Nippon Yusen

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NYK Services logo.
NYK Maritime Museum and NYK's Yokohama branch

Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha (日本郵船株式会社 Nippon Yūsen Kabushiki Kaisha?)[1] (TYO: 9101) (Japan Mail Shipping Line) or NYK Line, is one of the largest shipping companies in the world. It is a core Mitsubishi company. The company has its headquarters in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.[2]

History[edit]

1870-1900[edit]

Advertisement circa 1930s

The company traces its history back to the Tsukumo Shokai Shipping company founded by the Tosa clan in 1870. In 1875, as the renamed Mitsubishi Shokai, the company inaugurated Japan's first passenger liner service, with a route from Yokohama to Shanghai; and in that same year, the company name was changed to Mitsubishi Mail Steamship Company. In 1885, a merger with Kyodo Unyu Kaisha (founded 1882) led to the adoption of the company's present name.[3]

The merged company had a fleet of 58 steamships and expanded its operations rapidly, first to other ports of the East and then worldwide, with a liner service to London being inaugurated in 1899.[3]

1900-1950[edit]

Advertisement circa 1935
The NYK liner Hikawa Maru preserved at Naka-ku, Yokohama

The majority of Japanese merchant ships, tankers and liners sailed under the NYK banner in this period. Regular services linked Kobe and Yokohama with South America, Batavia, Melbourne, Cape Town; and frequent cruises to San Francisco and Seattle. Other routes connected local Chinese cabotage vessels on the Chinese coasts and upper Yangtze.

Ocean routes went east from Japan to Vancouver (Canada) or Seattle (USA). Another way was to stop in Hawaii, and continue to San Francisco and the Panama Canal. The next commercial routes were south from Japan, across the East China Sea. These went to South East Asia, the China coasts, and towards India and the Indian Ocean, to Europe or Batavia (Dutch Indies), or Australia and New Zealand. The fastest services took ten days from Yokohama to Seattle, and one month to Europe.

Local sea routes connected 78 home seaports (38 open to foreign trade). Yokohama, Kobe and Osaka had the greatest importance for trading with Japan. These ports had the third, fourth and eighth place in net tonnage registered in the world. Coal passed from Moji to Osaka and Yokohama. Karafuto timber represented a third part of local trade. Soy bean products from Dairen and Ryojun arrived at Yokohama. The sugar cane of the South Pacific Mandate and Formosa, cotton, salt and minerals represented other important parts of these transport transactions. In 1926 Toyo Kisen Line (TKK), with its fleet of nine ships, merged with NYK. The current funnel livery was introduced in 1929. The company also ran services connecting metropolitan Japan to its exterior provinces (Chosen, Karafuto, Kwantung, Formosa and South Mandate) of the Empire.

From 1924 all new cargo ships for NYK were motor ships.[4] NYK introduced its first passenger motor ships in 1929 but continued to buy a mixture of steam and motor passenger ships until 1939.[5]

In World War II the NYK Line provided military transport and hospital ships for the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy. Many vessels were sunk by the Allied navies, and installations and ports were attacked from the air. Only 37 NYK ships survived the war. The company lost 185 ships in support of military operations in the Pacific.[6] Before the war NYK had 36 passenger ships;[5] by the time of Japan's surrender only one, the motor ship Hikawa Maru, survived.[7]

NYK's surviving vessels and equipment were confiscated by the Allied authorities as reparations, or taken by recently liberated Asian states in 1945-46. SCAJAP requisitioned Hikawa Maru as a transport ship to repatriate Japanese soldiers and civilians from territories that had been liberated from Japanese occupation.[7]

Selected ships[edit]

The NYK fleet expanded in bursts, responding to changed economic conditions and perceived changes in the market for passenger liner travel. The evolution of the fleet mirrors some of those developments. In the following lists, the dates of maiden voyages are indicated with each ship's name.[8]

Amongst the many ships in the early NYK fleet, some names comprise serial categories.[9] Some ships were named after Shinto shrines, and others were named after ancient provinces of Japan, cities of Japan, mountains of Japan or islands of Japan. Some ships had explicitly non-Japanese names, such as ships named after cities.

1950-present[edit]

Head office of NYK Line (日本郵船) at Marunouchi, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan
NYK vehicles carrier Galaxy Leader dockside at Bremerhaven in Germany (December 2006).
NYK vehicles carrier Rhea Leader

By the mid-1950s NYK ships were again seen around the world.

As the demand for passenger ships dwindled in the 1960s, NYK expanded its cargo operation, running Japan's first container ship Hakone Maru on a route to California in 1968 and soon establishing container ship routes to many other ports. NYK became a partner in Nippon Cargo Airlines in 1978, and in 1985, added United States container train service in cooperation with Southern Pacific.

NYK revived its passenger ship business in 1989 with cruise ships operated by its newly formed subsidiary Crystal Cruises.

In 1990 NYK resumed passenger services under its own name when MS Asuka entered service on the Japanese cruise market.[48][49] In 2006 Asuka was replaced by the much larger Asuka II, formerly Crystal Cruises' Crystal Harmony.[50][51]

NYK is the tenth largest container transportation and shipping company in the world.

At the end of March 2008, the NYK Group was operating about 776 major ocean vessels, as well as fleets of planes, trains, and trucks. The company's shipping fleet includes around 155 containerships, 286 bulk carriers, 55 woodchip carriers, 113 car carriers, 21 reefer carriers, 78 tankers, 30 LNG carriers, and three cruise ships. NYK's revenue in fiscal 2007 was about US$26 billion, and as a group NYK employs about 55,000 people worldwide. The company has offices in 240 places in 27 countries, warehouses on nearly every continent, and harbor operations in Asia, North America, and Europe. NYK is based in Tokyo and has regional headquarters in London, New York, Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Sydney, and São Paulo. Even if the company has been badly affected by the global recession, NYK Lines still represents one of the main shipping lines in the industry.[52]

Selected ships in post-war fleet[edit]

The modern NYK fleet encompasses a variety of ship names.[9] Some names form series, as in those ships named after flowers, stars, star constellations, and provinces of pre-Meiji Japan.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ NYK Line official site: Company Profile.
  2. ^ "Tokyo (Headquarters)." NYK Line. Retrieved on January 20, 2010.
  3. ^ a b NYK: History.
  4. ^ Talbot-Booth 1942, pp. 516–517.
  5. ^ a b Talbot-Booth 1942, pp. 515–516.
  6. ^ NYK Europe: Europe: Corporate Profile, history
  7. ^ a b Hackett, Bob; Kingsepp, Sander; Cundall, Peter (1998–2011). "IJN Hospital Ship Hikawa Maru: Tabular Record of Movement". Japanese Hospital Ships. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  8. ^ Although conventionally used today, unofficial names or sobriquets like Yamashiro Maru II or Yamashiro III are not used here, since each ship's official name was simply Yamashiro Maru. Instead, the year of the ship's maiden voyage or year the vessel entered service is used to tell the ships apart when names are repeated (as in article names), hence Yamashiro Maru (1899), Yamashiro Maru (1912) and Yamashiro Maru (1963) — not Yamashiro Maru, Yamashiro Maru II and Yamashiro Maru III.
  9. ^ a b c ShipsList: NYK Line fleet.
  10. ^ Ponsonby-Fane 1931, p. 48.
  11. ^ a b c d e Jordan 2006, p. 258.
  12. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Hie Maru, ID#4036219.
  13. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Heian Maru, ID#4036813.
  14. ^ Miramar Ship Index: HIkawa Maru, ID#4035370.
  15. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Kasuga Maru, ID#4035370.
  16. ^ Haworth, R.B. Miramar Ship Index: Nitta Maru, ID#4046813.
  17. ^ Ponsonby-Fane 1931, p. 50.
  18. ^ Haworth, R.B. Miramar Ship Index: Tatsuta Maru, ID#4035362.
  19. ^ Ponsonby-Fane 1931, p. 39.
  20. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Yawata Maru, ID#4047477.
  21. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard (1964). Visiting Famous Shrines in Japan. Kyoto: Kamikamo. p. 365. 
  22. ^ N.b. NYK ships named after the former provinces of Japan or kunikyū class
  23. ^ Ponsonby-Fane 1931, p. 8.
  24. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Awa Maru, ID#4004181.
  25. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Awa Maru, ID#4049894.
  26. ^ Ponsonby-Fane 1931, p. 9.
  27. ^ Peterson, Rick. Noto Maru, Hell ship
  28. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Noto Maru, ID#4039723.
  29. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Tango Maru, ID#4009330.
  30. ^ Ponsonby-Fane 1931, p. 45.
  31. ^ Haworth, R.B. Miramar Ship Index: Asama Maru, ID#4035342.
  32. ^ a b Ponsonby-Fane 1931.
  33. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Asuka Maru, ID#4030494.
  34. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Calcutta Maru, ID#4020373.
  35. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Dakar Maru, ID#4026933.
  36. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Durban Maru, ID#4026431.
  37. ^ Jordan 1931, p. 257
  38. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Hakone Maru, ID#4028453.
  39. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Lima Maru, ID#4026947.
  40. ^ Sinking of Lisbon Maru; Miramar Ship Index: Lisbon Maru, ID#4027254.
  41. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Lyons Maru, ID#4026949.
  42. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Korea Maru, ID#2161196.
  43. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Siberia Maru, ID #2117179.
  44. ^ Ponsonby-Fane 1931, p. 48-49.
  45. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Toyama Maru, ID#4018180.
  46. ^ ShipHistory: Yoshida Maru, April 26, 1944;
  47. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Yoshida Maru, ID#4048724.
  48. ^ Asklander, Micke. "M/S Asuka". Fakta om Fartyg (in Swedish). Retrieved 7 July 2009. [dead link]
  49. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Asuka, ID#8913162.
  50. ^ Asklander, Micke. "M/S Crystal Harmony (1990)". Fakta om Fartyg (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2009. [dead link]
  51. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Crystal Harmony, ID#8806204.
  52. ^ "Japan's Big 3 see red". [dead link]
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad NYK: fleet list
  54. ^ NYK-Nippon Oil Joint Project: The World First Solar-Powered Ship Sails
  55. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Asama Maru, ID#5026499.
  56. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Astoria Maru, ID#5027572.
  57. ^ ShipPhotos, NYK: ship at Southhampton, 2006;
  58. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Galaxy Leader, ID#9237307.
  59. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Hakone Maru, ID#6817194.
  60. ^ Miramar Ship Index: Hikawa Maru, ID#7380590.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cook, Richard; Oleniuk, Marcus (2007). Around the World in 40 Feet, Two Hundred Days in the Life of a 40 ft NYK Shipping Container. WordAsia Publishing. ISBN 978-988-97392-3-2.