Nizam of Hyderabad

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Nizam of Hyderabad
Former Monarchy
Hyderabad Coat of Arms.jpg
Coat of Arms
NezamHaydarabad.jpg
Osman Ali Khan
First monarch Qamar-ud-din Khan
Last monarch Osman Ali Khan
Style His Exalted Highness
Official residence Chowmahalla Palace
Monarchy began 31 July 1724
Monarchy ended 17 September 1948

The Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad, popularly known as the Nizam of Hyderabad, was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into the states of Telangana, Karnataka and Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, was the title of the sovereigns of Hyderabad State, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jah dynasty.

The Asaf Jah dynasty was of Parso-tajik origin from the region around Samarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan, The dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently ruled after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control lapsed, and Asaf Jah declared himself independent in Hyderabad.

Following the decline of the Mughal power, India saw the rise of Maratha Empire. The Nizam himself saw many invasions by the Marathas, which resulted in the Nizam paying a regular tax (Chauth) to the Marathas. The major battles fought between the Marathas and the Nizam include Palkhed, Udgir, Rakshasbhuvan, and Kharda, in all of which the Nizam lost.[1] [1][2]

In 1903 the Berar region of the state was separated and merged into the Central Provinces of British India, to form the Central Provinces and Berar.

In 1947, at the time of the partition of India, Britain offered the 566 princely states in the sub-continent the option of acceding to either India or Pakistan, or remaining independent.

Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous of all princely states in India. It covered 82,698 square miles (214,190 km2) of fairly homogeneous territory and had a population of roughly 16.34 million people (as per the 1941 census), of which a majority (85%) was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system, currency and radio broadcasting service.

The Nizam decided to keep Hyderabad independent, unlike the other princely states, most of which acceded to India or to Pakistan voluntarily. The leaders of the new Indian Union did not want an independent - and possibly hostile - state in the heart of their new country. and were determined to assimilate Hyderabad into the Indian Union, by force if necessary. In September 1948, in Operation Polo, the Indian Army marched into Hyderabad, deposed the Nizam, and annexed the state into the Indian Union.[3][4]

Seven Nizams ruled Hyderabad for two centuries until 1947. The Asaf Jahi rulers were great patrons of literature, art, architecture, and culture, and rich food. The Nizams patronized Persian art, Persian architecture and Persian culture, which became central to the Hyderabadi Muslim identity. The Nizam was known for his wealth and jewelry collection.The last Nizam had been the richest man in the world.[5] The Nizams also developed the railway, and the introduction of electricity; developed roads, airways, irrigation and reservoirs; in fact, all major public buildings in Hyderabad City were built during his reign under the British Raj. He pushed education, science, and establishment of Osmania University.

Hyderabad State in 1909

Family origins[edit]

The Asaf Jahi was a dynasty of Perso-Tajik origin from the region around Samarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan. They came to India in the late 17th century, and became servants of the Mughal Empire. As the Mughals were great patrons of Persian culture, language, literature: the family found a ready patronage.

Origin of the title[edit]

Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the Whole Empire. The word is derived from the Persian word, as in (Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (April 10, 1018 – October 14, 1092), better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk (Persian: نظام‌الملک, "Order of the Realm"), Nizām (نظام), meaning order, arrangement. The Nizam was referred to as Ala Hadrat / Ala Hazrat or Nizam Sarkar, meaning His Exalted Highness.

Rise of the Nizams[edit]

The first Nizam ruled on behalf of the Mughal emperors. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Nizams split from the Mughals to form an independent kingdom. When the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union.

The Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers; however there was a period of 13 years after the rule of the first Nizam when three of his sons (Nasir Jung, Muzafar Jung and Salabath Jung) ruled. They were not officially recognised as the rulers.

A legend about the first Nizam[vague] states that, on one of his hunting trips he was offered some kulcha oval bread (an Indian bread) by a holy man and was asked to eat as many as he could. The Nizam could eat seven kulchas and the holy man then prophesied that seven generations of his family would rule the state.

By tradition no Nizam has ever left India no matter how good a reason might exist for doing so, as it was said[by whom?], "the Sovereign is too precious to his people ever to leave India.".

Infrastructure[edit]

The Nizam's of Hyderabad throne in Chowmahalla Palace

During the period of Nizam rule, Hyderabad State became the richest. Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII and his family including Salar Jung I were taught by Nawab Sarwar Ul Mulk and Agha Mirza Baig Sarwar ul mulk Bahadur, who was his political advisor,[2] and the senior-most salute state among the Indian princely states. It was spread over 223,000 km2 (86,000 sq mi) in the Deccan, ruled by the Asaf Jahi dynasty. The Nizam's were conferred with the title of His Exalted Highness, and "Faithful Ally of the British Government" by the imperial-colonial British government for their collaborating rôle in the wars against Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the Great Revolt of 1857–1858.,[6] becoming the only Indian prince to be given both these statuses.[7] The rule of the Nizams brought cultural and economic growth for Hyderabad city. One example of the wealth of Nizam rule is the Jewels of the Nizams, which is an international tourist attraction occasionally displayed in Salar Jung Museum. In 1948 Hyderabad state had an estimated population of 17 million (1.7 crore), and it generated an estimated annual revenue of £90,029,000.[6] The state had its own currency known as the Hyderabadi rupee, until 1951.[8] The pace at which the last Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan amassed wealth made him one of the world's richest men in 1937 and he was also known for his miserliness.[7] According to the Forbes All-Time Wealthiest List of 2008, Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan is the fifth richest man in recorded history, with an estimated worth of US$210.8 billion (adjusted by Forbes as per the growth of the US GDP since that period and the present value of the US dollar).[8] The Nizams set up numerous institutions in the name of the dynasty including hospitals and schools, colleges, universities that imparted education in Urdu.[8] Inspired by the Indian Civil Service, the Nizams established the Hyderabad Civil Service and built large reservoirs. Survey work on the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was initiated during this time, though the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969.[9][10]

List of Nizams of Hyderabad (1724–1948)[edit]

Image Titular Name Personal Name Date of birth Nizam From Nizam Until Date of death
Asaf Jah I, Nizam of Hyderabad.jpg
Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I
نظام‌الملک آصف جاہ
Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan 20 August 1671 31 July 1724 1 June 1748
No image.png
Nasir Jung
نصیرجنگ
Mir Ahmed Ali Khan 26 February 1712 1 June 1748 16 December 1750
Dupleix meeting the Soudhabar of the Deccan.jpg
‏Muzaffar Jung
مظفرجنگ
Mir Hidayat Muhi-ud-din Sa'adullah Khan  ? 16 December 1750 13 February 1751
No image.png
Salabat Jung
صلابت جنگ
Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan 24 November 1718 13 February 1751 8 July 1762
(deposed)
16 September 1763
Mir Nizam Ali Khan.jpg
Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah II
نظام‌الملک آصف جاہ دوم
Mir Nizam Ali Khan 7 March 1734 8 July 1762 6 August 1803
Nizam Sikandar Jah (r.1803-29).jpg
Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III
سکندر جاہ ،آصف جاہ تریہم
Mir Akbar Ali Khan 11 November 1768 6 August 1803 21 May 1829
Nasir-ud-dawlah, Nizam of Hyderabad 1794-1857.jpg
Nasir-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah IV
ناصر الدولہ ،آصف جاہ چارہم
Mir Farqunda Ali Khan 25 April 1794 21 May 1829 16 May 1857
No image.png
Afzal-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah V
افضال الدولہ ،آصف جاہ پنجم
Mir Tahniyath Ali Khan 11 October 1827 16 May 1857 26 February 1869
Asaf Jah VI.jpg
Asaf Jah VI
آصف جاہ شیشم
Mir Mahbub Ali Khan 17 August 1866 26 February 1869 29 August 1911
NezamHaydarabad.jpg
Asaf Jah VII
آصف جاہ ہفتم
Mir Osman Ali Khan 6 April 1886 29 August 1911 17 September 1948
(deposed)
24 February 1967

Descendants of the last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII[edit]

On 22 February 1937 a cover story by TIME called Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII as the wealthiest man in the world

The last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII, had 28 sons and 44 daughters. The Asaf Jah dynasty followed the policy of male primogeniture regardless of the mother's marital status or rank. Among his children were Azam Jah, Prince of Berar, (21 February 1907 – 9 October 1970), the eldest son.

Family tree[edit]

  • Simple silver crown.svg I. Asaf Jah I, Yamin us-Sultanat, Rukn us-Sultanat, Jumlat ul-Mulk, Madar ul-Maham, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Khan-i-Dauran, Nawab Mir Ghazi ud-din Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur, Fath Jang, Sipah Salar, Nawab Subadar of the Deccan, 1st Nizam of Hyderabad (cr. 1720) (20 August 1671 – 1 June 1748). A senior governor and counsellor in the Imperial government. Defeated the Imperial forces on 19 June 1720 at Hasanpur and formed an independent state of his own. Confirmed in his possessions by Imperial firman and crowned on 31 July. Named Vice-Regent of the Mughal Empire by the Emperor Muhammad Shah on 8 February 1722, secured the province of Berar on 11 October 1724 and formally made Hyderabad City his new capital on 7 December 1724.
    • Simple silver crown.svg II. Humayun Jah, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Ahmad 'Ali Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur, Nasir Jang, Nawab Subadar of the Deccan, 2nd Nizam of Hyderabad (26 February 1712 – k. by the Nawab of Kadapa 16 December 1750; r. 1 June 1748 - 16 December 1750).
    • Sahibzadi Khair un-nisa Begum. Married Nawab Talib Muhi ud-din Mutasawwil Khan Bahadur, Muzaffar Jang:
      • Simple silver crown.svg III. Nawab Hidayat Muhi ud-din Sa'adu'llah Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur, Muzaffar Jang, Nawab Subadar of the Deccan, 3rd Nizam of Hyderabad (k. by the Nawab of Kurnool 13 February 1751; r. 16 December 1750 - 13 February 1751).
    • Simple silver crown.svg IV. Amir ul-Mamalik, Asaf ud-Daula, Nawab Said Muhammad Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur, Zaffar Jang, Nawab Subadar of the Deccan, 4th Nizam of Hyderabad (November 1718 – 16 September 1763; r. 13 February 1751 - 8 July 1762). Deposed by his younger brother on 8 July 1762 and killed in prison the following year, aged 44.
    • Simple silver crown.svg V. Asaf Jah II, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Nizam 'Ali Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur, Fath Jang, Sipah Salar, Nawab Subadar of the Deccan, 5th Nizam of Hyderabad (7 March 1734 – 6 August 1803; r. 8 July 1762 - 6 August 1803)
      • Simple silver crown.svg VI. Asaf Jah III, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Akbar 'Ali Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur, Fulad Jang, 6th Nizam of Hyderabad (11 November 1768 – 21 May 1829; r. 6 August 1803 - 21 May 1829). The first of the dynasty to be officially granted the title of Nizam.
        • Simple silver crown.svg VII. Rustam-i-Dauran, Aristu-i-Zaman, Asaf Jah IV, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Farkhanda 'Ali Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur [Gufran Manzil], Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, Ayn waffadar Fidvi-i-Senliena, Iqtidar-i-Kishwarsitan Muhammad Akbar Shah Padshah-i-Ghazi, 7th Nizam of Hyderabad (25 April 1794 – 16 May 1857; r. 21 May 1829 - 16 May 1857).
          • Simple silver crown.svg VIII. Asaf Jah V, Nizam ul-Mulk, Afzal ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Tahniyat 'Ali Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur, 8th Nizam of Hyderabad, GCSI (11 October 1827 – 26 February 1869; r. 16 May 1857 - 26 February 1869). The first of the dynasty to come under British rule.
            • Simple silver crown.svg IX. Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VI, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Mahbub 'Ali Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, 9th Nizam of Hyderabad GCB, GCSI (17 August 1866 – 31 August 1911; r. 26 February 1869 - 31 August 1911). Succeeded his father on 26 February 1869, ruled under a regency until 5 February 1884, when he was invested with full ruling powers by the Viceroy of India.
              • Simple silver crown.svg X. Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VII, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Osman ‘Ali Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, Faithful Ally of the British Government, 10th Nizam of Hyderabad and of Berar GCSI, GBE, Royal Victorian Chain, MP (6 April 1886 – 24 January 1967; r. 31 August 1911 - 26 January 1950). Granted the style of His Exalted Highness (1 January 1918), the title of Faithful Ally of the British Government (24 January 1918) and Nizam of Hyderabad and of Berar (13 November 1936). The last of the ruling Nizams; ruled absolutely from his accession until 19 September 1948, when the state was formally annexed to the Union of India. Maintained semi-ruling and semi-autonomous status from then until 23 November 1949, when he accepted the paramountcy of the new Indian government and Constitution and acceded to the Union. Formally lost his sovereignty, ending 230 years of Asaf Jahi rule, upon the formal promulgation of the Constitution on 26 January 1950. Served as Rajpramukh of the new Hyderabad State from 26 January 1950 until 31 October 1956, when the post was abolished. Served as a titular monarch from 26 January 1950 until his death.
                • Azam Jah, Prince of Berar GCIE, GBE (21 February 1907 – 9 October 1970). Granted the title of His Highness the Prince of Berar (13 November 1936). Passed over in the line of succession in 1967 in favour of his elder son.
                  • Simple silver crown.svg XI. Rustam-i-Dauran, Arustu-i-Zaman, Wal Mamaluk, Asaf Jah VIII, Muzaffar ul-Mamaluk, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Barakat ‘Ali Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur, Sipah Salar, Fath Jang, 11th Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar (b. 6 October 1933; 11th Nizam: 24 January 1967 - 28 December 1971; dynastic head and pretender since then).
                    • Azmat Jah, Nawab Mir Muhammad Azmat ‘Ali Siddiqi, Khan Bahadur (b. 23 June 1960; appointed Prince of Berar and heir apparent: 2002)

italics – Considered pretenders by most historians; refrained from exercising traditional authority during their reigns.

[11]

Palaces of the Nizams[edit]

The Asaf Jahis were prolific builders. Several palaces of the Nizams were:

Other landmarks include the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad, City College, Public Gardens, also known as Bagh-e-aam, Jubilee Hall, Asafia library, The Assembly building, Niloufer Hospital, the Osmania Arts College and the Osmania Medical College are among their notable constructions.

The Nizams liked the European style of architecture and created a fusion of European traditions with Hindu and Islamic forms and motifs.

End of the Dynasty and Removal of the Last Nizam[edit]

General El Edroos (at right) offers his surrender of the Hyderabad State Forces to Major General (later General and Army Chief) Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri at Secunderabad.

After the British left India in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad initially chose to join neither India nor Pakistan. He later declared Hyderabad a free, self-governing independent state but the Government of India refused to accept his point of view as Hyderabad was surrounded by India on all sides and did not have an access to sea. After attempts by India to persudade the Nizam to accede to India failed, the Indian government launched a military operation named Operation Polo to overthrow his rule. When the Indian Army invaded his princely State on 13 September 1948, his forces were unable to withstand the Indian army and were defeated. The Nizam capitulated and his forces surrendered on 17 September 1948 and he broadcast this over radio the same afternoon. The Nizam was forced to accept accession to India. His rule ended on 17 September 1948. It was the end of the ruling dynasty. Mir Osman Ali Khan, the last Nizam, died on Friday 24 February 1967. All Nizams are buried in the royal graves at the Makkah Masjid near Charminar in Hyderabad except for the last Nizam, Mir Osman Ali Khan, who wished to be buried beside his mother, in the grave yard of Judi Mosque facing King Kothi Palace.

Places and things named after the Nizam[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dictionary of Battles and Sieges - Google Books
  2. ^ a b The State At War In South Asia - Pradeep Barua - Google Books
  3. ^ "Official Website of Indian Army". Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  4. ^ "Hyderabad on the Net". Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  5. ^ "Top 10: Richest Men (of All Time)". inStash. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  6. ^ a b "Hyderabad:the holdout". Time (magazine). 30 August 1948. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "Richest Indian in history!". Daily Star (United Kingdom). 23 July 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c "Jewel in the crown: a palace fit for a Nizam". The Guardian. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011. 
  9. ^ Mahmood Bin, Muhammad (1999). A policeman ponders: memories and melodies of a varied life. A.P.H.Publishing Corporation. p. 19. ISBN 978-81-7648-026-0. 
  10. ^ Rann Singh, Mann (1996). Tribes of India:ongoing challenges. MD Publication Pvt Ltd. p. 310. ISBN 81-7533-007-4.  .
    • A.Ranga, Reddy (2003). The state of Rayalaseema. Naurang Rai, Mittal Publication. p. 5. ISBN 978-81-7099-814-3. 
    • P.V, Kate (1987). Marathwada Under the Nizams, 1724–1948. Mittal Publications. pp. 23–47. ISBN 81-7099-017-3. 
  11. ^ "hyder". Retrieved 28 September 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Mughal Administration of Deccan Under Nizamul Mulk Asaf Jah, 1720–48 A.D.By M. A. Nayeem, Indian Council of Historical Research, University of Pune, Dept. of History [1]

"The Days of the Beloved" Harriet Ronken Lynton and Mohini Rajan, Berkeley University Press

External links[edit]