Nissan CA engine

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Nissan CA engine
Overview
Manufacturer Nissan Motors
Production 1982-1991
Combustion chamber
Configuration I4
Displacement 1.6L
1.8L
2.0L
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Cylinder head alloy Aluminum
Valvetrain SOHC & DOHC
Combustion
Turbocharger Single (CA18ET, CA18DET)
Fuel system Carburetor (CA16S, CA18S, CA20S)
Throttle body fuel injection (CA18i)
Multi port fuel injection (CA16DE, CA18DE, CA18ET, CA18DET, CA20E)
Cooling system Water-cooled
Chronology
Predecessor Nissan L engine & Nissan Z engine
Successor Nissan SR engine (all except CA16)
Nissan GA engine (CA16)

The CA engine is a 1.6 L to 2.0 L Inline-4 piston engine from Nissan designed for a variety of smaller Nissan vehicles to replace the Z engine and some smaller, four-cylinder L series engines. It is an iron block, aluminum head design with a timing belt, thus was cheaper to make than the timing chain setup on the Z and L engines. Earlier versions featured SOHC and eight valves. The new CA block design was a scaled up E series block with timing shaft and other ancillaries removed. The oil pump is fitted directly onto the crank nose and the distributor is driven by the end of the camshaft. Like the E series and the A block from which the E was derived, Nissan used a taller block for the largest stroked 2.0 litre engine. The CA was designed to be compact and light, with a CA16 requiring only 195 litres of space (compared to 280 litres for the earlier Z16), while weighing 23% less at 115 kg (254 lb).[1] The engine was called the "CA" series for Clean Air, due to the installation of Nissan emission reducing technology, called NAPS-X.

Later versions featured DOHC with 16 valves for increased efficiency at high engine speeds and a smoother power delivery. The hydraulic lifters are interchangeable between all DOHC RB and VG series engines excepting those with solid lifters.

The motor was expensive to produce being cast iron, Production ceased in 1991. The 1.8 L and 2.0 L versions were replaced by the SR series as the primary Nissan four-cylinder engine, while the smaller 1.6 L was replaced by the GA. Engines for the low volume European market 200SX were supplied from a stockpile.

CA16S[edit]

The CA16S is a 1.6 L (1598 cc) water cooling serial 4-cylinder OHC engine. It produces 81 PS (60 kW; 80 hp) @5200 rpm and 123 N·m (91 ft·lbf) @3200 rpm.

Applications:

CA16DE[edit]

The CA16DE is a 1.6 L (1598 cc) engine produced from 1987 through 1988. It produces 122 hp (91 kW) @6400 rpm and 137 N·m (101 ft·lbf) @5200 rpm. Bore and stroke is 78.0 mm (3.07 in) and 83.6 mm (3.29 in). It was a 16-valve DOHC engine with multiport fuel injection, for front wheel drive use. North American versions used Nissan's NICS (Nissan Induction Control System), which opened up the secondary intake ports to each cylinder via a butterfly valve in each port. Activated at 3,900 rpm, this improved flow and performance resultingly. Additionally, on activation of the secondaries under a heavy load the fuel injection also went from sequential mode to simultaneous-pulse mode. These features were also found on North American CA18DE engines as well.

Applications:

CA18(i)[edit]

The CA18(i) is a naturally aspiration engine it delivers 91 hp (68 kW) at 5200 rpm. The fuel in this engine is not delivered via Multi Port Fuel Injection (E letter code on MPFI engines), it's instead delivered by Throttle Body Fuel Injection hence the (i) letter on the engine code. 83.0 x 83.6 mm bore and stroke, 1,809 cc (110.4 cu in).

Applications:

CA18E[edit]

The CA18E is a naturally aspirated, 1809 cc, single-cam engine. It uses Multi Point Fuel Injection.

Applications

CA18S[edit]

CA18S.

The 1.8 L CA18(s) was a carbureted version of the CA engine available in Japan. It produces 90 hp (66 kW) and 110 lb·ft (149 Nm). Bore is 3.27 in (83 mm) and stroke is 3.29 in (83.6 mm). It was used in the following vehicles:

CA18DE[edit]

CA18DE.

The CA18DE is a 1.8 L DOHC 16v (1809 cc) engine produced from 1987 through 1989. It produces 131 hp (98 kW) @6400 rpm and 159 N·m (117 ft·lbf) @5200 rpm. It has the same head as the CA18DET, however it did not use piston oil squirters that are found on the CA18DETs. A crank girdle as found on all CA18DET's is fitted to some versions for some markets, Nissan's parts data system "FAST" has to be consulted or the sump removed to determine if it's fitted.

Applications:

production went all the way through to January 1991.

CA18ET[edit]

CA18ET.

The 1.8 L (1809 cc) CA18ET produces 135 hp (99 kW) and 141 lb·ft (183 Nm) from a single Garrett T2 turbocharger which did not feature an intercooler (Autocar 1986). It was built from 1984 through 1990. The engine has fuel delivered via Multiport Fuel Injection.

It was used in the following vehicles:

CA18DET[edit]

CA18DET.

The 1.8 L CA18DET was the last version of the CA engine to be released. It produces 167 hp (124 kW) and 166 lb·ft (228 Nm). It received a brand new DOHC aluminum head with 16 valves. The turbocharger was also upgraded to a Garrett T25 (.48 A/R) unit for increased flow capacity, and as such, was fitted with an intercooler to help prevent the onset of pre-ignition and/or detonation. Fuel was delivered via Multiport Fuel Injection. Bore is 83 mm (3.3 in), and stroke is 83.6 mm (3.29 in). An electronically controlled fuel injection system was used with 370cc injectors.

It was used in the following vehicles:

There were 2 versions of the CA18DET available, yet only one was produced for Japan. The late model Japanese CA18DETs received 8 port (low port) heads, with butterfly actuated auxiliary ports in the lower intake manifold which corresponded with 8 ports in the head.

Below ~3,800 rpm, only one set (4 ports open, 1 per cylinder) of long, narrow ports would be open, accelerating the intake charge to the cylinder. This allowed for quick spool and good low end tractibility. At the 3800 rpm change over, not only would the ECCS shift into batch fire (as opposed to sequential) fuel injection, but it also opened the second set of short, wide ports (8 ports open, 2 per cylinder) which assisted in high RPM flow.

This motor is known for stronger torque characteristics, as well as faster spool at lower RPMs. However, due to displacement-based taxation and cost of emissions testing in Europe, the CA18DET was sold as the only available engine in the S13 chassis 200SX (Euro model) until replaced by the S14 in 1994. The Euro motors received the 4 port (high port) head and intake manifold, as well as revised ECCS ("Electronic Concentrated Control System") parameters.

Power was not increased, but high RPM flow was indeed improved, making the 4 port CA18DET the most desirable of the late generation Nissan turbo 4s.

The CA18DET is finding a new following as its price is much lower than that of its closest rival the SR20DET. Many 240SX owners and kit car builders are using this engine, and as such its popularity has made a sharp comeback. Many tuner shops which would never carry CA18DET parts now carry a plethora of even obscure parts. With the CA18DETs low price people are also being more adventurous with modifying it as buying a replacement can in some cases cost as much as a clutch for the SR20. Many tuners are now converting the engine to a CA18DERT, which is the CA18DET with a supercharger bolted on.

CA20E[edit]

The SOHC 2.0 L (1974 cc) CA20E produces 105 hp (78 kW) and 120 lb·ft (160 Nm). Bore is 3.33 in (84.5 mm) and stroke is 3.46 in (88 mm). It was used from August, 1981 through 1991. Fuel was delivered via Multiport Fuel Injection. Dual sparkplugs per cylinder were used in some variants of this engine for enhanced combustion efficiency, called NAPS-X.

It was used in the following vehicles:

CA20S[edit]

The CA20S is a SOHC 2.0 L (1974 cc) engine produced from 1982 through 1987. Bore is 3.33 in (84.5 mm) and stroke is 3.46 in (88 mm), and is fed by a carburetor. It produces a peak power of 102 hp (76 kW) at 5,200 rpm and has a peak torque rating of 160 N·m (120 ft·lbf) at 3,600 rpm.

Applications:

CA20DE/CA20DET/CA20T/CA20ET[edit]

There was never a factory-produced twin-cam CA 2.0L motor, nor a turbo version. However the blocks are similar, and it is possible to fit the DOHC CA18DE/T twincam head to the SOHC CA20 block. However the DOHC/SOHC manifolds are different and the timing pulley/belts are not compatible. Despite this, CA20DET turbos have been built.

Tomei and JUN of Japan produced 2 litre stroker kits for the CA18. Also companies Norris Designs and Spool Imports produces CA20 stroker kits as well as a CA20 engine.

External links[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yamaguchi, Jack K. (1982), Lösch, Annamaria, ed., "Japan: Shogun Strikes Back", World Cars 1982 (Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books): 64, ISBN 0-910714-14-2 
  2. ^ James M. Flammang (1994). Standard Catalog of Imported Cars, 1946-1990. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, Inc. p. 175. ISBN 0-87341-158-7.