Nisko

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other places with the same name, see Nisko (disambiguation).
Nisko
Liberty Square
Liberty Square
Flag of Nisko
Flag
Coat of arms of Nisko
Coat of arms
Nisko is located in Poland
Nisko
Nisko
Coordinates: 50°32′N 22°8′E / 50.533°N 22.133°E / 50.533; 22.133
Country  Poland
Voivodeship POL województwo podkarpackie flag.svg Subcarpathian
County Nisko County
Gmina Gmina Nisko
Government
 • Mayor Julian Ozimek
Area
 • Total 61.02 km2 (23.56 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Total 15,637
 • Density 260/km2 (660/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 37-400
Car plates RNI
Website http://www.nisko.pl

Nisko [ˈɲiskɔ] is a town in Nisko County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland on the San River, with a population of 15,534 inhabitants as of 2 June 2009.[1] Together with neighbouring city of Stalowa Wola, Nisko creates a small agglomeration.

History[edit]

Nisko was first mentioned in a document dated 15 April 1439, in which King Władysław III of Varna handed the villages of Nysky, Zaoszicze and Pyelaskowicze to a local nobleman. Furthermore, Nisko was also mentioned by Jan Dlugosz, in his work Liber beneficiorum dioecesis Cracoviensis. The establishment of the village was probably the result of catastrophic Mongol Invasion of Poland, which decimated the population of Lesser Poland. Residents of burned villages and towns resettled in the areas north of the enormous Sandomierz Wilderness. Probably in the second half of the 13th century, a village was established on a hill near the San river.

Due to the location on the outskirts of the wilderness, local residents supported themselves by hunting and trade of timber, which was transported to other centers along the San and the Vistula waterways. In the 1570s, peasants from Nisko and other locations rebelled against the Starosta of Sandomierz, Andrzej Firlej. In 1578, they met with King Stefan Batory, who stayed in Tarnogrod, asking him for justice. The king supported the peasants, urging Firlej to come to Warsaw. On 10 November 1583, Batory issued a bill, in which he backed demands of the peasants.

For centuries Nisko remained a small village, whose development was halted during the Swedish invasion of Poland. On 28 March 1656, Stefan Czarniecki fought here Swedish troops, which advanced towards Lwow.

Following the first partition of Poland, Nisko was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, and remained within Austrian Galicia until November 1918. In 1867 Count Eugene Kinsky bought the Nisko estate to give it to his daughter Countess Marie Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau as a wedding present, which took place in Vienna on 21 September 1868. From 1868 to 1912 under Count Oliver Rességuier de Miremont and his family, the village grew to become one of the largest estates in then Austrian Galicia. A railroad station, a hospital, a church (three in present-day Nisko), schools, factories, Austrian Army Base (currently Polish Army Base) and a palace (now used as a hospital building) were built. Most of these buildings are still in use. The village was also the capital of administration unit, Nisko County.

In 1914, when World War I began, many buildings in Nisko were destroyed by the Russian Army, which attacked Austria-Hungary. In 1918, local Poles gained control over the government in Nisko and the village became part of the new-formed Second Polish Republic. In newly restored Poland, Nisko was the seat of a county in Lwow Voivodeship, but remained a village until 20 October 1933. In 1921, its population was over 5000. On 19 January 1937 in Warsaw, a bill was signed, which created Southern Works (Zaklady Poludniowe) - a large steel plant, part of the Central Industrial Region. On 20 March 1937, first pine trees were cut in a forest in the village of Plawo, a few kilometers north of Nisko. In two years, a brand new city of Stalowa Wola was established around the plant. It was a milestone in history of the town, because several projects were started in the area, such as a foundry and a power-plant in the forests on the western boundary of Nisko. The programme of industrialization was stopped with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and Soviet Union in September 1939.

When Poland was occupied by German forces during World War II, Nisko became part of the Nazi government's plan to annihilate the Jews. Beginning in 1939, many Jews were shipped to a reservation at Nisko, where they were left to fend for themselves. At this point in Nazi Germany, the policy of mass Jewish killings had not yet taken shape and Germany's plan still seemed to be the indirect death of European Jews through exile and deportation to inhabitable locations without sufficient supplies, rather than outright murder in extermination camps. This was known as the "Nisko Plan". While many Jews were shipped to Nisko and left to die without sufficient food or shelter, the plan of creating a reservation was abandoned, supplanted by the Nazi policy of confinement of Jews in ghettos and then deportation to the extermination camps, including nearby Belzec, Sobibor and Majdanek.[2]

During World War Two, Nisko was an important center of the Home Army and Bataliony Chlopskie. In 1944 - 1945, the Red Army and the Soviet NKVD arrested here a number of Poles, executing members of anti-Communist resistance.

Since 1999, Nisko has been situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodship.

Education[edit]

  • Wyższa Szkoła Informatyki i Zarządzania in Rzeszów, branch in Nisko

Sports[edit]

  • Sokol Nisko - a football team, playing in local division

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Nisko is twinned with:

References[edit]

Austrian KK stamp issued in 1864 with Nisko cancellation

Sources[edit]