Nisshin Maru

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Nisshin Maru.svg
The Nisshin Maru
Career (Japan) Japanese Flag
Name: Nisshin Maru (Previously Chikuzen Maru)[1]
Owner: Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha, Ltd.[1]
Operator: Institute of Cetacean Research
Port of registry: Japan[2][1]
Builder: Hitachi Zosen Corporation Innoshima Works
Launched: 30 August 1987[1]
In service: Active as of 2014
Homeport: Shimonoseki Harbor, Tokyo, Japan
Identification: IMO number: 8705292, Call sign: JJCJ, MMSI: 431683000[3]
Status: Whaling in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary as of February 2014
General characteristics
Type: Whaling factory ship
Tonnage: 8,145 gross register tons (GRT)[1]
Length: 129.58 m (425 ft 2 in) o/a[2][1]
Beam: 19.4 m (63 ft 8 in) (moulded)[2]
Draft: 11.7 m (38 ft 5 in)
Propulsion: 5,383 kw (7315 bhp)[1]
Speed: Max: 15.5 knots (28.7 km/h)
Cruise: 13.5 knots (25.0 km/h)

The 8,145-ton vessel MV Nisshin Maru (日新丸?) is the primary vessel[4] of the Japanese whaling fleet and is the world's only whaler factory ship.[5] It is also the largest member, and flagship of the seven-member whaling fleet, headed by research leader Shigetoshi Nishiwaki, and is based in Japan in Shimonoseki harbor.[6] The ship is owned by Tokyo-based company Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha Ltd which is a subsidiary of the Institute of Cetacean Research.[7]

Minke Whales, including a 1-year-old juvenile, being loaded aboard the Nisshin Maru. This photograph was taken in the Southern Ocean by agents from the Australian Customs and Border Protection Service vessel, during a 2008 surveillance mission.[8]

History[edit]

There have been several Japanese factory whaling ships named Nisshin Maru.[9] After the U.S. Navy's Pacific Fleet was attacked at Pearl Harbor in 7 December 1941, all Japanese factory ships soon began to serve in the war effort till sunk or till the end of World War II in 1945.

  • Nisshin Maru (16,764 tons), commissioned on 1936, was a whaling factory ship built by Taiyo Gyogyo K. K. from a purchased blueprint of the Norwegian factory ship "Sir James Clark ROSS".[10] This Nisshin Maru was sunk by the submarine USS Trout at Balabac Straight, Borneo on 16 May 1944.[9][10][11]
  • Nisshin Maru No. 2 (17,579 tons) built by Taiyo Gyogyo K. K., was commissioned in 1937 and was damaged in 7 February 1943 by two torpedoes fired from the USS Trout.[10][12] One Japanese historian reports that it was then towed and scrapped South of Ishigaki Island on 16 April 1943,[9] while an American source reports that this tanker was sunk in 6 May 1944 by three torpedoes fired from the USS Crevalle submarine.[13]

General Douglas MacArthur, as military governor of Japan in 1945, encouraged the defeated Japan to continue whaling in order to provide a cheap source of meat to its starving people, and millions of dollars in oil for the USA and Europe.[14][15] The Japanese whaling industry quickly recovered as MacArthur authorized the commission of two converted T2 tankers as whaling factory ships (Hashidate Maru[16] and Nisshin Maru No. 1),[15][17][18] to once again take whales in the Antarctic and elsewhere.[14][15]

  • Nisshin Maru No. 1 (11,803 tons) was originally a standard T2 oil tanker built in the United States during WWII. It was reconstructed by Taiyo Gyogyo K. K. in 1945 and commissioned as a Japanese whaling factory in 1946.[9] Nisshin Maru No. 1 was commissioned until the 1950/51 season. After mooring for three years, she reemerged as the factory Kinjo Maru (11,051 tons) and worked from 1954 to 1964.
  • Nisshin Maru (16,777 tons) was a new whaling factory ship constructed in 1951.[17] It was commissioned in the 1951/52 season to replace the Nisshin Maru No. 1 that was being refitted.[9] The Nisshin Maru stopped her activity as a whaling factory from the 1969/70 season. After being decommissioned from the whaling business, it worked as an oil tanker supplying fuel oil for fishing vessels on the high seas, and was then sold to the People's Republic of China in April 1973.[9]
  • Nisshin Maru No. 2 In 1957, Taiyo Gyogoy K. K. purchased the Abraham Larsen (23,326 tons) from the Republic of South Africa, fitted it out and renamed it the Nisshin Maru No. 2 (27,035 tons).[9] Nisshin Maru No.2 was the first ship to be decommissioned as a whaling factory from the beginning of the 1965/66 season, and worked thereafter as the mother ship of a fish meal factory in the North Pacific and Bering Sea.[9]
  • Nisshin Maru No. 3 The ship was built in 1947 by Gotaverken Cityvarvet of Sweden and was originally named Kosmos III (18,047 tons).[19] It was sold in 1961 to Taiyo Gyogyo K. K., fitted it and changed her name to Nisshin Maru No. 3 (23,106 tons).[9] It is now decommissioned from whaling.[when?][20]
  • Nisshin Maru The latest Nisshin Maru (8,030-tons) was built by Hitachi Zosen Corporation Innoshima Works and launched in 1987 as the Chikuzen Maru.[1] Then it was purchased by Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha Ltd,[when?] fitted and commissioned as a whaler factory ship. As of February 2014 it is contracted by the Institute of Cetacean Research.

2007 Antarctic voyage[edit]

A major fire in the ship's processing factory broke out on 15 February 2007 while in Antarctic waters. The resulting damage caused the ship to be temporarily disabled, all while continuing to carry approximately 1,000 tons of oil. This incident took place within the New Zealand Search and Rescue Region.[21] One crew member was killed in the fire.[22][23]

Citing environmental concerns, specifically the disabled ship's proximity to Cape Adare, Antarctica and the world's largest Adelie Penguin rookery, New Zealand Conservation Minister Chris Carter joined international citizens' groups in urgently requesting that the ship be towed away.[24] Japan's Institute of Cetacean Research (ICR), which administers the ship with the Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha, declined offers of a tow from the Greenpeace ship MV Esperanza, which had been nearby and monitoring the situation since 17 February. On 28 February, the ICR released a statement on its decision to cut short its Antarctic whale hunt for 2006/07 due to unrecoverable equipment, and the Nisshin Maru departed for Japan.

Other incidents[edit]

The Nisshin Maru and Greenpeace's MV Arctic Sunrise collided in December 1999 and in January 2006. In 2006 both ships claimed to have been rammed by the other,[25] and the ICR posted video footage to support its version of the incident.[26] Greenpeace responded that the waves emanating from the Arctic Sunrise in the video support Greenpeace's contention that its vessel had its engines in reverse; Greenpeace also claimed the location of cloud formations in the background of the ICR video indicate the MV Nisshin Maru was turning into the Greenpeace ship at the time of collision.[25]

Sea Shepherd Conservation Society claimed its president Paul Watson was shot by someone on the Nisshin Maru during a confrontation with the MY Steve Irwin off Antarctica in 2008. He was wearing a bulletproof vest and was uninjured. An ICR spokesman acknowledged that seven flashbangs were thrown, but stated that "no gunshots of any kind" were fired.[27]

In March 2011, the Nisshin Maru returned early from operations in the Southern Ocean and immediately began assisting in disaster relief efforts following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, transporting food, fuel, and other supplies to areas devastated by the catastrophe.[28]

In February 2013, the Nisshin Maru was involved in a multiple-ship collision, colliding with the Sea Shepherd vessels the Steve Irwin, the MY Bob Barker, and the MY Sam Simon,[29] as well as the whaler's refueling ship, the Sun Laurel.[30] The Bob Barker was damaged and issued a mayday. The Sun Laurel's lifeboats were also damaged due to the collision.

IMO regulations[edit]

Additional regulations from the United Nations International Maritime Organization (IMO) took effect on August 1, 2011 prohibiting ships using heavy oil fuel below 60 degrees south to prevent pollution. The IMO Guidelines For Ships Operating In Ice-Covered Waters also establishes requirements for a double-hull strengthened against ice-related damage. As of 2011 the Nisshin Maru did not meet the IMO standards.[31][32][33]

In popular culture[edit]

The Nisshin Maru is featured in the video game Ship Simulator Extremes, along with the Kyo Maru # 1 and the Greenpeace vessel Esperanza with its outboard inflatable boats and RIBs. It was the main setting for the movie Drawing Restraint 9.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Nisshin Maru – 8705292
  2. ^ a b c Lloyd's Register – Fairplay. Retrieved 20 February 2007
  3. ^ "NISSHIN MARU (fishing vessel): ship particulars and AIS position - IMO: 8705292, MMSI: 431683000, Callsign: JJCJ - FleetMon.com". Fleetmon.com. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  4. ^ http://www.maff.go.jp/e/quake/press_110331-8.html
  5. ^ Darby, Andrew (18 July 2009). "New rules for safe shipping may save whales". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  6. ^ "Protest as Japan whaling factory ship returns to port". AFP. 14 April 2009. 
  7. ^ http://sprite.msn.com/assets/Media_Center/Press_Releases/asset_upload_file187_51771.pdf 21 January 2011
  8. ^ Hon. P. Garrett MP, Australian Minister for the Environment, and Hon. B. Debus MP, Australian Minister for Home Affairs (7 February 2008). "Whaling Announcement – Release of images from the Oceanic Viking, Interview Transcript" (PDF). Maroubra, NSW, Australia. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i KAWAMURA, Akito (1980). "Chronological Notes on the Commissioned Japanese Whaling Factory Ships" (PDF). Bull. Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University 31 (2): 184–190. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c Hackett, Bob; Peter Cundall (2009). "Japanese Oilers: IJN Nisshin Maru". Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  11. ^ "3rd February in Military History". Armchair General. 10 February 2006. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  12. ^ "3rd February in Military History". Armchair General. 10 February 2006. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  13. ^ "IJN Nishin Maru: Tabular Record of Movement". Imperial Japanese Navy Page. 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  14. ^ a b Ellis, Richard (1999). Men and Whales. The Lyons Press. p. 405. ISBN 978-1-55821-696-9. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c Nicholson, Brendan (19 December 2007). "Blame General MacArthur for whaling row". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 19 December 2009. 
  16. ^ IJN Hashidate Maru: Tabular Record of Movement. Imperial Japanese Navy Page (2008)
  17. ^ a b Kalland, Arne; Brian, Moeran. "Japanese Whaling?: End of an Era". RLE: Japan Mini-Set E: Sociology & Anthropology 6 (Taylor & Francis, 2010). ISBN 978-0203843970. 
  18. ^ Downes, Siobhan (11/01/2014). "Fight to save whales relentless". The Dominion Post. Retrieved 28 January 2014. 
  19. ^ NISSHIN MARU NO.3 – 5253494 – WHALE FACTORY. Maritimr Connector.
  20. ^ Nisshin Maru No. 3 – decommissioned
  21. ^ "Search and rescue", Aeronautical Information Publication New Zealand, 6 July 2006 
  22. ^ "Japanese whaling ship on fire off Antarctica". Reuters. 15 February 2007. 
  23. ^ "Japanese whaler may move, activists fear oil spill". Reuters. 21 February 2007. 
  24. ^ "New Zealand demands Japan urgently move its stricken whaler from Antarctic coast". International Herald Tribune. 23 February 2007. [dead link]
  25. ^ a b "Greenpeace ship rammed by whalers". Greenpeace. Retrieved 19 February 2007. 
  26. ^ VIDEO TAKEN BY ICR : ARCTIC SUNRISE RAMMING THE NISSHIN-MARU. Institute of Cetacean Research. Retrieved 3 March 2010. 
  27. ^ Draper, Michelle; Gartrell, Adam (8 March 2008). "Japan denies shooting anti-whaling captain". AAP. 
  28. ^ "Japanese whaling mothership aids in tsunami disaster relief efforts". Nikkei.com. 24 March 2011. 
  29. ^ Choe, Kim (21 February 2013). "Sea Shepherd claims victory over whalers". 3 News NZ. 
  30. ^ "Whalers' 'ramming' damages Sea Shepherd ship". The Age. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  31. ^ Darby, Andrew (July 18, 2009). "New rules for safe shipping may save whales". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  32. ^ "Antarctic fuel oil ban and North American ECA MARPOL amendments enter into force on 1 August 2011" (Press release). International Maritime Organization (IMO). July 29, 2011. 
  33. ^ "IMO Backing Antarctic Ship Review". The Maritime Executive. March 9, 2011. 

External links[edit]