Noble gas (data page)

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This page provides supplementary data about the noble gases, which had to be excluded from the main article for reasons of space and focus.

Physical properties[edit]

Solid[edit]

Physical property Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Density, solid at tp (g/dm³)[1] 1444 1623 2826 3540
Crystal structure[2] hcp fcc fcc fcc fcc fcc

Liquid[edit]

Physical property Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Density, liquid at bp and 1 atm (g/dm³)[1] 125.0 1207 1393.9 2415 3057 4400
Density, liquid at tp (g/dm³)[1] 1247 1415 2451 3084
Thermal conductivity, liquid at bp (mW m−1 K−1)[1] 31.4 129.7 121.3 88.3 73.2
Dielectric constant (liquid)[3][4] 1.055[5] 1.53[6] 1.504 [7] 1.657[8] 1.874 [9] -

Gas[edit]

Physical property Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Density, gas at 0 °C and 1 atm (g/dm³)[2] 0.1786 0.9002 1.7818 3.708 5.851 9.97
Thermal conductivity at 0 °C (J s−1 m−1 K−1)[10] 0.1418 0.0461 0.0169 0.00874 0.00506 0.0036[11]
Mean Free Path at STP (nm)[2] 192.66 135.36 68.33 52.34 37.88  –
Solubility in water at 20 °C (cm3/kg) [10] 8.61 10.5 33.6 59.4 108.1 230
Magnetic susceptibility (cgs units per mole)[2] −0.0000019 −0.0000072 −0.0000194 −0.000028 −0.000043
Heat capacity, Cp, gas at 1 atm (J mol−1 K−1)[1] 20.78 20.79 20.85 20.95 21.01 21
Sonic velocity at 0 °C and 1 atm (m/s)[1] 973 433 307.8 213 168
Thermal conductivity, gas at 0 °C and 1 atm (mW m−1 K−1)[1] 141.84 46.07 16.94 8.74 5.06 3.6[11]
Molar refraction (D line, cm3)[12] 0.521 1.004 4.203 6.397 10.435
Dielectric constant (gas)[3] 1.0000684[13] 1.000545[14] 1.000127
van der Waals constant a (L2bar/mol2)[3] 0.03412 0.2107 1.345 2.318 4.194
van der Waals constant b (L/mol)[3] 0.02370 0.01709 0.03219 0.03978 0.05105

Phase changes and critical properties[edit]

Physical property Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Boiling point (°C)[2] −268.8 −245.9 −185.8 −151.7 −106.6 −61.7
Boiling point (K) 4.15 27.15 87.15 121.2 165.2 211.3
Melting point (°C)[2] −248.5 −189.6 −157.4 −111.5 −71.0
Critical temperature (K)[2] 5.25 44.5 150.85 209.35 289.74 378.15
Critical pressure (atm)[2] 2.26 26.9 48.3 54.3 57.64 62
Critical density (g/mL)[2] 0.0693 0.484 0.536 0.908 1.100
Triple point temperature (K)[1] 2.19[15] 24.562 83.80 115.76 161.37 202
Triple point pressure (kPa)[1] 5.1[15] 43.37 68.90 73.15 81.66 70

Atomic properties[edit]

Atomic property Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Atomic number[10] 2 10 18 36 54 86
Relative atomic mass[10] 4.002602(2) 20.1797(6) 39.948(1) 83.80(1) 131.29(2) (222)
Number of natural isotopes[10] 2 3 3 6 9 (1)
Outer shell electron configuration[10] 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p6 4s24p6 5s25p6 6s26p6
Atomic radius (pm)[2] 130 160 192 198 218  –
Ionization energy (kJ/mol)[10] 2372 2080 1520 1351 1170 1037
Static polarizability[2]3) 0.204 0.392 1.63 2.465 4.01
Average Valence Electron Energy (AVEE) 4.16 4.79 3.24 2.97 2.58

Abundance[edit]

Abundance Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon
Solar System (for each atom of silicon)[16] 2343 2.148 0.1025 5.515 × 10−5 5.391 × 10−6
Earth's atmosphere (volume fraction in ppm)[17] 5.20 18.20 9340.00 1.10 0.09 trace
Igneous rock (mass fraction in ppm)[10] 3 × 10−3 7 × 10−5 4 × 10−2 1.7 × 10−10

Economic data[edit]

Gas 2004 price (USD/m3)[1]
Helium (industrial grade) 4.20–4.90
Helium (laboratory grade) 22.30–44.90
Argon 2.70–8.50
Neon 60–120
Krypton 400–500
Xenon 4000–5000
Radon  ?

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shuen-Chen Hwang, Robert D. Lein, Daniel A. Morgan (2005). "Noble Gases". Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. pp. 343–383. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0701190508230114.a01. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Noble Gas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c d Lide, D. R. (Ed.) (1990). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (70th Edn.). Boca Raton (FL):CRC Press. 
  4. ^ Amey, R. L. (1964). "Dielectric Constants of Liquefied Noble Gases and Methane journal = Journal of Chemical Physics". doi:10.1063/1.1724850. 
  5. ^ at 2.06–2.63 K
  6. ^ at −191 °C
  7. ^ at 87.27K
  8. ^ at 119.80K
  9. ^ at 165.05K
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. 
  11. ^ a b Generalic, Eni,"Radon," EniG. Periodic Table of the Elements. 27 May 2013. KTF-Split. (accessed 30 May 2013).
  12. ^ Peter Häussinger, Reinhard Glatthaar, Wilhelm Rhode, Helmut Kick, Christian Benkmann, Josef Weber, Hans-Jörg Wunschel, Viktor Stenke, Edith Leicht, Hermann Stenger (2002). "Noble gases". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_485. 
  13. ^ <3 × 106 Hz at 140 °C
  14. ^ 1010 Hz at 23 °C
  15. ^ a b Lambda point for pure 4He from Yunus A. Cengel, Robert H. Turner. Fundamentals of thermal-fluid sciences. McGraw-Hill, 2004, p. 78. ISBN 0-07-297675-6
  16. ^ Lodders, Katharina (July 10, 2003). "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal (The American Astronomical Society) 591 (2): 1220–1247. Bibcode:2003ApJ...591.1220L. doi:10.1086/375492.  edit
  17. ^ "The Atmosphere". National Weather Service. Retrieved 2008-06-01.