No Doubt

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This article is about the band. For other uses, see No Doubt (disambiguation).
No Doubt
NO DOUBT 327b Brian McCauley.jpg
No Doubt in 2009
Background information
Origin Anaheim, California, United States
Genres Ska punk, pop rock, new wave, reggae fusion,[1] pop punk, alternative rock
Years active 1986–present
Labels Trauma, Interscope
Associated acts Invincible Overlord, Bow Wow Wow, Starpool, 311
Website www.nodoubt.com
Members Gwen Stefani
Tony Kanal
Adrian Young
Tom Dumont
Touring members:
Stephen Bradley
Gabrial McNair
Past members Former members

No Doubt is an American pop rock band from Anaheim, California, that formed in 1986. Since 1989 the group has consisted of vocalist Gwen Stefani, guitarist and keyboardist Tom Dumont, bassist and keyboardist Tony Kanal, and drummer Adrian Young. Since the mid-1990s in live performances they have been supported by trumpeter Stephen Bradley and trombonist Gabrial McNair.

The ska sound of their first album No Doubt (1992) failed to make an impact. The Beacon Street Collection (1995) is a raw expression of their sound, inspired by ska punk and released independently by the band under their own record label. The album sold over 100,000 copies in 1995, over three times as many as their first album sold. The band's diamond-certified album Tragic Kingdom (1995) helped launch the third-wave ska revival of the 1990s, and "Don't Speak", the third single from the album, set a record when it spent 16 weeks at the number one spot on the Billboard Hot 100 Airplay chart.

The group's next album, Return of Saturn (2000), despite the Top 40 hit single "Simple Kind of Life", did not match the success of their previous but received critical praise and was nominated for Best Rock Album at the 43rd Grammy Awards. 15 months later, the band reappeared with Rock Steady (2001), which incorporated reggae and dancehall music into their work. The album was primarily recorded in Jamaica and featured collaborations with Jamaican artists Bounty Killer, Sly and Robbie, and Lady Saw. The album produced two Grammy-winning singles, "Hey Baby" and "Underneath It All". On 22 November 2002, No Doubt received the Key to the City of Anaheim, given by the Mayor of Anaheim, Tom Daly in Disneyland during the band's appearance on 'Breakfast with Kevin and Bean' (KROQ-FM) where they performed 5 songs.[2] After 2004 tour the band embarked on solo projects, with Gwen Stefani releasing two successful solo albums Love. Angel. Music. Baby. (2004) and The Sweet Escape (2006) while Tom Dumont released his own solo music project, Invincible Overlord. In 2008, the band resumed working slowly on their sixth effort, titled Push and Shove (2012), and released their single "Settle Down". They have sold over 33 million albums worldwide.

History[edit]

Formation (1986–89)[edit]

Eric Stefani and John Spence met at a Dairy Queen and had talked about getting a group together to play music. Eric got a keyboard and gathered some players together to practice. The practice included Eric Stefani (keyboards), Gwen Stefani (backing vocals), John Spence (Vocals), Jerry McMahon (Guitar), Chris Leal (Bass) and Gabe Gonzalas (Trumpet), Alan and Tony Meade (saxophone). They practiced in Eric's parents' garage.

Tony Kanal went to one of the band's early shows and soon joined the band as its bassist. After initially rejecting her advances, he began dating Gwen, but they kept their relationship secret for a year, feeling that it was an unspoken rule that nobody date her.[3] Paul Caseley (Trombone) also joined the band in 1987. Eric Carpenter (saxophone) joined the horn section soon after.

In December 1987, Spence committed suicide several days before the band was to play a gig at The Roxy Theatre for record industry employees.[3] No Doubt disbanded but decided to regroup after several weeks[3] with Alan Meade taking over vocals.[4] When Meade left the band, Gwen replaced him as lead singer,[4] and No Doubt continued to develop a live following in California.[3] In early 1988, Tom Dumont left Rising, a heavy metal band of which he was a member with his sister,[5] stating that local metal bands "were into drinking, wearing Spandex" but that he wanted to focus on music.[6] He joined No Doubt and replaced Jerry McMahon as the band's guitarist. Adrian Young replaced Chris Webb as the drummer the following year.[3] During this time period, No Doubt played gigs at local colleges, Fender's Grand Ballroom, The Whisky, The Roxy, many shows with The Untouchables, Fishbone, and a show with the Red Hot Chili Peppers at Cal State Long Beach. Paul Caseley (trombone) left No Doubt in July 1989 for the US Navy Band.

Debut Album (1990–92)[edit]

Impressed by the presence of rabid, stage diving fans at No Doubt's concerts and Gwen's on-stage presence, Tony Ferguson signed the band to a multi-album deal with the newly created Interscope Records in 1990.[3] No Doubt's self-titled debut album was finally released in 1992, but it featured no radio singles, although a video was made for "Trapped in a Box". The album's distinctly upbeat pop/cartoon sound sharply contrasted with the then-dominant grunge movement. Because the music world's focus was redirected squarely at Seattle, No Doubt's album was not supported by the record label and considered a commercial failure for selling only 30,000 copies.[4] The band embarked on a national tour in support of the album, though Interscope refused to support the tour.[7] The band failed to bring the audiences that it had attracted in Southern California, and often found that No Doubt was not even available in the cities where it was playing.[3] Eric Stefani began to withdraw from the group, vacillating between being in and out of the band.[8]

The Beacon Street Collection, Tragic Kingdom, and Eric Stefani's departure (1993–97)[edit]

The band began work on its next album the next year, but Interscope rejected much of its material, and the band was paired with producer Matthew Wilder. Eric did not like to relinquish creative control to someone outside the band and eventually stopped recording and rehearsing. He left No Doubt in 1994 to resume an animation career with the cartoon TV series The Simpsons.[3] Kanal then ended his seven-year relationship with Gwen, saying that he needed "space."[9] Unsure of what to do with the band, Interscope sublicensed the project to Trauma Records in 1995.[10] No Doubt released The Beacon Street Collection, consisting of outtakes from its previous recording sessions, that year on its own label, Beacon Street Records. Mixing 1980s punk rock and some grunge influences into the band's sound, the album contains a rawer sound than No Doubt,[11] and it sold more than three times as many copies as its predecessor.[5] Later that year, the label released Tragic Kingdom, much of which dealt with the relationship between Tony Kanal and Gwen Stefani.[12]

The release of 1995's Tragic Kingdom and the single "Just a Girl" allowed the group to achieve mainstream commercial success. No Doubt began touring in support of the album late that year, and it grew into a 27-month international tour.[13] In 1996, the second single, "Spiderwebs", was successful, and "Don't Speak", a ballad written about Stefani and Kanal's break-up,[14] was released as the third single and broke the previous record when it topped the Billboard Hot 100 Airplay for sixteen weeks. No Doubt was nominated for two Grammy Awards for Best New Artist and Best Rock Album at the 1997 Grammy Awards. By the end of the year, half of the songs on Tragic Kingdom had been released as singles, and the album was certified eight times platinum. Later, they were nominated for two more Grammys for Song of the Year and Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal, both for "Don't Speak".[11] The Recording Industry Association of America certified the album diamond in February 1999,[15] and with worldwide sales of sixteen million, it is one of the best-selling albums in history.[16] The band's self-titled debut album began selling copies again off of the success of Tragic Kingdom and reached total sales of over a quarter of a million copies.[5]

Arguably the band's most famous song.[citation needed]

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The album's release fueled a dispute between Trauma and Interscope Records over No Doubt's recording contract. Trauma sued for US$100 million for breach of contract, fraud, and extortion and sought to have its joint venture agreement ended, claiming that Interscope had reneged on its contract after the band had become more successful than expected.[10] No Doubt had previously stated that it had switched to Trauma Records and that the transition was "really great...because now we have the attention and the focus of a small indie label."[17] The case was settled out of court with a $3 million payment.[18]

Return of Saturn (1998–2000)[edit]

The lead single from Return of Saturn, produced with Talking Heads member Jerry Harrison.

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The band finished its tour in December 1997 and had several releases during the two-year writing process to make its follow-up to Tragic Kingdom.[3] Live in the Tragic Kingdom, a live long-form video of the band's performance at the Arrowhead Pond of Anaheim, was released and The Beacon Street Collection was re-released while the band was on tour that year. The band recorded "I Throw My Toys Around" with Elvis Costello for The Rugrats Movie, and it contributed to The Clash's tribute album Burning London: The Clash Tribute. Stefani began to make recordings without the band, contributing vocals to tracks for The Brian Setzer Orchestra, Prince, Fishbone & Familyhood Nextperience, and her boyfriend Gavin Rossdale's band Bush. After some time in-between albums, No Doubt included its song "New" on the soundtrack to the movie Go in 1999. "New", inspired by Gwen's budding relationship with Rossdale, was one of the first songs written after the release of Tragic Kingdom. In 2000, the band released Return of Saturn, its follow-up to Tragic Kingdom. The album featured a darker tone and was more lyrically advanced than No Doubt's previous work.[19] The main lyrical focus of the new record had shifted from Gwen Stefani's relationship with bassist Tony Kanal to her new relationship with Gavin Rossdale.[13] Return of Saturn was critically acclaimed, but was not as commercially successful as their previous album, and the lead single, "Ex-Girlfriend", failed to chart on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States. Also released as singles from the album were the tracks "Simple Kind of Life" and "Bathwater". Lukewarm sales drastically shortened the tour that followed, appearing only in festival settings in L.A., Cincinnati, Nashville, Jacksonville and Miami. On August 10, No Doubt went on VH1 Storytellers and performed a few of their songs, and were joined by friend Alain Johannes (of Eleven) and former member/Gwen's brother Eric Stefani.[20]

Rock Steady (2001-02)[edit]

The band's second highest charting U.S. single, produced with Sly & Robbie in Jamaica and featuring Lady Saw.

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After Return of Saturn, the band returned to recording in January 2001. During this time, it contributed a cover version of Donna Summer's "Love to Love You Baby" for the Zoolander soundtrack and recorded a song with Kelis for her album Wanderland. Stefani made high-profile appearances on Moby's "South Side" and Eve's "Let Me Blow Ya Mind". These appearances lent No Doubt credibility and an opportunity to explore new genres.[21] Highly influenced by Jamaican dancehall music and recorded primarily in Jamaica, the band's 2001 studio album, Rock Steady, produced two hit Grammy-winning singles, "Hey Baby", which featured Bounty Killer, and "Underneath It All", which featured the first lady of dancehall, Lady Saw. Both singles managed to reach the top five on the Billboard Hot 100. The album also released "Hella Good" and "Running" as singles. In addition, pop-star Prince co-wrote, produced, and performed on "Waiting Room" from Rock Steady. Stefani had previously provided vocals for a song on Prince's Rave Un2 the Joy Fantastic album, "So Far, So Pleased". In November 2002, No Doubt made an appearance in the Dawson's Creek episode "Spiderwebs".[22]

Greatest Hits (2003)[edit]

The band produced a cover of the Talk Talk song for its compilation album.

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2003 was a big year of releases for No Doubt. The album The Singles 1992–2003, a compilation of the band's commercially-released singles, was released on November 25, 2003. It included a cover of the song "It's My Life", which had originally been a hit for synthpop group Talk Talk in 1984, and earned No Doubt a Grammy nomination for Pop Performance by a Duo or Group With Vocal.[23] Additionally, a special 2-CD 2-DVD box set titled Boom Box was made available, which included the CDs The Singles 1992–2003 and Everything in Time and the DVDs The Videos 1992–2003 and Live in the Tragic Kingdom. Separately, Rock Steady Live, a DVD of the band performing in Long Beach from their Rock Steady tour was released in 2003 as well. The next year, the band was featured in a re-recording of the Toots and the Maytals classic song "Monkey Man". The band also toured with blink-182 in mid-2004, before embarking on a hiatus.

First hiatus (2004–2008)[edit]

Lead singer Gwen Stefani began work on her 1980s-inspired new wave and dance-pop side project in 2003, which eventually evolved into the full-fledged solo album, Love. Angel. Music. Baby., released on November 23, 2004. The album reached multi-platinum status in several countries, including a quintuple platinum certification in Canada[24] and triple platinum in the U.S.[25] Stefani launched her first solo arena tour in October 2005, which coincided with the news of her pregnancy (her son, Kingston James McGregor Rossdale, was born on May 26, 2006). She released her second solo dance-pop album, The Sweet Escape in December 2006.

In early 2005, Tom Dumont released his own solo music project, Invincible Overlord, with friend and collaborator Ted Matson, and backed up Matt Costa on his 2005 tour.[26] Adrian Young, the band's drummer, did the drums for Bow Wow Wow's 2004 tour and many of the tracks on Unwritten Law's 2005 release, Here's to the Mourning,[27] as well as featuring on several shows in 2006 for TheStart.[28] Young will also be playing on Rock Star: Supernova runner-up Dilana's upcoming album.[29][dated info]

In 2008, Tony Kanal collaborated with pop rock artist P!nk on the album Funhouse. Kanal co-produced "Sober", co-wrote "Funhouse" and also sang back-up vocals on "Crystal Ball".

Reformation (2008–10)[edit]

With Stefani promoting her second solo album, No Doubt began initial work on a new album without her[30] and planned to complete it after Stefani's tour was finished.[31] However songwriting was slow as Gwen Stefani was, at the time, pregnant with her second child.[32][33] The album was produced by Mark "Spike" Stent, who helped produce and mix Rock Steady.

No Doubt announced on their official website that they would tour in the summer of 2009 with Paramore, The Sounds, Janelle Monáe, Bedouin Soundclash, Katy Perry, Panic! at the Disco, and Matt Costa, all while finishing their upcoming album, which was set for release in 2010.[34][35] As a special promotion for the tour, the band was giving away their entire music catalog free as a digital download with purchase of top tier seating.[36]

Push and Shove (2010-12)[edit]

The band released another compilation album on November 2 called Icon, in preparation for their upcoming comeback album. Icon featured the same track listing as their previous compilation album The Singles 1992–2003 albeit with new artwork and a low price point.[37]

On June 11, 2012, the band announced on their official website that the new album will be out on September 25, preceded by the first single in July 16. The album was titled Push and Shove and the first single was a song called "Settle Down". The music video for "Settle Down" was directed by Sophie Muller (who has previously directed numerous music videos for No Doubt).[38][39] "Settle Down" peaked at #34 on the Billboard Hot 100 with the album peaking at #3. On November 3, 2012, the band pulled its music video "Looking Hot" from the Internet after receiving complaints that it was insensitive towards Native Americans.[40]

As of February 1, 2013, the band stated via Twitter that they had "Finished a week of songwriting", implying that they have more new tracks written.[41] As of February 26, 2013, the band officially confirmed through their website that they had indeed begun working on new music as well as plans for an upcoming tour.[42]

Second hiatus (2013-present)[edit]

In October 2013 Tom revealed on social networking site Twitter that the band were once again on hiatus, also hinting that the band will regroup in 2014.[43][44] As of July 2014, however, nothing has been confirmed. However, No Doubt will be performing at the Global Citizen Festival in Central Park on September 27, 2014

Musical style[edit]

No Doubt's musical style have been characterized as ska punk, reggae fusion,[1] punk rock, pop punk, new wave, alternative rock and pop rock.

The band's debut album blended the ska punk, alternative rock and new wave genres. However, the band utilised a punk rock sound in their second album The Beacon Street Collection and their third album Tragic Kingdom, although the latter incorporated pop punk and alternative rock influences. They later shed their punk rock roots for the following album Return of Saturn, utilising influences from new wave music and pop rock.

The band completely altered their sound in their next album Rock Steady, incorporating Jamaican music influences from reggae fusion, rocksteady and dance-rock. However the band's comeback album Push and Shove blended pop rock, new wave music and dancehall.

Other appearances[edit]

In 2009, No Doubt made an appearance on the television series Gossip Girl, playing a fictional band called "Snowed Out" in the episode "Valley Girls".[45] They performed their cover version of the Adam and the Ants song "Stand and Deliver".[46]

No Doubt played at the Bridge School Benefit organized by Neil Young on October 24 and 25, 2009 at the Shoreline Amphitheatre in Mountain View, California.

On December 5, 2010, No Doubt performed a tribute to The Beatles at The Kennedy Center Honors, playing a medley of Beatles hits including "Penny Lane" and "Hello, Goodbye". The band performed for President Barack Obama, Sir Paul McCartney and Oprah Winfrey.[47]

The band also appeared as guests in the animated in the show King of the Hill and the sketch comedy program Portlandia. They can also be seen in a scene of the Simpsons episode "Homerpalooza". At the time, Eric Stefani was one of the show's animators and inserted his sister and her bandmates behind Homer in the scene where the crowd riots against him.

Controversies[edit]

On November 4, 2009, the Los Angeles Times reported that No Doubt had filed a lawsuit over its portrayal in the music video game Band Hero. The lawsuit alleged that the game had "transformed No Doubt band members into a virtual karaoke circus act", singing dozens of songs the group neither wrote, popularized nor approved for use in the game. The case was filed in Los Angeles Superior Court and cited Activision, the game's distributor, as having exceeded contractual likenesses of the members of No Doubt.[48]

On February 15, 2011, the California Court of Appeal for the Second Appellate District affirmed the trial court's denial of Activision's special motion to strike No Doubt's lawsuit as a strategic lawsuit against public participation, after an interlocutory appeal by Activision.[49] The appellate court explained that the dispute arose from No Doubt's discovery, two weeks before Band Hero went on sale, that its band members could be manipulated in the game to perform songs they would never perform in real life. The court then explained: "The band also learned that female lead singer Gwen Stefani's avatar could be made to sing in a male voice, and the male band members' avatars could be manipulated to sing songs in female voices. The individual band member avatars could be made to perform solo, without their band members, as well as with members of other groups." The court then ruled that Activision's First Amendment defense was meritless, No Doubt had a reasonable probability of prevailing on the merits, and that No Doubt was entitled to recover costs and attorney's fees incurred in opposing Activision's appeal.

Band members[edit]

Timeline[edit]

Discography[edit]

Studio Albums[edit]

Main article: No Doubt discography

Video Albums[edit]

Compilation Albums[edit]

Singles[edit]

Tours and Concerts[edit]

Residency Concerts[edit]

Awards and nominations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "No Doubt | New Music And Songs". MTV. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  2. ^ "News : No Doubt To Receive Key To The City Of Anaheim". No Doubt. Retrieved 2011-07-07. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "No Doubt". Behind the Music. VH1. April 9, 2000.
  4. ^ a b c Vineyard, Jennifer (February 26, 1998). "Tunes and 'Toons". OC Weekly. Village Voice Media. Retrieved April 17, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c ""Timeline". NoDoubt.com. Retrieved August 24, 2007". Nodoubt.com. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  6. ^ Kam, Nadine. "No doubt about it". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. April 30, 1998. Retrieved September 13, 2007
  7. ^ Bush, John. "Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved December 23, 2006
  8. ^ Heath, Chris. "Snap! Crackle! Pop!". Rolling Stone, issue 759. May 1, 1997.
  9. ^ Born to Be. MuchMusic programming. Original airdate: March 2006. Retrieved November 13, 2006.
  10. ^ a b Sandler, Adam. "Interscope facing Trauma in $100 million lawsuit". Variety. May 28, 1997. Retrieved December 30, 2006
  11. ^ a b "No Doubt". Rock on the Net. Retrieved August 24, 2007
  12. ^ [1][dead link]
  13. ^ a b Willman, Chris. "Future Tense?". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 30, 2006
  14. ^ Sullivan, Caroline (February 15, 2002). "'We'll make one more album, then I'll get pregnant'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Diamond Awards". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved August 24, 2007
  16. ^ Van Meter, Jonathan. "The First Lady of Rock". Vogue No. 93[dead link] (April 2004). Retrieved from Style.com October 28, 2007
  17. ^ "No Doubt In Middle Of Legal Battle". MTV News. May 28, 1997. Retrieved August 24, 2007
  18. ^ Thigpen, David E. "A Sound Reborn". Time. November 10, 1997. Retrieved December 30, 2006
  19. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Review". Allmusic. May 12, 2000. Retrieved December 30, 2006
  20. ^ "No Doubt". No Doubt. Retrieved 2011-10-31. 
  21. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Rock Steady > Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved August 31, 2007
  22. ^ "Spiderwebs". Yahoo! TV. Retrieved December 30, 2006
  23. ^ "Grammy Awards 2005: Key winners". BBC News. February 14, 2005. Retrieved January 6, 2007
  24. ^ "Gold & Platinum Certification". CRIA. 2006. Retrieved January 3, 2006
  25. ^ "The Future of Music Achieves Major Landmark as Gwen Stefani Makes Digital History with One Millionth Commercial Download of 'Hollaback Girl'". Universal Music Group. October 3, 2005. Retrieved January 3, 2006
  26. ^ Kaufman, Gil and Dotiwala, Jasmine. "No Doubt's Tony Kanal Spends Band's Hiatus Producing Reggae LP, Remixing Gwen". MTV News. May 16, 2005. Retrieved December 30, 2006
  27. ^ "For The Record: Quick News On Britney Spears, Green Day, Avril Lavigne, Jennifer Lopez, A Perfect Circle & More". MTV News. June 30, 2004. Retrieved January 3, 2007
  28. ^ "Help us welcome back Adrian!" theSTART official website]. September 5, 2006. Retrieved January 23, 2007
  29. ^ "For The Record: Quick News On Mariah, Kid Rock, 'Fantastic Four,' Ne-Yo, Chris Brown, Will.I.Am & More". MTV News. December 22, 2006. Retrieved January 3, 2007
  30. ^ Vineyard, Jennifer and Richard, Yasmine. "No Doubt — Minus Gwen — In Early Stages Of New Album". MTV News. May 12, 2006. Retrieved December 19, 2006
  31. ^ Cohen, Jonathan."Stefani: No Timetable For No Doubt Reunion". Billboard. December 12, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2006
  32. ^ No Doubt Hit Hollywood Studio to Record New Tracks | Rolling Stone Music[dead link]
  33. ^ ""new album". NoDoubt.com. 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2008". Forums.nodoubt.com. 2008-03-28. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  34. ^ ""2009 Tour". NoDoubt.com. 2008. Retrieved November 22, 2008". Nodoubt.com. Retrieved 2011-10-31. 
  35. ^ "News : No Doubt Announces 2009 Summer Tour". No Doubt. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  36. ^ "News : Receive No Doubt's Entire Digital Catalog For Free With Online Ticket Purchase". No Doubt. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  37. ^ "No Doubt : News : New Releases in 2010 and 2011". Interscope.com. 2010-09-13. Retrieved 2011-10-31. 
  38. ^ "Album and Single Announcement!". Nodoubt.com. 2012-06-11. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
  39. ^ "No Doubt announce new album Push And Shove". Rekwired. 2012-06-13. Retrieved 2012-06-13. 
  40. ^ Toney, Veronica (2012-11-05). "No Doubt apologizes, pulls ‘Looking Hot’ video - Celebritology 2.0". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-12-20. 
  41. ^ "Twitter / nodoubt: .@gwenstefani @TonyKanal". Twitter.com. 2013-02-01. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  42. ^ "Greetings From the Studio!". NoDoubt.com. February 26, 2013. 
  43. ^ [2][dead link]
  44. ^ "Twitter / TomDumontND: @JoohnUK Hey John, we're on". Twitter.com. 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  45. ^ "News : Gossip Girl Appearance Announced!". No Doubt. 2009-02-26. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  46. ^ Vena, Jocelyn (2009-03-17). "No Doubt Say They 'All Agreed' On 'Gossip Girl' Song — News Story | Music, Celebrity, Artist News | MTV News". Mtv.com. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  47. ^ Matthew Perpetua (2010-12-29). "Video: No Doubt Pay Tribute to Paul McCartney at Kennedy Center Honors". Rollingstone.com. Retrieved 2011-10-31. 
  48. ^ "No Doubt sues Activision over Band Hero". Los Angeles Times. 2009-11-04. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  49. ^ No Doubt v. Activision Publishing, Inc., 192 Cal. App. 4th 1018 (2011).

External links[edit]