Japanese-American service in World War II
During the early years of World War II, Japanese Americans were forcibly relocated from their homes in the Pacific coast states because military leaders and public opinion combined to fan unproven fears of sabotage. As the war progressed, many of the young Nisei, Japanese immigrants' children who were born with American citizenship, volunteered to serve in the United States military. Japanese Americans served in all the branches of the United States Armed Forces, including the United States Merchant Marines.
Servicemen in the U.S. Army
The majority of Japanese Americans serving in the American armed forces during World War II enlisted in the army.
100th Infantry Battalion
The 100th Infantry Battalion was engaged in heavy action during the war taking part in multiple campaigns. The 100th was made up of Nisei who were originally members of the Hawaii National Guard. Their exemplary military record and the patriotism established by the Varsity Victory Volunteers paved the way for the creation of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team.
442nd Regimental Combat Team
The 442nd Regimental Combat Team was an all-Nisei U.S. Army regiment which served in Europe during World War II. The 442nd arrived in Europe after the 100th Infantry battalion had already established its reputation as a fighting unit. In time, the 442nd became, for its size and length of service, the most decorated unit in U.S. military history.
522nd Field Artillery Battalion
The all-Nisei 522nd Field Artillery Battalion was organized as part of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team; but towards the end of the war, the 522nd became a roving battalion, shifting to whatever command most needed the unit. The 522nd had the distinction of liberating survivors of the Dachau concentration camp system, from the Nazis on April 29, 1945. Nisei scouts west of Munich near the small Bavarian town of Lager Lechfeld encountered some barracks encircled by barbed wire. Technician Fourth Grade Ichiro Imamura described it in his diary:
- "I watched as one of the scouts used his carbine to shoot off the chain that held the prison gates shut .... They weren’t dead, as he had first thought. When the gates swung open, we got our first good look at the prisoners. Many of them were Jews. They were wearing striped prison suits and round caps. It was cold and the snow was two feet deep in some places. There were no German guards. The prisoners struggled to their feet .... They shuffled weakly out of the compound. They were like skeletons - all skin and bones ...."
Holocaust historians have clarified the Nisei 522nd liberated about 3,000 prisoners at Kaufering IV Hurlach. Hurlach was one of 169 subordinate slave labor camps of Dachau. Dachau, like Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Mauthausen and Ravensbrück, was surrounded by hundreds of sub-camps.
Pierre Moulin in his recent book 'Dachau, Holocaust and US Samurais' writes that the first Nisei arrived at Dachau's gate not on April 29, the date of the liberation of the camp, but on April 28, 1945.
Servicemen in the Army Air Forces
Japanese Americans were generally forbidden to fight a combat role in the Pacific theatre; although no such limitations were placed on Americans of German or Italian ancestry who fought against the Axis Powers. Up to this point, the United States government has only been able to find records of five Japanese Americans who were members of the Army Air Forces during World War II, one of them being Kenje Ogata. There was at least one Nisei, U.S. Army Air Forces Technical Sergeant Ben Kuroki, who participated initially in 35 missions as a dorsal turret gunner over Europe, followed by 28 bombing missions over mainland Japan and other locations in the Pacific Theater.
Military Intelligence Service
Approximately 6,000 Japanese Americans served in the Military Intelligence Service (MIS). The first class received their training at the Presidio in San Francisco, but in June 1942 the MIS Language School was moved to Camp Savage, Minnesota, which offered larger facilities, removed the complications of training Japanese American students in an area they were technically prohibited from entering, and had less anti-Japanese prejudice. In August 1944, the language school was moved again to Fort Snelling. Most of the MIS Language School graduates were attached to the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section (ATIS) as linguists and in other non-combatant roles, interpreting captured enemy documents and interrogating prisoners of war. (At the end of the war, MIS linguists had translated 18,000 enemy documents, created 16,000 propaganda leaflets and interrogated over 10,000 Japanese POWs.) However, MIS servicemen were present at every major battle against Japanese forces, and those who served in combat faced extremely dangerous and difficult conditions, sometimes coming under friendly fire from U.S. soldiers unable to distinguish them from the Japanese and often encountering former friends on the battlefield.
Japanese American MIS linguists translated Japanese documents known as the "Z Plan", which contained Japan's counterattack strategy in the Central Pacific. This information led to Allied victories at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, in which the Japanese lost most of their aircraft carrier planes, and the Battle of Leyte Gulf. An MIS radio operator intercepted a message describing Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's flight plans, which led to P-38 Lightning fighter planes shooting down his plane over the Solomon Islands.
There were Nisei medics, mechanics and clerks in the Quartermaster Corps and Nisei women in the WACs. Nisei and Issei served as language instructors, employees in the Army Map Service, and behind the scenes in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and Office of War Information (OWI). In the latter groups were primarily younger Issei who had fled Japan to avoid political persecution. At OWI and OSS, some made broadcasts to Japan, while others wrote propaganda leaflets urging Japanese troops to surrender or pamphlets dropped over Japan to weaken civilian morale
The nation's highest award for combat valor, the Medal of Honor, was conferred upon twenty-one members of the 100th Infantry battalion of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team of World War II. On October 5, 2010, the Congressional Gold Medal was awarded to the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and the 100th Infantry Battalion, as well as the 6,000 Japanese Americans who served in the Military Intelligence Service during the war.
- James McIlwain (2012). "Nisei served in U.S. Army Air Corps, Navy, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, and Merchant Marines during World War II". JAVA Advocate (Japanese American Veterans Association) XX (3): 7. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- "Terminology and Glossary," Denshō, The Japanese American Legacy Project.
- Go for Broke National Education Center: Central Europe Campaign, 522nd
- Moulin, Pierre (2007). Dachau, Holocaust and US Samurais - Nisei Soldiers first in Dachau. Authorhouse Editions. ISBN 978-1-4259-3801-7.
- Yenne, Bill. (2007). Rising Sons: The Japanese-American GIs Who Fought for the United States in World War II, p. 140.
- Nakamura, Kelli Y. "Military Intelligence Service," Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- Nakamura, Kelli Y. "Military Intelligence Service Language School," Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- http://www.archives.gov/research/japanese-americans/justice-denied/chapter-10.pdf Other Nisei Service Page 259
- Steffen, Jordan (October 6, 2010), White House honors Japanese American WWII veterans, The Los Angeles Times
- Asahina, Robert. (2007). Just Americans: How Japanese American Won a War at Home and Abroad. New York: Gotham Books. ISBN 978-1-59240-300-4
- Sterner, C. Douglas. (2007). Go for Broke: The Nisei Warriors of World War II Who Conquered Germany, Japan, and American Bigotry, Clearfield, Utah: American Legacy Media. 10-ISBN 0-9796896-1-9; 13-ISBN 978-0-9796896-1-1 OCLC 141855086
- Yenne, Bill. (2007). Rising Sons: The Japanese American GIs Who Fought for the United States in World War II. New York: Macmillan. 10-ISBN 0-312-35464-9; 13-ISBN 978-0-312-35464-0
- Moulin, Pierre. (1993). U.S. Samurais in Bruyeres - People of France and Japanese Americans: Incredible story Hawaii CPL Editions. ISBN 2-9599984-0-5 
- Moulin, Pierre. (2007). Dachau, Holocaust and US Samurais - Nisei Soldiers first in Dachau Authorhouse Editions. ISBN 978-1-4259-3801-7 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to US National Archives series: Central Photographic File of the War Relocation Authority, compiled 1942 - 1945.|
- Harrington, Joseph Daniel (1979). Yankee Samurai: The Secret Role of Nisei in America's Pacific Victory. Pettigrew Enterprises. OCLC 5184099.
- McCaffrey, James M. (2013). Going for Broke: Japanese American Soldiers in the War against Nazi Germany. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806143378. OCLC 814707444.
- McNaughton, James (2006). Nisei Linguists:Japanese Americans in the Military Intelligence Service during World War II. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 70-99-1.
- Tamura, Linda (2012). Nisei Soldiers Break Their Silence: Coming Home to Hood River. University of Washington Press. ISBN 9780295992099. OCLC 783520848.