Nisa, Turkmenistan

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Nisa
Nisa.jpg
A view of Nisa
Nisa, Turkmenistan is located in Turkmenistan
Nisa, Turkmenistan
Shown within Turkmenistan
Alternate name Parthaunisa
Mithradatkirt
Location Ashgabat City, Turkmenistan
Coordinates 37°58′N 58°11′E / 37.967°N 58.183°E / 37.967; 58.183Coordinates: 37°58′N 58°11′E / 37.967°N 58.183°E / 37.967; 58.183
Type Settlement
History
Periods Parthian Empire
Cultures Parthian
Associated with Arsaces I, Mithridates I
Site notes
Condition Ruined
Official name: Parthian Fortresses of Nisa
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii
Designated 2007 (31st session)
Reference No. 1242
State Party Turkmenistan
Region Asia and Australasia
History of Iran
History of Iran
ANCIENT PERIOD
Proto-Elamite 3200–2700 BCE
Elam 2700–539 BCE
Mannaeans 850–616 BCE
IMPERIAL PERIOD
Median Empire 678–550 BCE
  (Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BCE)
Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BCE
Atropatene 320s BC – 3rd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312–63 BCE
Parthian Empire 247 BCE – 224 CE
Sasanian Empire 224–651
MEDIEVAL (EARLY ISLAMIC) PERIOD
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
  Minor dynasties of northern Iran
Dabuyids 642–760 Bavandids 651–1349
Masmughans
of Damavand
651–760
Paduspanids 665–1598
Justanids 791–974
Alids of northern Iran 864–14th century
  Iranian Intermezzo 821–1062
Tahirid dynasty
821–873
Samanid dynasty
819–999
Saffarid dynasty
861–1002
Ziyarid dynasty
930–1090
Sallarid dynasty
919–1062
Sajid dynasty
889/890–929
Buyid dynasty
934–1062
Ilyasids
932–968
Ghaznavid Empire 977–1186
Kakuyids 1008–1141
Ghurid dynasty 1011–1215
Nasrids 1029–1236
Great Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Atabegs of Yazd 1141–1319
Mihrabanids 1236–1537
Kurt dynasty 1244–1396
Ilkhanate Empire 1256–1335
Chobanid dynasty
1335–1357
Muzaffarid dynasty
1335–1393
Jalayirid dynasty
1336–1432
Sarbadars
1337–1376
Injuids 1335–1357
Afrasiyab dynasty 1349–1504
Marashis 1359–1596
Timurid Empire 1370–1405
Qara Qoyunlu
1406–1468
Timurid dynasty
1405–1507
Agh Qoyunlu
1468–1508
Kia'i dynasty 1389–1592
EARLY MODERN PERIOD
Safavid Empire 1501–1736
  (Hotaki dynasty 1722–1729)
Afsharid Empire 1736–1747
Zand dynasty
1750–1794
Afsharid dynasty
1747–1796
Qajar dynasty 1785–1925
MODERN PERIOD
Pahlavi dynasty 1925–1979
Interim Government 1979–1980
Islamic Republic 1980–present

Nisa (also Parthaunisa) was an ancient city, located near modern-day Bagir village, 18 km southwest of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Nisa is described by some as one of the first capitals of the Parthians. It is traditionally assumed to be founded by Arsaces I (reigned c. 250 BC–211 BC), and was reputedly the royal necropolis of the Parthian kings, although it has not been established that the fortress at Nisa was either a royal residence or a mausoleum.

Excavations[edit]

Excavations at Nisa have revealed substantial buildings, mausoleums and shrines, many inscribed documents, and a looted treasury. Many Hellenistic art works have been uncovered, as well as a large number of ivory rhytons, the outer rims (coins) decorated with Iranian subjects or classical mythological scenes.

Nisa was later renamed Mithradatkirt ("fortress of Mithradates") by Mithridates I of Parthia (reigned c. 171 BC–138 BC).

Nisa was totally destroyed by an earthquake, which occurred during the first decade BC.

The fortress at Nisa was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007.[1](See List of World Heritage Sites in Turkmenistan)

See also[edit]

Selected bibliography[edit]

Sorted by year then author:[2]

1982
MASSON M.E., PUGACHENKOVA G.A., The Parthians rhytons of Nisa, Monografie di Mesopotamia (Introduction by A. Invernizzi), Firenze, Le Lettere.

1990
INVERNIZZI A., KOSHELENKO G.A., «Soviet-Italian Excavations in Old Nisa (Season 1990) », Mesopotamia, XXV, pp. 47–50.

1996
GABUTTI A., «The Italian Excavation in Old Nisa: the Northern Corner of the Round Hall Complex», Mesopotamia XXXI, pp. 161–177
INVERNIZZI A., «Archaeological research in Old Nisa 1990-1994», in La Persia e l’Asia Centrale da Alessandro al X secolo, Atti dei Convegni Lincei, 127, Roma, pp. 237–249.

1998
INVERNIZZI A., «New Archaeological Research in Old Nisa, 1990-1991», in The Art and Archaeology of Ancient Persia. New Light on the Parthian and Sasanian Empire, ed. V. Sarkhosh Curtis, R. Hillenbrand, J.M. Rogers, London-New York, 8-13.
INVERNIZZI A., «Old Nisa and the Art of the Steppes», Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 10, 33-38.
INVERNIZZI A., «Parthian Nisa. New Lines of Research», in J. Wiesehöfer (ed.), Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse, Beiträge des internationalen Colloquiums - Eutin, 1996, (Historia Einzelschriften, 122), Stuttgart, 45-59.

2000
INVERNIZZI A., «The Square House at Old Nisa», Parthica 2, pp. 13–53

2001
INVERNIZZI A., «Arsacid Dynastic Art», Parthica 3, pp. 133–157.
INVERNIZZI A., «Arsacid Palaces», in The Royal Palace Institution in the 1st Millennium BC (Ed. I. Nielsen), Athens, pp. 295–312.
LIPPOLIS C., book review of V.N. PILIPKO, Staraja Nisa. Zdanie s Kvadratnym Zalom, Moskva, 1996, su Parthica, 3, 2001, pp. 221–234.

2002
KOSHELENKO G, LAPCHIN A., «Ricerche nel complesso del Tempio Rotondo a Nisa Vecchia», Parthica 4, pp. 9–45.

2003
LIPPOLIS C., «Novije Issledovanija Staroj Nisji», Kulturnye Ziennosti 2000-2001, Ashkhabad.
LIPPOLIS C., «Nisa-Mithradatkert: the building to the north of the Round Hall. Preliminary Report of the 2000-2001 excavations campaign», Central Asia Cultural Values, vol. I, n. 2, June 2003, p. 1-17.
LIPPOLIS C., book review of PILIPKO V.N., Staraja Nisa – Osnovnye itogi arheologicheskogo izuchenija v sovetskij period, su Parthica 5, 2003, p. 3-13.

2004
INVERNIZZI A., «The culture of Nisa, between steppe and empire», After Alexander-Central Asia before Islam. Themes in the history and archaeology of Western Central Asia, British Academy Conference, 23–25 June 2004.
INVERNIZZI A., «Thoughts on Parthian Nisa», in Parthica 6, pp. 133–143.

2005
INVERNIZZI A., «Representations of Gods in Parthian Nisa», Parthica 7 (2005), pp. 71–80.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UNESCO names World Heritage sites", BBC News, 28 June 2007.
  2. ^ Italian Archaeological Mission in Old Nisa. Bibliography. Publications of Centro Scavi di Torino and contributions of the members of the Italian Expeditions to Nisa. Retrieved: 30 August 2009.

External links[edit]