Nitrosamine

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Structure of the nitrosamino group

Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, most of which are carcinogenic.

Usages[edit]

Nitrosamines are used in the manufacture of some cosmetics, pesticides, and in most rubber products.[citation needed]

Occurrences[edit]

Nitrosamine occurs in latex products such as balloons,[1] and in many foods and other consumables. Nitrosamines from condoms are not expected to be of toxicological significance.[2]

In foods, nitrosamines are produced from nitrites and secondary amines, which often occur in the form of proteins. Their formation can occur only under certain conditions, including strongly acidic conditions such as that of the human stomach. High temperatures, as in frying, can also enhance the formation of nitrosamines. The presence of nitrosamines may be identified by the Liebermann nitroso reaction [3] (not to be confused with the Liebermann's reaction).

Under acidic conditions the nitrite forms nitrous acid (HNO2), which is protonated and splits into the nitrosonium cation N≡O+ and water: H2NO2+ = H2O + NO+. The nitrosonium cation then reacts with an amine to produce nitrosamine.[4]

These processes lead to significant levels of nitrosamines in many foodstuffs, especially beer, fish, and fish byproducts, and also in meat and cheese products preserved with nitrite pickling salt. The U.S. government established limits on the amount of nitrites used in meat products in order to decrease cancer risk in the population.[5] There are also rules about adding ascorbic acid or related compounds to meat, in order to inhibit nitrosamine formation. [6]

Tobacco-specific nitrosamines can also be found in tobacco smoke, American dip snuff, chewing tobacco, and to a much lesser degree, snus. (127.9 PPM for American dip snuff compared to 2.8 PPM in Swedish snuff or snus.)[7]

Cancer[edit]

In 1956, two British scientists, John Barnes and Peter Magee, reported that dimethylnitrosamine produced liver tumours in rats. Research was undertaken and approximately 90% of nitrosamine compounds were deemed to be carcinogenic.[8]

In the 1970s, there was an increased frequency of liver cancer found in Norwegian farm animals. The farm animals had been fed on herring meal, which was preserved using sodium nitrite. The sodium nitrite had reacted with dimethylamine in the fish and produced dimethylnitrosamine.[8]

Nitrosamines can cause cancers in a wide variety of animal species, a feature that suggests that they may also be carcinogenic in humans. At present, available epidemiological evidence from case-control studies on nitrite and nitrosamine intake supports a positive association with gastric cancer risk. Regarding oesophageal cancer, available evidence supports a positive association between nitrite and nitrosamine intake and GC, between meat and processed meat intake and GC and OC, and between preserved fish, vegetable and smoked food intake and GC, but is not conclusive.[9]

Hydrazines derived from these nitrosamines, e.g. UDMH, are also carcinogenic.

Examples of nitrosamines[edit]

Substance Name CAS # Synonyms Molecular Formula Physical Appearance Carcinogenicity Category
N-Nitrosonornicotine 16543-55-8 NNN C9H11N3O Light Yellow Low Melting Solid
4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone[10] 64091-91-4 NNK, 4'-(nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone C10H15N3O2 Light Yellow Oil
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 Dimethylnitrosamine, N,N-Dimethylnitrosamine, NDMA, DMN C2H6N2O Yellow liquid EPA-B2; IARC-2A; OSHA Carcinogen; TLV-A3
N-Nitrosodiethylamine[11][12][13] 55-18-5 diethylnitrosamide, diethylnitrosamine, N,N-diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosoethanamine, diethylnitrosamine, DANA, DENA, DEN, NDEA C4H10N2O Yellow liquid EPA-B2; IARC-2A
4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol 76014-81-8 NNAL
N-Nitrosoanabasine 37620-20-5 NAB C10H13N3O Yellow Oil IARC-3
N-Nitrosoanatabine 71267-22-6 NAT C10H11N3O Clear Yellow to Orange Oil IARC-3

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Altkofer, W; Braune, S; Ellendt, K; Kettl-Grömminger, M; Steiner, G (2005). "Migration of nitrosamines from rubber products--are balloons and condoms harmful to the human health?". Molecular nutrition & food research 49 (3): 235–8. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200400050. PMID 15672455. 
  2. ^ Proksch, E (2001). "Toxicological evaluation of nitrosamines in condoms". International journal of hygiene and environmental health 204 (2–3): 103–10. doi:10.1078/1438-4639-00087. PMID 11759152. 
  3. ^ Vogel A I, Practical Organic Chemistry, 3rd Ed. Impression 1962 p. 649
  4. ^ Vogel A I, Practical Organic Chemistry, 3rd Ed. Impression 1962 p. 1074
  5. ^ Honikel, Karl-Otto (January-February 2008). "The use and control of nitrate and nitrite for the processing of meat products". Meat Science 78: 68-76. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.05.030. 
  6. ^ http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/f-w00/nitrosamine.html
  7. ^ Gregory N. Connolly, and Howard Saxner (August 21, 2001). Informational Update Research on Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines (TSNAs) in Oral Snuff and a Request to Tobacco Manufacturers to Voluntarily Set Tolerance Limits For TSNAs in Oral Snuff. 
  8. ^ a b "Nitrosamines and Cancer". 
  9. ^ Jakszyn, P; Gonzalez, CA (2006). "Nitrosamine and related food intake and gastric and oesophageal cancer risk: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidence". World journal of gastroenterology : WJG 12 (27): 4296–303. PMID 16865769. 
  10. ^ Hecht, Steven S.; Borukhova, Anna; Carmella, Steven G. "Tobacco specific nitrosamines" Chapter 7; of "Nicotine safety and toxicity" Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco; 1998 - 203 pages
  11. ^ [ NIH Substance Profile]
  12. ^ [ Spectrum; Chemical Fact Sheet]
  13. ^ [ Safety data for N-nitrosodiethylamine]

External links[edit]