Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine is the Nobel Committee responsible for proposing laureates for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. The Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine is appointed by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet, a body of 50 members at Karolinska Institutet. It usually consists of Swedish professors of physiology or medical subjects active at Karolinska Institutet, although the Assembly in principle could appoint anyone to the Committee. Other than the five ordinary members, ten associated members are appointed each year, for that year only.
The Committee is a working body that invites nominations and evaluates candidates nominated for the Nobel Prize. The final decision to award the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine is taken by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet and based on a proposal from the Nobel Committee.
Over the years, there have been many controversies concerned with the process by which nominations and awards of the Nobel Prize. To avoid any possible appearance of bias, the Nobel Committee states that once 50 years has passed since the time of nomination, it will make the criteria for the selection of award recipients public. Currently (August 2, 2011) the Nobel Prize award site is more than 10 years late in providing these criteria. See Nobel Prize controversies.
Current members 
The current members of the Committee are:
- Klas Kärre, elected 2006 (chairman 2009–)
- Jan Andersson, elected 2008
- Carlos Ibáñez, elected 2008
- Urban Lendahl, elected 2007
- Rune Toftgård, elected 2010
The secretary is in charge of the organization for the Nobel Committee and Assembly. He participates ex officio in their meetings and is usually their representative on the board of the Nobel Foundation.
- Göran Liljestrand, 1918–1960
- Ulf von Euler, 1960–1965
- Bengt Gustavsson, 1966–1978
- Jan Lindsten, 1979–1990
- Alf Lindberg, 1991–1992
- Nils Ringertz, 1992–1999
- Hans Jörnvall, 2000–2008
- Göran K. Hansson, 2009–
Former members 
- Karl Mörner, 1900–?
- Carl Sundberg, 1904–1916
- Johan Erik Johansson, 1904–? (chairman 1918—?)
- Frithiof Lennmalm, 1908–1910, 1917–1918 and 1920–?
- Jules Åkerman, 1911–?
- Edvard Welander, 1911–?
- Johan Albin Dalén, 1911–?
- Bror Gadelius, 1914–?
- Frans Westermark, 1914–?
- John Sjöqvist, 1918–1928
- Gunnar Hedrén, ?–1922
- Einar Hammarsten, 1929–?
- Alfred Pettersson, 1932–1934
- Folke Henschen, 1935–?
- Gunnar Holmgren, 1938–?
- Göran Liljestrand, 1938–?
- Viktor Wigert, 1938–?
- Gösta Häggqvist, around 1940
- Hilding Bergstrand, ?–1952 (chairman 1947–1952)
- Ulf von Euler, 1953–1960 (chairman 1958–1960)
- Axel Westman, 1955–?
- Hugo Theorell, 1958–?
- Carl-Axel Hamberger, 1961–1966
- Erling Norrby, 1975–1980
- Rolf Zetterström, 1975-?
- David Ottoson, 1974–1984 (chairman 1982–1984)
- Nils Ringertz, 1981–1987 (chairman 1985–1987)
- Sten Orrenius, 1983–2002
- Jan Wersäll, 1984–1990
- Bengt Samuelsson, 1984–? (chairman 1987–?)
- Tomas Hökfelt, 1985–?
- Hans Wigzell, 1987–?
- Ralf F. Pettersson, 1995–2000 (chairman 1998–2000)
- Staffan Normark, 1996–2001
- Sten Lindahl, 1997–2002 (chairman 2001-2002)
- Bo Angelin, 1998–2003 (chairman 2003)
- Björn Vennström, 2001–2006
- Göran K. Hansson, 2002–2007 (chairman 2004–2006)
- Erna Möller, 2003–2005
- Lars Terenius, 2003–2005
- Nils-Göran Larsson, 2006–2008
- Bertil Fredholm, 2004–2009 (chairman 2007–2008)
- Nobelprize.org: The Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine, accessed 2010-06-19
- Nobelprize.org: Prize Awarder for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, accessed 2010-06-19