Nissan Gloria

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Nissan Gloria
2001-2004 NISSAN GLORIA Gran Turismo SV.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Prince/Nissan
Also called Prince Gloria
Infiniti M45
Production 1959–2004
Body and chassis
Class Executive car
Related Nissan Cima
Nissan Leopard
Nissan Crew
Nissan Cedric
Chronology
Successor Nissan Fuga

The Gloria (Japanese: 日産・グロリア) is a large luxury car made from 1959 by the Prince Motor Company, and later by Nissan Motors since its merger with the former - hence being originally marketed as Prince Gloria and later as Nissan Gloria. Initially based on the smaller Prince Skyline, the Gloria line was merged with Nissan Cedric starting with 1971 models and both continued until 2004, when they were both replaced by Nissan Fuga.

Glorias were sold at Nissan Prince Shop dealerships that were formerly affiliated with the Prince company; when Nissan assumed operations, Glorias were sold along with the Nissan Skyline. The Prince G engine was used in the Gloria until 1969.

It was inspired by the Latin word "Glory".

First generation BLSI[edit]

Prince Gloria BLSI
Prince-GloriaBLSI.jpg
Overview
Production 1959-1963
Assembly Mitaka, Japan
Designer Takuya Himura
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
Layout FR layout
Related Prince Skyline
Powertrain
Engine Straight-4 1.9 L GB30
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,535 mm (99.8 in)
Length 4,380 mm (172.4 in)
Width 1,675 mm (65.9 in)
Height 1,535 mm (60.4 in)
Curb weight 1,360 kg (3,000 lb)

The Prince Automobile Manufacturers, previously known as Fuji Precision Industry, released a modification of their Prince Skyline with a more luxurious approach, and modified exterior sheet metal, at the All Japan Automobile Show, after the Tokyo Motor Show and the Skyline 1900 exhibition, in October 1958. In February 1959 the Gloria was released with the 1.9 L OHV 4-cylinder engine. Reflecting popular appearances found in North America, the Gloria used a styling feature on the front bumper, called "Dagmar bumpers".

In April 1959, Crown Prince Akihito was presented with the first Gloria as a wedding gift. According to the article found in Japanese Wikipedia, the Gloria got its name as a tribute when the first series BSLI sedan was presented to the then Crown Prince Akihito, the future Emperor of Japan, and Princess Michiko as an anniversary gift after one year of marriage. The Prince Automotive Industry was the official vehicle supplier to the Imperial Household Agency at that time, previously known as Fuji Precision Technology. Previously, the Crown Prince was also presented with the first Prince Sedan earlier.

For 1961 and 1962, Prince modified the Skyline with a larger 1.9 L engine and more luxury features. The GB-30 straight-4 produced 80 hp (60 kW).

The suspension used double wishbone and coil springs in the front, and De Dion setup in the back.

Second generation S40, W40 and S44 [edit]

Prince Gloria S40, W40 and S44
PrinceGloria-super6.jpg
Overview
Also called Prince B200/B250
PMC B200/B250
Mikado[1]
Production 1962-1967
Assembly Musashimurayama, Japan
Designer Takuya Himura
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door wagon (W40) [2]
Layout FR layout
Related Prince Skyline
Powertrain
Engine 1.9 L G-2 I4
2.0 L G-7 I6
2.5 L G-11 I6
Transmission 4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,680 mm (105.5 in)
Length 4,650 mm (183.1 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,480 mm (58.3 in)
Curb weight 1,295 kg (2,855 lb)
1966 Prince Gloria Super 6, rear view

Later in 1962, Prince introduced the second generation, "S40" Gloria. It was the first six-cylinder Prince, while also offering an updated straight-four, the 94 hp (70 kW) 1.9 L G-2. On June 1963, the first mass-produced Japanese SOHC six-cylinder engine was introduced, known as the G-7, and was installed in the new Gloria Super 6, model S41. The same engine was used in the Gloria 6 Estate and in a commercial delivery van called "Gloria 6 Wagon". This new engine produces 106 hp SAE (79 kW) at 5,400 rpm, with a new SOHC head.[1] The Gloria has an independent suspension in front and a de Dion tube in the back.

A prototype of the second generation Gloria had many design similarities to the Chevrolet Corvair, but the production version was completely redesigned. This Gloria also made it into export markets, for instance going on sale in Finland in April 1965.[1]

Prince Grand Gloria S44P

On October 1962 at the 9th All-Japan Auto show, the 2.5 L G-11 engine was presented, although it was not immediately installed in any car. On May 1964, the Grand Gloria S44P was released. Its introduction preceded the 1964 Summer Olympics held later in October. This vehicle included electric power windows and the 2.5 L engine. This was the first Gloria that was no longer regarded as a compact sedan under Japanese vehicle classification regulations due to the engine displacement exceeding two litres.

Prince Gloria Super 6, 1964 2nd Japanese Grand Prix T-VI class winner

The second Japan Grand Prix saw the G7B-R Gloria Super 6 engine win the T-VI class race, albeit installed in a lighter Skyline.


Third generation A30 [edit]

Nissan (Prince) Gloria A30
Nissan-GloriaA30-1967.JPG
Overview
Production 1967-1971
Assembly Musashimurayama, Japan
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan/wagon
Layout FR layout
Related Nissan Prince Royal
Powertrain
Engine Straight-6 2.5 L G-11
Straight-6 2.0 L G-7
Straight-4 2.0 L H20
Straight-6 2.0 L L20
Transmission 4-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,680 mm (105.5 in)
Length 4,690 mm (184.6 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,445 mm (56.9 in)
Curb weight 1,295 kg (2,855 lb)
Nissan Gloria Van Deluxe 6
(Commercial model)

April 1967 saw a restyle of the bodywork, and all Prince vehicles were now known as Nissan (but the A30 Gloria was officially registered as "Prince" to the Government). The former Prince company, now integrated into Nissan operations, was given the task of designing the Nissan Prince Royal, to be used by the Imperial Household, and thus presented a special version of the Gloria which had a similar appearance to the previous Prince Royal. The styling of this generation was said to emulate Pontiacs and Cadillacs during the same time period. Vehicles designated as the Super Deluxe, the Super 6 and Van Deluxe had the 6-cylinder engine, whereas the Standard and Van Standard used the 4-cylinder engine. Later the Super Deluxe GL became the top trim level. Due to the Gloria and Cedric being combined to save on production costs, the De Dion axle previously used by the Prince Gloria was downgraded to a solid rear axle with leaf springs.

In 1971, the Gloria model was merged with its former competitor, the Nissan Cedric, to become the Nissan Gloria. This name was also used in some export markets instead of the Cedric or 260C moniker. The name continued in use through the latest Cedric model line.

After the S44 was the PA30 sedan and WA30 wagon, which were only available with either the G7 or G11 engines. Disc brakes for the front wheels were added to the options list.

The appearance of the A30 Gloria is very similar to the Nissan Prince Royal, built exclusively for the Emperor of Japan.

Fourth generation 230 [edit]

Nissan Gloria 230
1973 Nissan Gloria 4 door Hardtop Custom Deluxe.jpg
Overview
Also called Nissan Cedric
Yue Loong Victory 803 (TW)
Production 1971-1975
Assembly Miaoli, Taiwan
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door hardtop coupe
4-door hardtop/sedan/wagon
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine 2.0 L H20 I4
2.6 L L26 I6
2.0 L SD20 diesel I4
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,680 mm (105.5 in)
Length 4,690 mm (184.6 in)
Width 1,690 mm (66.5 in))
Height 1,455 mm (57.3 in)
Curb weight 1,345 kg (2,965 lb)

Starting with this generation on February 1971, the Cedric and Gloria were essentially the same vehicle, with the Gloria being more upscale than the Cedric. The hood ornament is a stylized version of the Japanese Paper Crane (Orizuru). The primary differences are the hood, radiator grille, taillights and wheel covers. This generation saw Nissan use the "coke bottle styling" appearance, shared with other 1970s Nissan products. The front of the vehicle shares some visual appearances with the 1967–1968 Mercury Marquis.

The four-cylinder is the H20-series OHV engine, with the 6-cylinder engine using the L20 twin carburetor, sourced from manufacturer SU carburetor. The H20P uses LPG for fuel, and the SD20 OHV is a diesel engine. The SD20 was the first time a diesel engine was offered in a Gloria.

October 1971 saw the 2.5 litre L26 six-cylinder engine added to the options list.

On August 1972, both a two-door hardtop coupé "personal luxury car" and a four-door hardtop was added, to compete with the Toyota Crown coupé.

Nissan Gloria GL


Fifth generation 330 [edit]

Nissan Gloria 330
Nissan-Gloria330Brougham.JPG
Overview
Also called Nissan Cedric
Production 1975-1979
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door hardtop coupe
4-door hardtop/sedan/wagon/van
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine 2.8 L L28 Straight-6
2.0 L L20 Straight-6
2.0 L H20 Straight-4
Transmission 3-speed automatic
4-speed manual
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,690 mm (105.9 in)
Length 4,785 mm (188.4 in)(Brougham}
4,690 mm (184.6 in)
Width 1,705 mm (67.1 in)(Brougham}
1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,430 mm (56.3 in)
Curb weight 1,445 kg (3,186 lb)
Nissan Gloria 4-door sedan
Nissan Gloria Van

This generation of the Gloria has been completely shared with the Cedric, essentially being the same vehicle, aside from changes in appearance. Halogen headlights are introduced to the Gloria, along with both a 2-door and 4-door hardtop body style, in addition to a 4-door sedan. Twin carburetors are removed from the L20 4-cylinder, due to emission regulations. The 2.8 L engine is replaced with the 2.6 L and used on the 4-door sedan for taxi usage, and uses LPG fuel.

October 1975 saw the introduction of the 2000GL-E and the 2000SGL-E, with the "E" designation signifying fuel injection, which was included in the Nissan NAPS emission control technology package..

June 1976 saw cosmetic changes, with halogen headlights being used on all versions except the sedan used for taxi service. Wheel covers are now painted to match the exterior body color.

June 1977 saw the introduction of the 2800 E Brougham at the top of the options list. The SD22 2.2 L diesel on the basic sedan and wagon, which was a first for the Gloria. Column shift is replaced with a floor-mounted system on the 4-door hardtop.

November 1978 saw another emissions adjustment. Items found on the 2800 Brougham were introduced on the 2000 SGL-E sedan and hardtop. Radial tires are introduced.

Datsun 260C, 2-door coupe, right-hand drive.


Sixth generation 430[edit]

Nissan Gloria 430
NISSAN GLORIA 430 SEDAN.jpg
Overview
Also called Nissan Cedric
Yue Loong Victory 2000 (TW)
Yue Loong Victory 2400 (TW)
Production 1979-1983
Assembly Miaoli, Taiwan
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door hardtop/sedan/wagon/van
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine 2.0L Z20P LPG I4
2.0L L20P LPG I6
2.0L L20S/L20E I6
2.0 L L20ET turbo I6
2.8L L28E I6
2.0 L SD20 diesel I4
2.2 L SD22 diesel I4
2.8 L LD28 diesel I6
Transmission 4-speed automatic
3-speed automatic
5-speed manual
4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,690 mm (105.9 in)
Length 4,825 mm (190.0 in) (Brougham, Jack Nicklaus)
4,690 mm (184.6 in)
Width 1,715 mm (67.5 in)) (Brougham, Jack Nicklaus)
1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height 1,430 mm (56.3 in)
Curb weight 1,470 kg (3,240 lb)

June 1979 saw a completely redesigned Nissan Gloria with assistance with Pininfarina, with a more simple and straightforward appearance over the previous generation, and exchanging the single unit halogen headlights with 4 sealed beam headlight units, achieving a more American appearance, similar to the Buick Century during the same time period. Computer controlled fuel injection was added to more engines offered, with the "E" designation signifying fuel injection. The L20ET engine was the first engine to power a Japanese production vehicle, although not in the Gloria.[citation needed]

The 2-door hardtop coupe was discontinued and replaced with the luxury sports coupe Nissan Leopard.

Nissan Gloria 430 series sedan (200E GL)

Trim levels were expanded, and were designated the Brougham, SGL Extra, SGL, GL and the Jack Nicklaus edition which was very similar to the Brougham, which offered the turbo. Other trim levels were the Turbo S, S Custom, Custom Deluxe, Deluxe, Custom, and the Standard at the bottom. The diesel engine SD22 was offered in 1979 on the sedan GL and DX. The Standard SEdan and Van were discontinued April 1981. October 1979, the 6-cylinder LD28 diesel was added with the automatic transmission selector moved from column shift to a floor-mounted system. December 1979 was when the first turbo L20ET was introduced,[citation needed]

February 1980 saw the LD28 6-cylinder offered with a 5-speed manual transmission installed with a floor-mounted shifter, but leaving the column shift for the 4-speed manual transmission. Later in April of that same year the Turbo Brougham appeared with a 4-speed automatic transmission, floor-mounted, to the 4-door hardtop model. A glass moonroof was also offered on the options list.

Seventh generation Y30 [edit]

Nissan Gloria Y30
Y30 Nissan Gloria 1.jpg
Overview
Also called Nissan Cedric
Yue Loong Victory 830 (TW)
Yue Loong Victory 3000 (TW)
Production 1983-1987
Assembly Miaoli, Taiwan
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door hardtop/sedan
5-door wagon/van
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine 1,974 cc CA20S I4
1,998 cc L20P LPG I6
1,998 cc VG20E V6
1,998 cc VG20ET V6 turbo
2,960 cc VG30S/VG30E V6
2,960 cc VG30ET V6 turbo
2,289 cc SD23 diesel I4 (export only)[3]
2,792 cc LD28 diesel I6
2,825 cc RD28 diesel I6
Transmission 4-speed automatic
4-speed manual
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Length 4,690 mm (184.6 in)
4,860 mm (191.3 in) (VG30)
Width 1,690 mm (66.5 in))
1,720 mm (67.7 in) (VG30)
Height 1,435 mm (56.5 in)
1,500 mm (59.1 in) (Wagon/Van)
Curb weight 1,275–1,505 kg (2,811–3,318 lb)

June 4, 1983 saw a major restyle of the previous generation for all versions of the Gloria. Sedans used for taxi service utilized four round headlights whereas other versions upgraded to European style halogen headlights.

The straight-six engine, which had been used for many years, was upgraded to an all new V6-design, called the VG series engine which made its debut in the Cedric/Gloria. This was the first, mass production V6 engine built in Japan.[4] The VG range uses fuel injection rather than carburetors for fuel delivery. The VG20ET was turbocharged, for better performance while staying within the Japanese tax parameters for a compact car. The twin-carbureted four-cylinder CA20S engine was fitted to the lowest-spec versions (standard, De Luxe).[5] This four-cylinder was also available in a version built to run on LPG fuel, meant to be used for taxi service. From February 1984 there was also a six-cylinder L20P, which also ran on LPG. In June 1984 the powerful 3-litre VG30ET turbo V6 was introduced.

Trim levels offered were the Brougham, SGL, Grand Edition, GL Grand Edition, GL and the Standard. In June 1984 the Brougham VIP appeared as the top level car. The Jack Nicklaus special edition, introduced with the previous edition, was a sales success for the company and continued to be offered as a hardtop and only with a turbocharged engine. Electronically modified air suspension also appeared in June 1984.

For the four-door hardtop, the front driver and passenger seat belt shoulder strap was connected at the top to the ceiling, however, the upper portion could be detached, with the shoulder strap resting on the driver's and passenger's shoulder so that rear passengers could have an unobstructed view from the rear seat without the seat belt hanging from the ceiling. The upper part would then swing up to the ceiling and could be fastened into place.

June 1985 saw mild exterior changes, with the biggest mechanical change being a variable nozzle for the VG20ET turbocharged engine. The diesel straight-six engine LD28 was also upgraded to the RD28 Straight-6 engine.[6] A sonic modified suspension system was added to the options list, with an upgrade to MacPherson struts for the front and a rigid link coil suspension for the rear.

Export versions usually received the diesel sixes or the three-liter six-cylinder engines, although there was also a version with the four-cylinder 2.3 litre SD23-engine, producing 74 PS (54.4 kW) (SAE net).[3] With nearly exactly the same specifications as the Japanese market engine, the fuel-injected three-liter six claimed 166 PS (122 kW) (SAE net) or 155 PS (114 kW) (DIN) in export, as opposed to 180 PS (132 kW) JIS in Japan. There was also a carbureted version available in some markets such as the Middle East, with 148 PS (109 kW) at a lowly 4,800 rpm.[7]

Eighth generation Y31[edit]

Nissan Gloria Y31
NISSAN Gloria.jpg
Overview
Also called Nissan Cedric
Production 1987-1991 hardtop
1987-present sedan
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door hardtop/sedan
Layout FR layout
Related Nissan Cedric Y31
Nissan Crew
Nissan Cima Y31
Nissan Leopard Y31
Nissan Cefiro A31
Powertrain
Engine 3.0 L Turbo VG30ET V6
3.0 L VG30 V6
2.0 L Turbo VG20DET V6
2.0 L VG20E V6
2.8 L RD28 Straight-6 diesel
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed automatic
4-speed manual
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,735 mm (107.7 in)
Length 4,690 mm (184.6 in)
Width 1,695 mm (66.7 in))
Height 1,445 mm (56.9 in)
Curb weight 1,380 kg (3,040 lb)

Introduced in 1987, the Y31 sedan (with revised body appearance) still in production currently. Hardtops were replaced by the succeeding Y32, and the Y30 Wagon/Van version was not replaced. After this generation, Glorias are now only available to private customers in four-door hardtop guise. Engines available continue to be the newly developed VG series engine, with the VG20DET adding DOHC, another first for Nissan. June 1987 saw a special-edition Gloria intended for parade usage.

The four-speed automatic transmission is now computer controlled for smoother shifts. The transmission now exclusively uses a floor-mounted gearshifter, and a five-speed manual transmission was still available. The rear suspension was upgraded to multi-link independent setup. Trim levels are standard, Custom, Super Custom, Classic, Classic SV, Gran Turismo, and Brougham VIP. There was also a long wheelbase model built by Autech. The Gran Turismo received more sport-oriented styling, adding a youthful appearance, which found new, younger, buyers. The sporty GranTurismo SV version, discontinued in 1991, had short bumpers with a body kit, and was powered by 1998cc VG20DET engine. The sedan version of the Y31 was rebodied at the launch of the Y32. The Gloria is mechanically related to the Crew, although the former is larger.

The Gloria competed for buyers with related Nissan vehicles that shared platforms used for the Gloria, specifically, the Nissan Cima, Nissan Leopard and the Nissan Cedric, as well as other sport-oriented vehicles, such as the Nissan Cefiro, Nissan Skyline and Nissan Laurel.

The Gloria Y31 can be distinguished from its sibling, the Cedric Y31 by the taillights at the back. Unlike its sibling, the Gloria has not received a new body.

June 1987 saw a special-edition Gloria built for parade usage. The sedan remains with unchanged body appearance and is still in production currently. Private Glorias are now only available in 4-door hardtop guise. Engines available continue to be the newly developed VG series engine, with the VG20DET adding DOHC, another first for Nissan.

The 4-speed automatic transmission is now computer controlled for smoother shifts. The transmission now exclusively uses a floor mounted gearshifter, and a 5-speed manual transmission is still available. The rear suspension was upgraded to multi-link independent setup.Trim levels start with the VIP Brougham, Gran Tourismo, Classic SV, Classic and Super Custom. The Gran Turismo received more sport-oriented styling, adding a youthful appearance, which found new, younger, buyers.

Ninth generation Y32[edit]

Nissan Gloria Y32
1991 Nissan Gloria 01.jpg
Overview
Also called Nissan Cedric
Production 1991-1995
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door hardtop
Layout FR layout
Related Nissan Crew
Nissan Cima Y32
Nissan Leopard Y32
Powertrain
Engine 3.0 L VG30DET V6
3.0 L VG30DE V6
3.0 L VG30E V6
2.0 L VG20E V6
2.8 L RD28 Straight-6 diesel
Transmission 4-speed automatic
5-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,760 mm (108.7 in)
Length 4,800 mm (189.0 in)
Width 1,745 mm (68.7 in))
Height 1,405 mm (55.3 in)
Curb weight 1,660 kg (3,660 lb)

This generation was introduced June 1991, and was offered in hardtop only. A center "B" pillar is added to improve vehicle solidity, and improve crash worthiness, but is obscured behind side window glass and frameless side windows. The VG series engine continues to be offered with the 5-speed computer controlled automatic transmission, with the 4-speed offered with the RD28 diesel engine. A manual transmission is no longer offered.

Trim levels offered were the Gran Turismo SV, Grand Turismo, and the top level vehicle is called the Gran Turismo ULTIMA. Other trim levels offered were the Brougham VIP type C, Brougham G, Brougham, Classic SV and the Classic.

Popularity of the Nissan Cima is beginning to affect sales of the Gloria, as sales are not as high as in past generations.

Tenth generation Y33[edit]

Nissan Gloria Y33
Nissan Gloria Y33 (front).jpg
Overview
Also called Nissan Cedric
Production 1995-1999
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door hardtop
Layout FR layout/AWD
Related Nissan Crew
Nissan Cima Y33
Nissan Leopard Y33
Powertrain
Engine 3.0 L VQ30DET V6
3.0 L VQ30DE V6
2.5 L VQ25DE V6
2.0 L VQ20DE V6
2.8 L RD28 Straight-6 diesel
2.5 L I-6 RB25DET
Transmission 5-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,760 mm (108.7 in)
Length 4,800 mm (189.0 in)
Width 1,745 mm (68.7 in))
Height 1,405 mm (55.3 in)
Curb weight 1,660 kg (3,660 lb)

The Y33 series Nissan Gloria is given a body restyle and introduced June 1995. Major changes were the introduction of the newly developed VQ series engine, and replacing the VG series, with the VQ30DET turbo utilizing an intercooler and DOHC valvetrain architecture. AWD is introduced only on the RB25DET, including Nissan's ATTESA E-TS. The diesel RD28 is now only available with a 4-speed transmission. Due to economic pressure, some of the trim levels are discontinued, leaving the Gran Turismo type X, Gran Turismo Ultima, Gran Turismo SV, Gran Turismo S, Gran Turismo, Brougham VIP, Brougham and the Brougham J.

The 4-door sedan is no longer offered.

Eleventh generation Y34[edit]

Nissan Gloria Y34
1999 Nissan Gloria 01.jpg
Overview
Also called Nissan Cedric
Infiniti M
Production 1999–2004
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door hardtop
Layout FR layout/AWD
Powertrain
Engine 2.5 L V6 VQ25DD LEV
2.5 L I-6 RB25DET
3.0 L V6 VQ30DD LEV
3.0 L V6 VQ30DET LEV
Transmission CVT/4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,800 mm (110.2 in)
Length 4,860 mm (191.3 in)
Width 1,770 mm (69.7 in))
Height 1,440 mm (56.7 in)
Curb weight 1,710 kg (3,770 lb)

June 1999 saw the release of the final version of the Gloria, with design assistance from Porsche. Direct Injection is introduced on all engines with the "DD" designation. The AWD was offered only on vehicles with the RB25DET engine. The top levels 300 ULTIMA-Z and the 300 ULTIMA-ZV were available with the CVT transmission.

January 2000 saw Autech release a 40th anniversary edition of the Gloria.

End of production[edit]

Production of the Gloria ended after 46 years of production, and was replaced by the Nissan Fuga on October 2004.

1999 Nissan Gloria hardtop, rear view

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Friberg, Gunnar (1965-10-27). "Öst är öst och väst är väst, men nu mötas de två!" [East is east and west is west, but now the twain shall meet!]. Teknikens Värld (in Swedish) 18 (22): 26. 
  2. ^ Datsun and Prince station wagons, www.earlydatsun.com Retrieved on 2 November 2012
  3. ^ a b Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (5 March 1987). Automobil Revue 1987 (in German/French) 82. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 428. ISBN 3-444-00458-3. 
  4. ^ Yamaguchi, Jack K. (1984). Lösch, Annamaria, ed. Technology On Full Boost. World Cars 1984 (Pelham, NY: L'Editrice dell'Automobile LEA/Herald Books). p. 63. ISBN 0-910714-16-9. 
  5. ^ Lösch, Annamaria, ed. (1984). World Cars 1984. Pelham, NY: L'Editrice dell'Automobile LEA/Herald Books. p. 371. ISBN 0-910714-16-9. 
  6. ^ Automobil Revue 1987, p. 424
  7. ^ Automobil Revue 1987, p. 427
This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Japanese Wikipedia.

External links[edit]