Nizam of Hyderabad
|Nizam of Hyderabad|
|Coat of Arms|
|Mir Osman Ali Khan|
|First monarch||Qamaruddin Khan|
|Last monarch||Osman Ali Khan|
|Style||His Exalted Highness|
|Official residence||Chowmahalla Palace|
|Monarchy began||31 July 1720|
|Monarchy ended||17 September 1948|
The Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad, popularly known as the Nizam of Hyderabad, was a former monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra on a linguistic basis. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, was the title of the sovereigns of Hyderabad State, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jah dynasty,
The Asaf Jah dynasty was of Turkic origin from the region around Samarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan, The dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently ruled after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control lapsed, and Asaf Jah declared himself independent in Hyderabad.
Following the decline of the Mughal power, India saw the rise of Maratha Empire. The Nizam himself saw many invasions by the Marathas, which resulted in the Nizam paying a regular tax (Chauth) to the Marathas. The major battles fought between the Marathas and the Nizam include Palkhed, Udgir, Rakshasbhuvan, and Kharda, in all of which the Nizam lost. 
In 1947, at the time of the partition of India, Britain offered the 566 princely states in the sub-continent the option of acceding to either India or Pakistan, or remaining independent.
Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous of all princely states in India. It covered 82,698 square miles (214,190 km2) of fairly homogeneous territory and had a population of roughly 16.34 million people (as per the 1941 census), of which a majority (85%) was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system, currency and radio broadcasting service.
The Nizam decided to keep Hyderabad independent because it was geographically impossible to join Pakistan. After the Telangana Rebellion, the Nizam commanded the Razakars, private militia to seize back control over the region. The Razakars perpetuated a massacre over the Telangana peasants. After months of burning, looting, rapes and killings, the Indian army marched into Hyderabad and suppressed the Razakars and the Nizam with Operation Polo in September 1948 and annexed the Telangana region back into the Indian Union.
Seven Nizams ruled Hyderabad for two centuries until 1947. The Asaf Jahi rulers were great patrons of literature, art, architecture, and culture, and rich food. The Nizams patronized Persian art, Persian architecture and Persian culture, which became central to the Hyderabadi Muslim identity.At the same time, it must be duly noted that Asif Jahi rulers especially Nawab Mir Mahboob Ali Khan Bahadur and 8th Nizam - Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan Bahadur took very good care of their Hindu subjects. He appointed Hindus on major posts, donated Jagirs for temples, and gave huge funding for Hindu Educational Institutions.On the request of Madan Mohan Malaviya, he sanctioned a grant of Rs. 10 lakh for the upliftment of Banaras Hindu University. Being a widely recognised as a just and secular king, It was Mir Osman Ali Khan who allotted 54 acre land to Dr. B R Ambedkar where the later established Milind Education Society. A glance on the files of Andhra Pradesh Archives reveals that Nizam donated Rs. 82825 for Yadgirgutta temple, Rs 5000 for Sri Rambagh temple, Rs 50,000 for Bhadrachalam temple and Rs.8000 for Sri Tirupati Balaji temple.  The Nizam was also known for his wealth and jewelry collection collection. The last Nizam had been the richest man in the world. The Nizams also developed the railway, introduced electricity; developed roads, airways, irrigation and reservoirs; in fact, all major public buildings in Hyderabad City were built during his reign under the British Raj. He pushed education, science, and establishment of Osmania University.
- 1 Family origins
- 2 Origin of the title
- 3 Rise of the Nizams
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 List of Nizams of Hyderabad (1720 – present)
- 6 Descendants of the last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII
- 7 Family tree
- 8 Palaces of the Nizams
- 9 End of the Dynasty and Removal of the Last Nizam
- 10 Places and things named after the Nizam
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
The Asaf Jahi was a dynasty of Turkic origin from the region around Samarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan. They came to India in the late 17th century, and became servants of the Mughal Empire. As the Mughals were great patron of Persian culture, language, literature: the family found a ready patronage.
Origin of the title
Nizām-ul-mulk was a title first used in Urdu around 1600 to mean Governor of the realm or Deputy for the Whole Empire. The word is derived from the Arabic word, Nizām (نظام), meaning order, arrangement. The Nizam was referred to as Ala Hadrat / Ala Hazrat or Nizam Sarkar, meaning His Exalted Highness.
Rise of the Nizams
The first Nizam ruled on behalf of the Mughal emperors. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Nizams split from the Mughals to form an independent kingdom. When the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union.
The Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers; however there was a period of 13 years after the rule of the first Nizam when three of his sons (Nasir Jung, Muzafar Jung and Salabath Jung) ruled. They were not officially recognised as the rulers.
A legend about the first Nizam[vague] states that, on one of his hunting trips he was offered some kulcha oval bread (an Indian bread) by a holy man and was asked to eat as many as he could. The Nizam could eat seven kulchas and the holy man then prophesied that seven generations of his family would rule the state.
By tradition no Nizam has ever left India no matter how good a reason might exist for doing so, as it was said[by whom?], "the Sovereign is too precious to his people ever to leave India.".
During the period of Nizam rule, Hyderabad State became the richest. Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII and his family including Salar Jung I were taught by Nawab Sarwar Ul Mulk and Agha Mirza Baig Sarwar ul mulk Bahadur, who was his political advisor, and the senior-most salute state among the Indian princely states. It was spread over 223,000 km2 (86,000 sq mi) in the Deccan, ruled by the Asaf Jahi dynasty. The Nizam's were conferred with the title of His Exalted Highness, and "Faithful Ally of the British Government" by the imperial-colonial British government for their collaborating rôle in the wars against Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the Great Revolt of 1857–1858., becoming the only Indian prince to be given both these statuses. The rule of the Nizams brought cultural and economic growth for Hyderabad city. One example of the wealth of Nizam rule is the Jewels of the Nizams, which is an international tourist attraction occasionally displayed in Salar Jung Museum. In 1948 Hyderabad state had an estimated population of 17 million (1.7 crore), and it generated an estimated annual revenue of £90,029,000. The state had its own currency known as the Hyderabadi rupee, until 1951. The pace at which the last Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan amassed wealth made him one of the world's richest men in 1937 and he was also known for his miserliness. According to the Forbes All-Time Wealthiest List of 2008, Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan is the fifth richest man ever, with an estimated worth of US$210.8 billion (adjusted with the present value of the US dollar). The Nizams set up numerous institutions in the name of the dynasty including hospitals and schools, colleges, universities that imparted education in Urdu. Inspired by the Indian Civil Service, the Nizams established the Hyderabad Civil Service and built large reservoirs. Survey work on the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was initiated during this time, though the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969.
List of Nizams of Hyderabad (1720 – present)
Nizams of Hyderabad (1720–1948)
|Image||Titular Name||Personal Name||Date of birth||Nizam From||Nizam Until||Date of death|
|Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I
نظامالملک آصف جاہ
|Qamar-ud-din Khan||20 August 1671||31 July 1720||1 June 1748|
|Ahmed Ali Khan||26 February 1712||1 June 1748||16 December 1750|
|Hidayat Muhi-ud-din Sa'adullah Khan||?||16 December 1750||13 February 1751|
|Sa'id Muhammad Khan||24 November 1718||13 February 1751||8 July 1762
|16 September 1763|
|Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah II
نظامالملک آصف جاہ دوم
|Nizam Ali Khan||7 March 1734||8 July 1762||6 August 1803|
|Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III
سکندر جاہ ،آصف جاہ تریہم
|Akbar Ali Khan||11 November 1768||6 August 1803||21 May 1829|
|Nasir-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah IV
ناصر الدولہ ،آصف جاہ چارہم
|Farqunda Ali Khan||25 April 1794||21 May 1829||16 May 1857|
|Afzal-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah V
افضال الدولہ ،آصف جاہ پنجم
|Tahniyath Ali Khan||11 October 1827||16 May 1857||26 February 1869|
|Asaf Jah VI
آصف جاہ شیشم
|Mahbub Ali Khan||17 August 1866||26 February 1869||29 August 1911|
|Asaf Jah VII
آصف جاہ ہفتم
|Mir Osman Ali Khan||6 April 1886||29 August 1911||17 September 1948
|24 February 1967|
Titular Nizam of Hyderabad (1948 – present)
|Image||Titular Name||Personal Name||Date of birth||Titular King From||Titular KingUntil||Date of death|
|Asaf Jah VII
آصف جاہ ہفتم
|Mir Osman Ali Khan||6 April 1886||17 September 1948||24 February 1967|
|Mukarram Jah, Asaf Jah VIII
مکرم جاہ ،آصف جاہ ہشت
|Mir Barkat Ali Khan||6 October 1933||24 February 1967||present|
Descendants of the last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2012)|
The last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, Asif Jah VII, had 44 children and grandchildren. The Asaf Jah dynasty followed the policy of male primogeniture regardless of the mother's marital status or rank.
First generation (sons)
- Azam Jah, Prince of Berar, (21 February 1907 – 9 October 1970), eldest son. He was passed over in the line of succession in favour of his eldest son, Mukarram Jah (Barkat Ali Khan), who was given the title Asaf Jah VIII.
- Moazzam Jah, (21 February 1907 – 9 October 1970), second son.
- Kazim Jah Bahadur (1912–1952), third son. Had have 5 daughters & 2 sons.
- Rajab Jah Bahadur (1912–); fourth son.
- Abid Jah (1913–1983), fifth son.
- Hashmat Jah (1913–1988), sixth son.
- Hashim Jah (1913–1991), seventh son.
- Taqi Jah (1913–1985), eight son.
- Saadath Jah Bahadur(1917–1988), nineth son.
- Basharath Jah Bahadur, tenth son.
- Imdad Jah (1944–2013);eleventh son
- Zulfaqar Jah;twelth son.
- Nawazish Jah (1944–2010);thirteenth son.
- Fazal Jah (1946–);forteenth son
- Bhojat Jah (1947–1982),fifteenth son
- Shabir Jah.sixteen son.
Second and subsequent generations
- Mukarram Jah (Barkat Ali Khan), (6 October 1933–), son of Azam Jah, the eldest son of the last Nizam. He was given the title Asaf Jah VIII.
- Muffakham Jah (1939–), son of Azam Jah, the eldest son of the last Nizam, and younger brother of Mukarram Jah (Barkat Ali Khan), Asaf Jah VIII.
- Shahamat Jah (1957–), son of Moazzam Jah, the second son of the last Nizam.
- Azmat Jah, the eldest son of Mukarram Jah (Barkat Ali Khan), Asaf Jah VIII.
- Azam Jah (1979–), second son of Azmet Jah.
- Rafat Jah (1966–), elder son of Muffakham Jah.
- Farhad Jah, younger son of Muffakham Jah.
- Ahmad Jah, eldest son of Kazim Jah, the fourth son of the last Nizam.
- Baqir Jah; younger son of Kazim Jah, the fourth son of the last Nizam.
- Mir Arshad Ali Khan; son of Ahmad Jah
- Mir Muhammad Jafar Ali Khan (1964–); elder son of Baqir Jah.
- Mir Kauser Ali Khan (1966–); younger son of Baqir Jah.
- Mir Bande Ali Khan (1951–); son of Abid Jah (1913–1983), the seventh son of the last Nizam.
- Mir Mushraf Ali Khan (1969–); son of Mir Banda Ali Khan.
- Mir Hassan ‘Ali Khan (1959–); first son of Hashmat Jah.
- Mir Hussain ‘Ali Khan (1961–); second son of Hashmat Jah.
- Mir Habib ‘Ali Khan; third son of Hashmat Jah.
- Mir Shamsher ‘Ali Khan (1941–); eldest son of Hashim Jah (1913–1991), the nineth son of the last Nizam.
- Mir Mehraj ‘Ali Khan; third son of Saadath Jah Bahadur.
- Mir Shahamat ‘Ali Khan (1942–); third son of Hashim Jah.
- Mir Baktiyar ‘Ali Khan (1964–); elder son of Mir Shaahmat ‘Ali Khan.
- Mir Sulaiman ‘Ali Khan (1980–); younger son of Mir Shahamat ‘Ali Khan.
- Mir Kawkab ‘Ali Khan; fourth son of Hashim Jah.
- Mir Zamin ‘Ali Khan (1948–); fifth son of Hashim Jah.
- Mir Muhammad Jaffar ‘Ali Khan (1978–); son of Mir Zamin ‘Ali Khan.
- Mir Haider ‘Ali Khan (2000–); son of Mir Muhammad Jaffar ‘Ali Khan.
- Mir Murtuza ‘Ali Khan (2007–); son of Mir Muhammad Jaffar ‘Ali Khan.
- Mir Askar ‘Ali Khan; sixth son of Hashim Jah.
- Mir Muhammad Nusrath ‘Ali Khan; seventh son of Hashim Jah.
- Mir Muhammad Hussain ‘Ali Khan (1970–); son of Mir Muhammad Nusrath ‘Ali Khan.
- Mir Karam ‘Ali Khan (1956–); eighth son of Hashim Jah.
- Mir Osman ‘Ali Khan (1985–); son of Mir Karam ‘Ali Khan.
- Mir Najaf ‘Ali Khan (1964–); ninth son of Hashim Jah.
- Muhammad Anas Ali Khan (2001–); son of Mir Najaf ‘Ali Khan.
- Mir Naqi ‘Ali Khan. Elder son of Taqi Jah (1913–1985), tenth son of the last Nizam.
- Mir Ja’afar ‘Ali Khan. Younger son of Taqi Jah.
- Mir Firasath ‘Ali Khan; eldest son of Sa’adat Jah (1917–1988),son of Sa'dath Jah.
- Mir Saqafath ‘Ali Khan. (1968–); fourth son of Sa'adat Jah.
- Imdad Jah (1944–); twenty-third son of the last Nizam.
- Dilshad Jah (1963–); elder son of Imdad Jah.
- Mir Irshad ‘Ali Khan (1977–); younger son of Imdad Jah.
- Son of Nawazish Jah (1944–2010); twenty-fifth son of the last Nizam.
- Mir Salabat ‘Ali Khan (1969–); son of Bhojat Jah (1947–1982).
- Mir Bhojat ‘Ali Khan (1998–), son of Mir Salabat ‘Ali Khan.
- Mir Danish Ali Khan (1966) elder Son Of Nawazish Jah.
- Mir Darvesh Ali Khan (1986) Son Of Mir Danish Ali Khan.
Descendants of Asaf Jah III
Shazada Nawab Mir Tafazul Ali Khan Mir Badesha (Saif-ul-mulk) only son of sikander jah nizam III born with wife Jahan Parwar Begum Sahiba (Haji Begum) daughter of Nawab Saif Ul Mulk (Maali Mian) son of Arastu Jah(was the prime minister during the Asaf jah III).
- Sahibzada Mir Jamil ud-din ‘Ali Khan (1940–).
- second son Samsan ul-Mulk, Sunisamad ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Bashir ud-din 'Ali Khan Bahdur, Samsan Jang (1797–1876),
- his seventh son Nawab Mir Habib 'Ali Khan Bahadur, Muazziz Jang (1821–?),
- his son Sahibzada Mir Yusuf 'Ali Khan (1856-19?),
- Sahibzada Mir Habib 'Ali Khan Bahadur (1900–1937)
- Sahibzada Mir Bashir ud-din Ali Khan Bahadur (1921–1980).
- Shahibzada Mir Farooq Ali Khan . Son of Mir Mehboob Ali Khan.son of mir bahauddin ali khan uzzam-ud-daula saham-jung son of samsam-ud-daula
- sahibzada Mir Abid Ali Khan. Son Of Mir Mehboob Ali Khan. Son of Mir bahauddin Ali Khan uzzam-ud-daula saham-jung son of samsam-ud-daula
- sahibzada Mir Dildar Ali Khan. Son Of Mir Mehboob Ali Khan. Son of Mir bahauddin Ali Khan uzzam-ud-daula saham-jung son of samsam-ud-daula
- sahibzada Mir Ehethesham Ali Khan. Son Of Mir Abid Ali Khan. Son of Mir mehboob Ali Khan son of Mir bahauddin Ali khan uzzam-ud-daula saham-jung son of samsam-ud-daula
- Sahibzada Mir Moiz ud-din ‘Ali Khan (1954–). Son of Sahibzada Mir farooq Ali Khan(1924–1986)
- Shahizada Mir Mohiuddin Ali Khan & Shahizada Mir Farooq Ali Khan(1989)- Son of Mir Moiz uddin Ali Khan.
- shahibzadi Mir Sadia Moiz D/o.Shahibzada Mir Moiz uddin Ali Khan(Wife of Shaikh ilyas Ahmed).
- Sahebzada Mir Azmath 'Ali Khan (1944–). Son of Nawab Mir Hussain 'Ali Khan Bahadur (1923–1987), the second son of Sahibzada Mir Habib 'Ali Khan Bahadur.
- Sahebzada Mir Himayath 'Ali Khan (1984–). Eldest son of Sahebzada Mir Azmath 'Ali Khan.
- Sahebzada Mir Azam 'Ali Khan (1988–). Second son of Sahebzada Mir Azmath 'Ali Khan.
- Sahebzada Mir Maqsood 'Ali Khan (2001–). Third son of Sahebzada Mir Azmath 'Ali Khan.
- Sahibzada Mir Osman 'Ali Khan (1952–). Second son of Nawab Mir Husain Ali Khan Bahadur.
- Sahibzada Mir Khader 'Ali Khan (1955–). Third son of Nawab Mir Husain Ali Khan Bahadur.
- Sahibzada Mir Tawfeeq 'Ali Khan (1983–). Elder son of Sahibzada Mir Khader 'Ali Khan.
- Sahibzada Mir Mujahid 'Ali Khan (1995–). Second son of Sahibzada Mir Khader 'Ali Khan.
I. Qamar-ud-din Khan, Asaf Jah I, 1st Nizam of Hyderabad (20 August 1671 – 1 June 1748). A senior governor and counsellor in the Imperial government. Defeated the Imperial forces on 19 June 1720 at Hasanpur and formed an independent state of his own. Confirmed in his possessions by Imperial firman and crowned on 31 July. Named Vice-Regent of the Mughal Empire by the Emperor Muhammad Shah on 8 February 1722, secured the province of Berar on 11 October 1724 and formally made Hyderabad City his new capital on 7 December 1724. Died at Burhampur on 1 June 1748, aged 76. He had six sons and seven daughters, including:
- II. Nasir Jang Mir Ahmad, 2nd Nizam of Hyderabad (26 February 1712 – 16 December 1750). Ruled from 1 June 1748 – 16 December 1750, when he was killed aged 38 by the Nawab of Kadapa.
- Sahibzadi Khair un-nisa Begum. Married Nawab Talib Muhi ud-din Mutasawwil Khan Bahadur, Muzaffar Jang. She had issue, a son:
- III. Muhyi ad-Din Muzaffar Jang Hidayat, 3rd Nizam of Hyderabad (died 13 February 1751). Succeeded upon his uncle's death; ruled from 16 December 1750 – 13 February 1751, when he was killed by the Nawab of Kurnool.
- IV. Asaf ad-Dawlah Mir Ali Salabat Jang, 4th Nizam of Hyderabad (November 1718 – 16 September 1763). Succeeded his brother, ruling from 13 February 1751 – 8 July 1762. Deposed by his brother on 8 July 1762 and killed in prison the following year, aged 44.
- V. Ali Khan Asaf Jah II, 5th Nizam of Hyderabad (7 March 1734 – 6 August 1803). Ruled 8 July 1762 – 6 August 1803, when he died aged 69. He had 11 sons and 12 daughters, including:
- VI. Mir Akbar Ali Khan Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III, 6th Nizam of Hyderabad (11 November 1768 – 21 May 1829). The first of the dynasty to be officially granted the title of Nizam. Ruled 6 August 1803 – 21 May 1829, when he died aged 60. He had 10 sons and nine daughters, including:
- VII. Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV, 7th Nizam of Hyderabad (25 April 1794 – 16 May 1857). Ruled 21 May 1829 – 16 May 1857, when he died aged 63. He had five sons, including:
- VIII. Afzal ad-Dawlah, Asaf Jah V, 8th Nizam of Hyderabad, GCSI (11 October 1827 – 26 February 1869). The first of the Nizams to fall under British rule. Ruled 16 May 1857 – 26 February 1869, when he died aged 41. He had four sons and six daughters, including:
- IX. Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI, 9th Nizam of Hyderabad, GCB, GCSI, KIH (17 August 1866 – 31 August 1911). Succeeded his father on 26 February 1869, ruled under a regency until 5 February 1884, when he was invested with full ruling powers by the Viceroy of India. Died 31 August 1911, aged 45. He had seven sons and six daughters, including:
- X. Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII, 10th Nizam of Hyderabad, GCSI, GBE, Royal Victorian Chain, MP (6 April 1886 – 24 January 1967). Granted the style of His Exalted Highness (1 January 1918), the title of Faithful Ally of the British Government (24 January 1918) and Nizam of Hyderabad and of Berar (13 November 1936). The last of the ruling Nizams; ruled absolutely from 31 August 1911 – 19 September 1948, when the state was formally annexed to the Union of India. Maintained semi-ruling and semi-autonomous status from then until 23 November 1949, when he accepted the paramountcy of the new Indian government and Constitution and acceded to the Union. Formally lost his sovereignty, ending 230 years of Asaf Jahi rule, upon the formal promulgation of the Constitution on 26 January 1950. Served as Rajpramukh of the new Hyderabad State from 26 January 1950 until 31 October 1956, when the post was abolished. Served as a titular monarch from 26 January 1950 until his death on 24 January 1967, aged 80. He had children, 28 sons and 44 daughters, including:
- HH Azam Jah, Prince of Berar, GCIE, GBE (21 February 1907 – 9 October 1970). Granted the title of His Highness the Prince of Berar (13 November 1936). Passed over in the line of succession in 1967 in favour of his elder son. He had two sons, including the elder:
- XI. Barkat Ali Khan Mukarram Jah, Asaf Jah VIII, 11th Nizam of Hyderabad (6 October 1933–). Succeeded his grandfather as titular monarch on 24 January 1967; titles abolished by the Indian Government on 28 December 1971. He has children that include two sons.
italics – Considered pretenders by most historians; refrained from exercising traditional authority during their reigns.
Palaces of the Nizams
The Asaf Jahis were prolific builders. Several palaces of the Nizams were:
- Chowmahalla Palace
- Purani Haveli
- King Kothi Palace
- Hyderabad House, New Delhi.
- Mahboob Mansion
- Falaknuma Palace
- Bella Vista
- Hill Fort Palace
- Chiran Palace
- Saifabad Palace
They also established many educational institutions like : 1813-Hyderabad Public School (jagirdars college), 1890-Warangal Telugu School, 1920-Citi college, 1918-Osmania University, 1921-Osmania Medical College, 1881-Chader ghat First Grade college, 1850-St Francis women's college, 1861-St Anns women's college, 1926-Hindi vidyalayam, 1924-Marwadi hindi vidyalaya, 1924-Nampally womens college, Other landmarks like the Andhra Pradesh High Court, Jubilee Hall, Asafia library, The Assembly building, the Osmania Arts College and the Osmania Medical College are among their notable constructions.
End of the Dynasty and Removal of the Last Nizam
After the British left India in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad initially chose to join neither India nor Pakistan. He later declared Hyderabad a free, self-governing independent state but the Government of India refused to accept his point of view as Hyderabad was surrounded by India on all sides and did not have an access to sea. After attempts by India to persudade the Nizam to accede to India failed, the Indian government launched a military operation named Operation Polo to overthrow his rule. When the Indian Army invaded his princely State on 13 September 1948, his forces were unable to withstand the Indian army and were defeated. The Nizam capitulated and his forces surrendered on 17 September 1948 and he broadcast this over radio the same afternoon. The Nizam was forced to accept accession to India. His rule ended on 17 September 1948. It was the end of the ruling dynasty. Mir Osman Ali Khan, the last Nizam, died on Friday 24 February 1967. All Nizams are buried in the royal graves at the Makkah Masjid near Charminar in Hyderabad except for the last Nizam, Mir Osman Ali Khan, who wished to be buried beside his mother, in the grave yard of Judi Mosque facing King Kothi Palace.
Places and things named after the Nizam
- Jamia Nizamia university
- Nizam College
- Nizam's Museum
- Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway
- Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences
- Jewels of the Nizams
- Nizam Diamond
- Nizam Sagar
- HMAS Nizam, a Royal Australian Naval vessel named for the Nizam prince who helped finance her construction
- Nizamia observatory
- Nizam Club
- Hyderabad State
- Hyderabadi Muslims
- Carnatic Wars
- History of Hyderabad, India
- Salar Jung family
- List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
- Dictionary of Battles and Sieges - Google Books
- The State At War In South Asia - Pradeep Barua - Google Books
- "Nizam gave funding for temples, and Hindu educational institutions". missiontelangana (in English). siasat. 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- "Hyderabad:the holdout". Time (magazine). 30 August 1948. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Richest Indian in history!". Daily Star (United Kingdom). 23 July 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Jewel in the crown: a palace fit for a Nizam". The Guardian. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Mahmood Bin, Muhammad (1999). A policeman ponders: memories and melodies of a varied life. A.P.H.Publishing Corporation. p. 19. ISBN 978-81-7648-026-0.
- Rann Singh, Mann (1996). Tribes of India:ongoing challenges. MD Publication Pvt Ltd. p. 310. ISBN 81-7533-007-4. .
- Zubrzycki, John (2006). The Last Nizam: An Indian Prince in the Australian Outback. Australia: Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-330-42321-2.
- Regani, Sarojini (1988) [First published 1963]. Nizam-British Relations, 1724–1857. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-195-1.
- Hastings, Fraser (1865). Our Faithful Ally, the Nizam. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Briggs, Henry George (1861). The Nizam: His History and Relations With the British Government, Volume 1. London: B. Quaritch.
- Lynton, Harriet Ronken; Rajan, Mohini (1974). The Days of the Beloved. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02442-7.
- University of Queensland feature
- Mughal Administration of Deccan Under Nizamul Mulk Asaf Jah, 1720–48 A.D.By M. A. Nayeem, Indian Council of Historical Research, University of Pune, Dept. of History 
"The Days of the Beloved" Harriet Ronken Lynton and Mohini Rajan, Berkeley University Press
- Asaf Jahi Dynasty with Genealogical Tree and Photos
- Detailed genealogy of the Nizams of Hyderabad
- Rare colour footage of accession ceremony of the 8th Nizam of Hyderabad in 1967 (Youtube)