driven along and a few possessions floated on rafts on the river east to Muncy, then further south to Sunbury. The abandoned property was burnt by the attackers. Some settlers soon returned, only to flee again in the summer of 1779 in the "Little Runaway". Sullivan's Expedition helped stabilize the area and encouraged resettlement, which continued after the war.
When things finally calmed down in 1792, Colonel Antes returned to Nippenose Township and rebuilt his mill this second mill was a vital link the economy of Nippenose Township until 1873 when a new mill was built in its place. Antes furthered his enterprises by building a carding and fulling mill on the banks of Antes Creek in 1810. Antes died in 1820. Ownership of the mills was passed onto his son-in-law Elias P. Youngman. Youngman and his sons expanded the business yet again in 1835 by adding machinery that was able to clean clover seed. Clover seed was very expensive at the time, a bushel of the seed sold for as much as $24.00. Clover was very important to farmers for providing ground cover and as a food supply for their grazing dairy cows.
The village of Antes Fort rose up around the train station that was built in Nippenose Township to service the borough of Jersey Shore which is the north and across the West Branch Susquehanna River from Nippenose Township. Antes Fort went through several name changes. The surveyor who drew up the towns plans called it "Granville". This name was seldom uses as the locals preferred to call it "Jersey Shore Station". The name Antes Fort was not bestowed on the village until 1861 when the United States Post Office established a branch there and named it in honor of Colonel Antes' stockade.
Nippenose Township is on the south shore of the West Branch Susquehanna River in western Lycoming County. It is bordered by the river to the north, Susquehanna and Bastress Townships to the east, Limestone Township to the south, and Clinton County, Porter Township and Jersey Shore to the west. As the crow flies, Lycoming County is about 130 miles (209 km) northwest of Philadelphia and 165 miles (266 km) east-northeast of Pittsburgh.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 11.2 square miles (29.1 km²).10.7 square miles (27.7 km²) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.4 km²) of it (4.81%) is water.
The region includes anticlinal karst Nippenose Valley part of the northernmost fold sequence of the Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province. Nippenose Valley is uniquely bowl-shaped and consists of a doubly plunging anticline. According to a research paper from the University of Akron, The center has been eroded, exposing carbonate rocks in the valley. There is an average total of about 470 meters of Lower to Middle Ordovician limestone and dolomite underlying the valley. The Reedsville Shale is stratigraphically above them, and overlain by the ridge forming Bald Eagle Sandstone. The valley has been intensely karstified, as evidenced by the numerous sinkholes, springs, caves, and disappearing streams.
Within a number of caves in this valley a new species of fish, a type of troglomorphic sculpin, was identified in 2003 by Luis Espinasa, an associate professor of biology at Marist College.
As of the census of 2000, there were 729 people, 284 households, and 211 families residing in the township. The population density was 68.2 people per square mile (26.3/km²). There were 296 housing units at an average density of 27.7/sq mi (10.7/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 98.90% White, 0.14% from other races, and 0.96% from two or more races.
There were 284 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.9% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.4% were non-families. 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the township the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, and 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.0 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $40,357, and the median income for a family was $45,469. Males had a median income of $33,958 versus $19,167 for females. The per capita income for the township was $18,118. About 4.8% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.7% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over.
For histories of the other townships in Lycoming County see
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Meginness, John Franklin (1892). http://www.usgennet.org/usa/pa/county/lycoming/history/Chapter-34.html
|chapterurl=missing title (help). History of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania: including its aboriginal history; the colonial and revolutionary periods; early settlement and subsequent growth; organization and civil administration; the legal and medical professions; internal improvement; past and present history of Williamsport; manufacturing and lumber interests; religious, educational, and social development; geology and agriculture; military record; sketches of boroughs, townships, and villages; portraits and biographies of pioneers and representative citizens, etc. etc. (1st Edition ed.). Chicago, IL: Brown, Runk & Co. ISBN 0-7884-0428-8. Retrieved 2007-02-21. "(Note: ISBN refers to Heritage Books July 1996 reprint. URL is to a scan of the 1892 version with some OCR typos)."
- Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Research, Geographic Information Division. "2007 General Highway Map Lycoming County Pennsylvania" (Map). 1:65,000. ftp://ftp.dot.state.pa.us/public/pdf/BPR_pdf_files/Maps/GHS/Roadnames/lycoming_GHSN.PDF. Retrieved 2009-12-26.
- Ulmer, Jennifer L. (1999). "Interbasin Groundwater Flow Between Sugar Valley and Nippenose Valley: Two Karst Systems in Central Pennsylvania". The University of Akron. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- Long, Eric (2008-01-26). "A new species". Williamsport Sun-Gazette. Retrieved 2009-12-22.