Nivôse

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For the frigate of the French Navy, see Nivôse (F 732)

Nivôse (French pronunciation: ​[nivoz]; also Nivose) was the fourth month in the French Republican Calendar. The month was named after the Latin word nivosus, which means snowy.

Nivôse was the first month of the winter quarter (mois d'hiver). It started between 21 and 23 December. It ended between 19 and 21 January. It follows the Frimaire and precedes the Pluviôse.

The new names for the calendar were suggested by Fabre d'Églantine on 24 October 1793. On 24 November the National Convention accepted the names with minor changes. So it was decided to omit the circumflex (accent circonflexe) in the names of the winter months. So the month was named Nivose instead of Nivôse. Historiography still prefers the spelling Nivôse.


3 Nivôse III
 
Primidi
Duodi
Tridi
Quartidi
Quintidi
Sextidi
Septidi
Octidi
Nonidi
Décadi
décade 10
1 Sunday
21 December 1794
2 Monday
22 December 1794
3 Tuesday
23 December 1794
4 Wednesday
24 December 1794
5 Thursday
25 December 1794
6 Friday
26 December 1794
7 Saturday
27 December 1794
8 Sunday
28 December 1794
9 Monday
29 December 1794
10 Tuesday
30 December 1794
décade 11
11 Wednesday
31 December 1794
12 Thursday
1 January 1795
13 Friday
2 January 1795
14 Saturday
3 January 1795
15 Sunday
4 January 1795
16 Monday
5 January 1795
17 Tuesday
6 January 1795
18 Wednesday
7 January 1795
19 Thursday
8 January 1795
20 Friday
9 January 1795
décade 12
21 Saturday
10 January 1795
22 Sunday
11 January 1795
23 Monday
12 January 1795
24 Tuesday
13 January 1795
25 Wednesday
14 January 1795
26 Thursday
15 January 1795
27 Friday
16 January 1795
28 Saturday
17 January 1795
29 Sunday
18 January 1795
30 Monday
19 January 1795
10 h
1:94:03
Nivôse
04:39:25
24 h


Day name table[edit]

Like all months in the French Republican Calendar, Nivôse lasted 30 days and was divided into three 10-day weeks called décades (decades). The 5th (Quintidi) day of every decade was named after a domestic animal, the 10th day (Decadi) after an agricultural tool (Decadi). Different from the other months the rest of the days were not named after an agricultural plant, but after a mineral or animal substance. Fabre d'Églantine says about this topic:

"In Nivôse earth is sealed and usually covered with snow. At this time earth is resting and there are no herbal agriculture products to characterize this month. We rather took names of animal and mineral substances of agricultural use."
  1re Décade 2e Décade 3e Décade
Primidi 1. Tourbe (Peat) 11. Granit (Granite) 21. Pierre à plâtre (Gypsum)
Duodi 2. Houille (Coal) 12. Argile (Clay) 22. Sel (Salt)
Tridi 3. Bitume (Asphalt) 13. Ardoise (Slate) 23. Fer (Iron)
Quartidi 4. Soufre (Sulphur) 14. Grès (Sandstone) 24. Cuivre (Copper)
Quintidi 5. Chien (Dog) 15. Lapin (Coney) 25. Chat (Cat)
Sextidi 6. Lave (Lava) 16. Silex (Flint) 26. Étain (Tin)
Septidi 7. Terre végétale (Humus) 17. Marne (Marl) 27. Plomb (Lead)
Octidi 8. Fumier (Manure) 18. Pierre à chaux (Limestone) 28. Zinc (Zinc)
Nonidi 9. Salpêtre (Nitrate) 19. Marbre (Marble) 29. Mercure (Mercury)
Decadi 10. Fléau (Flail) 20. Van (Winnowing Basket) 30. Crible (Sieve)

Conversion table[edit]

Table for conversion between Republican and Gregorian Calendar
for the month "Nivôse"
I. II. III. V. VI. VII.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
December 1792–1793 1793–1794 1794–1795 1796–1797 1797–1798 1798–1799 January
IV. VIII. IX. X. XI. XIII. XIV.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
December 1795–1796 1799–1800 1800–1801 1801–1802 1802–1803 1804–1805 1805 January
XII.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
December 1803–1804 January

External links[edit]