No. 99 Squadron RAF

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No. 99 Squadron Royal Air Force
99 Squadron badge
Official squadron crest for no. 99 squadron RAF
Active 15 August 1917 – 2 April 1920
1 April 1924 – 15 November 1945
17 November 1947 – 7 January 1976
1 January 2002 – present Day
Country United Kingdom United Kingdom
Branch Ensign of the Royal Air Force.svg Royal Air Force
Base RAF Brize Norton
Nickname Madras Presidency
Motto Latin: Quisque tenax
(Translation:"Each tenacious")[1][2]
Battle honours Western Front, 1917–1918*
Independent Force & Germany, 1918*
Mahsud, 1919–1920
Waziristan, 1919–1920
German Ports, 1940–1941
Baltic, 1940–1941
France & Low Countries, 1940
Fortress Europe, 1940–1942*
Ruhr, 1940–1942*
Berlin, 1940–42*
Biscay Ports, 1940
Arakan, 1942–44
Burma, 1944–45
Manipur, 1944
Eastern Waters 1945.
Honours marked with an asterix (*) are those emblazoned on the squadron standard.
Commanders
Current
commander
W/Cdr. L. MacArthur
Insignia
Squadron Badge heraldry A Puma salient[1][2]
The squadrons first aircraft had Puma engines, the cat chosen for independence and tenacity while the black colour signifies the night-bombing role[3]
Squadron Codes VF (Apr 1939 – Sep 1939)[4][5]
LN (Sep 1939 – Feb 1942)[6][7]

No. 99 Squadron of the Royal Air Force was a bomber squadron in both first and second world war. At present it operates the Boeing C-17 Globemaster III from RAF Brize Norton, the RAF's air transport hub. The squadron was the first RAF unit to receive the Avro Aldershot, Handley Page Hyderabad, Handley Page Hinaidi, Vickers Wellington, Bristol Britannia and Boeing Globemaster. In case of the Avro Aldershot the squadron even was its only operator as it is now for the Globemasters.

History[edit]

World War I[edit]

What would later become No. 99 (Madras Presidency) Squadron was originally formed at Yatesbury, Wiltshire in England on 15 August 1917 from elements supplied by No. 13 Training Squadron, RFC. It was equipped with de Havilland DH.9 bombers in 1918, deploying to France to form part of the Independent Air Force, the RAF's strategic bombing force. It flew its first mission on 21 May, and continued to take part in large scale daylight raids against targets in Germany, sustaining heavy losses both due to the unreliable nature of the DH.9 and heavy German opposition. As an example, during one raid against Saarbrücken on 31 July 1918, seven out of nine aircraft from 99 Squadron were shot down.[1][8] 99 Squadron was withdrawn from the front line on 25 September to be re-equipped with de Havilland DH.9A bombers, and it was still being in the process of converting when the First World War ended. During the first World War it had taken part in 76 bombing raids, dropping 61 tons of bombs and claiming 12 German aircraft, of which eight alone on the raid of 31 July.[1][8] In 1919 it was sent to India, flying patrols over the North-West Frontier from Mianwali and Kohat during the Mahsud and Waziristan campaigns.[1] It was disbanded by being renumbered to No. 27 Squadron RAF on 2 April 1920.[8][9]

A Vickers Vimy bomber
Handley Page Hyderabad H.P.24 Hyderabads

Inter-war Period[edit]

No. 99 Squadron reformed on 1 April 1924 at Netheravon, Wiltshire, flying Vickers Vimys. In May 1924, it moved to RAF Bircham Newton in Norfolk, uniquely receiving the Avro Aldershot single-engined heavy bomber. These were replaced at the end of 1925 by twin-engined Handley Page Hyderabads, the squadron moving to RAF Upper Heyford in December 1927. In 1929, it again switched to new aircraft when it began receiving Handley Page Hinaidis, a radial engined derivative of the Hyderabad.[8][10] By 1933, the Hinaidi, which was little improvement over bombers in use during the First World War, was recognised as obsolete, and November, the unit received the first production Handley Page Heyford heavy bombers. While these carried twice the bombload of the earlier aircraft, and had significantly better performance, it soon became outclassed, although 99 Squadron was forced to retain the Heyford until October 1938, when it converted to Vickers Wellington monoplanes.[10][11]

World War II[edit]

99 Squadron Wellington air crew at RAF Waterbeach prepare for a night raid on Berlin
Ground crew check the bomb load on a 99 Squadron Wellington at Jessore, India, prior to a sortie over Burma

The squadron was to be the first unit to be equipped with Vickers Wellingtons, just before the start of World War II. It was stationed first at RAF Newmarket, Suffolk, and then at RAF Waterbeach, assigned to No. 3 Group RAF, Bomber Command. The squadron bombed targets in Norway and Germany.

In February 1942 the squadron was posted to India, operating at first Wellingtons and later Consolidated Liberators. During this period, the squadron included a significant number of Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and Royal Canadian Air Force aircrew personnel, attached to it under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. -The squadron moved to the Cocos Islands in August 1945, where it remained until the end of the war. On 15 November 1945 the squadron disbanded.

Post War[edit]

An Avro York

The Squadron was reformed again on 17 November 1947 at RAF Lyneham as a transport squadron, equipped with Avro York. In that rôle it operated amongst others as part of the Berlin Airlift, operating from RAF Wunstorf in Germany. It continued in the transport rôle, from 1949 to 1959 with the Handley Page Hastings, which were normally used as normal transport aircraft but, as the squadron also had a tactical support rôle, were also used in 1956 to drop paratroops on Gamil Airfield during the Suez crisis.[2] Later, from 1959 to 1976, the squadron flew the Bristol Britannia, putting it to use to evacuate citizens from troublespots all over the world such as Congo 1960, Kuwait 1961, Belize 1961 and Aden 1967.[2] The squadron moved to RAF Brize Norton in June 1970 and was disbanded almost six years later, on 7 January 1976, following the 1974 Defence White Paper.

A Handley Page Hastings C.2

Today[edit]

A No. 99 Squadron C-17 during August 2010

The squadron was reformed again in November 2000, to operate the RAF's C-17s.[12] The first of the squadron's four initial C-17s was delivered to the RAF on 17 May 2001, arriving at Brize Norton, Oxfordshire on 23 May. One of the first high profile missions of the squadron was the deployment of Lynx helicopters and support equipment to Macedonia as part of a NATO peacekeeping force. This deployment was codenamed Operation Bessemer.

Since then the Squadron has supported military exercises "Saif Sareea II" in Oman, the War on Terror in Afghanistan, and the Invasion of Iraq (Operation Telic.) More routine tasks have gone largely unpublicised, for example the replacement of 1435 Flight's Tornado F3s in the Falkland Islands. Previously the RAF had to lease commercial heavy lifters such as the Antonov An-124 to return the aircraft to the UK, or launch a major logistical effort to allow a ferry flight. In any case the C-17 has proved invaluable to the RAF, so much so that the original seven-year lease has been bought out, and an additional aircraft was purchased. On 26 July 2007, the order for a sixth was confirmed, delivered in June 2008.

In December 2009, the Ministry of Defence announced its intention to acquire a seventh. This was received by the RAF at Boeing's Long Beach, California facility on 16 November 2010.[13] The UK announced the purchase of its 8th C-17 in February 2012.[14]

On 13 January 2013 it was announced two 99 Squadron C-17s were to be used to transport French military equipment and troops to Mali.[15]

On 15 November 2013, a C-17 of 99 Squadron flew to the Philippines to assist with aid efforts there after Typhoon Haiyan.[16]

The squadron is currently under the command of Wg Cdr Stu Lindsell.[citation needed]

Aircraft operated[edit]

The Handley Page H.P.33 Hinaidi
A Handley Page Heyford
Royal Air Force Bristol Britannia at Bristol Filton Airport in 1964
Aircraft operated by No. 99 Squadron RAF, data from[2][17][18]
From To Aircraft Variant Notes
March 1918 November 1918 de Havilland DH.9 Single-engined biplane bomber
August 1918 March 1920 de Havilland DH.9A Single-engined biplane bomber
April 1924 December 1924 Vickers Vimy Twin-engined biplane bomber
August 1924 December 1925 Avro Aldershot Mk.III Single-engined heavy bomber
December 1925 January 1931 Handley Page Hyderabad Twin-engined biplane heavy bomber
October 1929 December 1933 Handley Page Hinaidi Twin-engined biplane heavy bomber
November 1933 September 1937 Handley Page Heyford Mk.I Twin-engined biplane heavy bomber
November 1934 August 1938 Handley Page Heyford Mk.II Twin-engined biplane heavy bomber
December 1935 November 1938 Handley Page Heyford Mk.III Twin-engined biplane heavy bomber
October 1938 December 1939 Vickers Wellington Mk.I Twin-engined medium bomber
September 1939 April 1940 Vickers Wellington Mk.Ia Twin-engined medium bomber
March 1940 February 1942 Vickers Wellington Mk.Ic Twin-engined medium bomber
July 1941 October 1941 Vickers Wellington Mk.II Twin-engined medium bomber
October 1942 May 1943 Vickers Wellington Mk.Ic Twin-engined medium bomber
April 1943 August 1944 Vickers Wellington Mk.III Twin-engined medium bomber
April 1943 August 1944 Vickers Wellington Mk.X Twin-engined medium bomber
September 1944 November 1945 Consolidated Liberator Mk.VI Four-engined heavy bomber
November 1947 September 1949 Avro York C.1 Four-engined transport
August 1949 June 1959 Handley Page Hastings C.1 Four-engined transport
May 1952 June 1959 Handley Page Hastings C.2 Four-engined transport
June 1959 January 1976 Bristol Britannia C.1 and C.2 Four-engined transport
2002 Present Day Boeing Globemaster C-17A Four-engined strategic transport

Squadron bases[edit]

Bases and airfields used by no. 99 Squadron RAF, data from[2][18][19][20]
From To Base Remark
15 August 1917 30 August 1917 RAF Yatesbury, Wiltshire First formation
30 August 1917 25 April 1918 RAF Ford Farm, Wiltshire
25 April 1918 3 May 1918 St. Omer, France
3 May 1918 5 June 1918 Tantonville, France
5 June 1918 16 November 1918 Azelot, France
16 November 1918 29 November 1918 Auxi-le-Chateau, France
29 November 1918 12 December 1918 St. André-aux-Bois, France
12 December 1918 1 May 1919 Aulnoye, France
1 May 1919 15 June 1919 en route to British India via SS Magwa and SS Syria
15 June 1919 30 September 1919 Ambala, Haryana, British India
30 September 1919 2 April 1920 Mianwali, Punjab, British India Det. at Kohat, North-West Frontier Province
1 April 1924 31 May 1924 RAF Netheravon, Wiltshire Second formation
31 May 1924 5 January 1928 RAF Bircham Newton, Norfolk
5 January 1928 15 November 1934 RAF Upper Heyford, Oxfordshire
15 November 1934 2 September 1939 RAF Mildenhall, Suffolk
2 September 1939 8 March 1941 RAF Newmarket, Suffolk Det. at RAF Lossiemouth, Moray, Scotland
on loan to Coastal Command Nov/Dec 1939
Det. at Salon, France, June 1940
8 March 1941 12 February 1942 RAF Waterbeach, Cambridgeshire
12 February 1942 1 June 1942 en route to British India
1 June 1942 12 September 1942 Ambala, Haryana, British India Re-formed here. Dets at Solan, Punjab, British India
and Pandaveswar, Bengal, British India
12 September 1942 24 October 1942 Pandaveswar, Bengal, British India
24 October 1942 3 April 1943 Digri, Bengal, British India
3 April 1943 14 June 1943 Chaklala, Punjab, British India
14 June 1943 27 August 1944 Jessore, Bengal, British India Dets. at Argatala, Twipra Kingdom
and Kumbhirgram, Assam, British India
27 August 1944 1 August 1945 RAF Dhubalia, Bengal, British India
1 August 1945 15 November 1945 RAF Cocos Islands, Straits Settlements
17 November 1947 16 June 1970 RAF Lyneham, Wiltshire Third formation. Det. at RAF Wunstorf, Germany during Berlin Blockade
16 June 1970 7 January 1976 RAF Brize Norton, Oxfordshire
1 January 2002 present RAF Brize Norton, Oxfordshire Fourth formation

Commanding Officers[edit]

Officers commanding no. 99 squadron RAF, data from[2]
From To Name
15 August 1917 11 March 1918 Capt. A.M. Swyny
11 March 1918 5 November 1918 Maj. L.A. Pattinson, MC, DFC
5 November 1918 2 April 1920 Maj. C.R. Cox, AFC
23 April 1924 4 September 1925 S/Ldr. G.R.M. Reid, DSO, MC
4 September 1925 1 October 1925 S/Ldr. L.T.N. Gould, MC, DFC
1 October 1925 3 April 1927 S/Ldr. W.J. Ryan, CBE
3 April 1927 26 July 1929 W/Cdr. B.E. Smithies, DFC
26 July 1929 19 November 1929 W/Cdr. W.B. Hargreaves, OBE
19 November 1929 19 February 1930 S/Ldr. G.H. Cock
19 February 1930 1 August 1932 W/Cdr. H.G. Smart, CBE, DFC, AFC
1 August 1932 13 January 1934 W/Cdr. E.D. Johnson, AFC
13 January 1934 1 January 1936 W/Cdr. F.J. Linnell, OBE
1 January 1936 21 June 1937 W/Cdr. H.N. Drew, OBE, AFC
21 June 1937 26 September 1939 W/Cdr. H.E. Walker, MC, DFC
26 September 1939 29 June 1940 S/Ldr. J.F. Griffiths, DFC
29 June 1940 16 January 1941 W/Cdr. R.J.A. Ford
16 January 1941 12 December 1941 W/Cdr. F.W. Dixon-Wright, DFC
12 December 1941 14 June 1942 W/Cdr. P. Heath
14 June 1942 25 April 1943 W/Cdr. J.B. Black, OBE, DFC
25 April 1943 11 June 1943 S/Ldr. C.L.M. Schräder
11 June 1943 15 March 1944 S/Ldr. R.G. Maddox, AFC
15 March 1944 24 May 1944 S/Ldr. A.S.R. Ennis, DSO, AFC
24 May 1944 3 September 1944 S/Ldr. P.R. O'Connor, DFC
3 September 1944 23 April 1945 W/Cdr. L.B. Ercolani, DSO, DFC
23 April 1945 15 November 1945 W/Cdr. A. Webster, DSO, DFC
17 November 1947 6 May 1949 S/Ldr. G.V. Ridpath, DFC
6 May 1949 10 June 1950 S/Ldr. S.E. Pattinson, DFC
10 June 1950 3 May 1951 S/Ldr. W.G. James
3 May 1951 14 September 1952 W/Cdr. B.C. Bennett, AFC
14 September 1952 17 July 1954 S/Ldr. K.B. Orr
17 July 1954 27 April 1956 S/Ldr. R.F.B. Powell
27 April 1956 27 May 1957 S/Ldr. D.R. Ware, DFC, AFC
27 May 1957 9 January 1959 S/Ldr. T.M. Stafford
9 January 1959 5 October 1959 W/Cdr. J.O. Barnard, OBE
5 October 1959 28 September 1961 W/Cdr. W.E.F. Grey, AFC
28 September 1961 12 November 1963 W/Cdr. P. Barber, DFC
12 November 1963 27 December 1965 W/Cdr. R.M. Jenkins, AFC
27 December 1965 1 August 1967 W/Cdr. T.L. Kennedy, AFC
1 August 1967 21 June 1969 W/Cdr. F.B. Yetman
21 June 1969 25 June 1971 W/Cdr. W.C. Milne
25 June 1971 3 September 1973 W/Cdr. F. Appleyard
3 September 1973 7 January 1976 W/Cdr. C.E. Bowles

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e Moyes 1976, p. 127.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Rawlings 1982, p. 97.
  3. ^ Edgerley 1993, pp. 42–44.
  4. ^ Bowyer and Rawlings 1979, p. 13.
  5. ^ Flintham and Thomas 2003, p. 52.
  6. ^ Bowyer and Rawlings 1979, pp. 67–68.
  7. ^ Flintham and Thomas 2003, p. 88.
  8. ^ a b c d Rawlings 1961, p. 339.
  9. ^ Edgerley 1993, p. 35.
  10. ^ a b 99 Squadron 99 Squadron Royal Air Force. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  11. ^ Rawlings 1961, p. 340.
  12. ^ [1] 99 Squadron, WWW.raf.mod.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2010
  13. ^ "RAF Brize Norton: Gateway Magazine: RAF Receives Seventh C-17". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  14. ^ Hoyle, Craig. "UK to buy eighth C-17 transport". Flight International, 8 February 2012.
  15. ^ "Mali: RAF C17 cargo plane to help French operation". BBC News. 13 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  16. ^ "RAF aid plane on way to Philippines in relief effort2. BBC News. 15 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  17. ^ Moyes 1976, pp. 129–130.
  18. ^ a b Jefford 2001, p. 56.
  19. ^ Moyes 1976, pp. 128–129.
  20. ^ Edgerley 1993, p. 313.
Bibliography
  • Bowyer, Michael J.F. and John D.R. Rawlings. Squadron Codes, 1937–56. Cambridge, UK: Patrick Stephens Ltd., 1979. ISBN 0-85059-364-6.
  • Delve, Ken. The Source Book of the RAF. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1994. ISBN 1-85310-451-5.
  • Edgerley, Squadron Leader A.G. Each Tenacious: A History of No. 99 Squadron (1917–1976). Worcester, UK: Square One Publications, 1993. ISBN 1-872017-67-3.
  • Flintham, Vic and Andrew Thomas. Combat Codes: A full explanation and listing of British, Commonwealth and Allied air force unit codes since 1938. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 2003. ISBN 1-84037-281-8.
  • Gwynne-Timothy, John R.W. Burma Liberators: RCAF in SEAC. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Next Level Press, 1991. ISBN 1-895578-02-7.
  • Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth, 1918–1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
  • Jefford, Wing Commander C.G., MBE, BA, RAF(Retd). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
  • Moyes, Philip J.R. Bomber Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishers) Ltd., 1964 (new edition 1976). ISBN 0-354-01027-1.
  • Rawlings, John D.R. "Squadron Histories: No. 99". Air Pictorial, November 1961, Vol. 23 No. 11. pp. 339–340, 342.
  • Rawlings, John D.R. Coastal, Support and Special Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd., 1982. ISBN 0-7106-0187-5.

External links[edit]