Nocturia

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Nocturia
ICD-10 R35
ICD-9 788.43
MeSH D053158

Nocturia (derived from Latin nox, night, and Greek [τα] ούρα, urine), also called nycturia (Greek νυκτουρία), is defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as “the complaint that the individual has to wake at night one or more times for voiding.”[1] Its causes are varied and, in many patients, difficult to discern.[2]

In order to diagnose nocturia, the nocturnal urine volume (NUV) of patients must be known. The ICS defines NUV as “the total volume of urine passed between the time the individual goes to bed with the intention of sleeping and the time of waking with the intention of rising.”[this quote needs a citation] Thus, NUV excludes the last void before going to bed, but includes the first morning void if the urge to urinate woke the patient. Although every patient does not need treatment, most people seek treatment for severe nocturia, waking up to void more than 2-3 times per night. The amount of sleep a patient gets, and the amount they intend to get, are also considered in a diagnosis

Prevalence[edit]

Studies show that 5-15% of people who are 20-50 years old, 20-30% of people who are 50-70 years old, and 10-50% of people 70+ years old, urinate at least twice a night.[3] Nocturia becomes more common with age. More than 50 percent of men and women over the age of 60 have been measured to have nocturia in many communities. Even more over the age of 80 are shown to experience symptoms of nocturia nightly.[4] Nocturia symptoms also often worsen with age. Although nocturia rates are about the same for both genders, data shows that there is a higher prevalence in younger women than younger men and older men than older women.[3][5]

Causes[edit]

The two primary causes of nocturia are hormone imbalances and vesical problems.

Two major hormones that regulate the body’s water level are arginine vasopressin (AVP) and atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH). AVP is an antidiuretic hormone produced in the hypothalamus and stored in and released from the posterior pituitary gland. AVP increases water absorption in the collecting duct systems of kidney nephrons, subsequently decreasing urine production. It is used to regulate hydration levels in the body. ANH, on the other hand, is released by cardiac muscle cells in response to high blood volume. When activated, ANH releases water, subsequently increasing urine production.[citation needed]

Nocturia has four major underlying causes: global polyuria, nocturnal polyuria, bladder storage disorders, or mixed etiology.[6] The first two processes are due to irregular levels of AVP or ANH. The third process is a vesical problem.

Global polyuria[edit]

Global polyuria is the continuous overproduction of urine which is not only limited to sleep hours. Global polyuria occurs in response to increased fluid intake and is defined as urine outputs of greater than 40 mL/kg/24 hours. The common causes of global polyuria are primary thirst disorders such as diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus (DI). DI is caused by irregular water levels in the body. Urination imbalance may lead to polydipsia or excessive thirst to prevent circulatory collapse. Central DI is caused by low levels of AVP that helps regulates water levels. In nephrogenic DI, the kidneys do not respond properly to the normal amount of AVP.[7] Diagnosis of DI can be made by an overnight water deprivation test. This test requires the patient to eliminate fluid intake for a fixed period of time, usually around 8-12 hours. If the first morning void is not highly concentrated, the patient is diagnosed with DI. Central DI usually can be treated with a synthetic replacement of AVP, called desmopressin. Desmopressin is taken to control thirst and frequent urination.[8] Although there is no substitute for nephrogenic DI, it may be treated with careful regulation of fluid intake.

Nocturnal polyuria[edit]

Nocturnal polyuria is defined as an increase in urine production during the night but with a proportional decrease in daytime urine production that results in a normal 24-hour urine volume. With the 24-hour urine production within normal limits, nocturnal polyuria can be translated to having a nocturnal polyuria index (NPi) greater than 35% of the normal 24-hour urine volume. NPi is calculated simply by dividing NUV by the 24-hour urine volume.[9] Similar to the inability of control urination, a disruption of arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels has been proposed for nocturia. Compared with the normal patients, nocturia patients have a nocturnal decrease in AVP level. Other causes of nocturnal polyuria include diseases such as congestive heart failure, nephritic syndrome and hepatic failure; or lifestyle patterns such as excessive nighttime drinking. The increased airway resistance that is associated with obstructive sleep apnea may also lead to nocturnal polyuria. Obstructive sleep apnea have shown to have increases in renal sodium and water excretion that are mediated by elevated plasma ANH levels.[7][10]

Bladder storage[edit]

Bladder storage disorders are defined as any factors that increase the frequency of small volume voids. These factors are usually related to lower urinary tract symptoms that affect the capacity of the bladder. Patients with nocturia who do not have either polyuria or nocturnal polyuria according to the above criteria, will most likely have a bladder storage disorder that reduces their nighttime voided volume or a sleep disorder. Nocturnal bladder capacity (NBC) is defined as the largest voided volume during the sleep period. Decreased NBC can be traced to a decreased maximum voided volume or decreased bladder storage. Decreased NBC can be related to other disorders such as prostatic obstruction, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, learned voiding dysfunction, anxiety disorders, or certain pharmacological agents.[11]

Mixed etiology[edit]

A significant number of nocturia cases occur from a combination of etiologies. Mixed nocturia is more common than many realize and is a combination of nocturnal polyuria and decreased NBC. In a study of 194 nocturia patients, 7% were determined to have simple nocturnal polyuria, 57% had decreased NBC, and 36% had a mixed etiology of the two.[2] The etiology of nocturia is multifactorial and often unrelated to an underlying urological condition. Mixed nocturia is diagnosed through the maintenance and analysis of bladder diaries of the patient. Assessment of etiology contributions are done through formulas.

Diagnosis[edit]

As with any patient, a detailed history of the problem is required to establish what is normal for the patient and what isn’t. The principal diagnostic tool for nocturia is the voiding bladder diary. Based on information recorded in the diary, a physician can classify the patient as having polyuria, nocturnal polyuria, or bladder storage problems. Timing of voids, number of voids, and volume of urine voided should be recorded in the diary. Volume of fluid intake and time of intake should also be recorded. Patients should include the first morning void in the NUV, however, the first morning void is not included with the number of nightly voids.[citation needed]


Management[edit]

Lifestyle changes[edit]

Although there is no cure for nocturia, there are many actions people can take to manage their symptoms. Prohibiting the intake of caffeine and alcohol has helped some individuals with the disorder.[1] Compression stockings may be worn through the day to prevent fluid from accumulating in the legs, causing less urinary output, unless their use is contraindicated due to heart failure. Drugs that increase the passing of urine can help decrease the third spacing of fluid, but they could also increase nocturia. A common action patients take is to not consume any fluids hours before bedtime, which especially helps people with urgency incontinence.[12] However, a study on this showed that it reduced voiding at night by only a small amount and is not ideal for managing nocturia in older people.[12] For people suffering from nocturnal polyuria, this action does not help at all because of irregular AVP levels and the inability to respond with the inhibition of increased voiding. Fluid restriction also does not help people who have nocturia due to gravity-induced third spacing of fluid because fluid is mobilized when they lie in a reclining position.[citation needed]

Surgery[edit]

If the cause of nocturia is related to the obstruction of the prostate or an overactive bladder, surgical actions may be sought out. Transurethral prostatectomy/incision of the prostate and surgical correction of the pelvic organ prolapse, sacral nerve stimulation, clam cystoplasty, and detrusor myectomy are both treatment options and can help alleviate the symptoms of nocturia.[citation needed]

Pharmacotherapy[edit]

Desmopressin is a synthetic replacement for AVP, which is widely used for the treatment of many disorders including nocturnal enuresis and coagulation disorders. It is slowly becoming accepted as the drug needed to treat nocturia. Clinical trials testing desmopressin on nocturia patients showed that 33% of men and 46% of women treated with the drug reported a significant reduction in the number of episodes per night. Overall, the number of episodes a night and the amount of time between each episode changed significantly in favor of the patients who took desmopressin over the placebo.[13][14] Also, for the patients that took the drug, many of the negative impacts of nocturia were relieved. The longer the patients were on desmopressin, the more that reported a positive effect of the drug. The only substantial negative of taking the drug seen in the trials was dilutional hyponatremia. Using this treatment in older patients and patients at risk for hyponatremia means having to monitor the serum sodium concentration because there are severe risks if the concentration falls.[15] The treatment could also induce hyponatremia in patients who are not initially at risk for it.

Other drugs that are often used to treat nocturia include oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin, and other antimuscarinic agents. These drugs are especially used in patients who suffer from nocturia due to an overactive bladder and urgency incontinence because they help bladder contractility.[16]

Impact[edit]

Although nocturia is little-known to the general public, some research suggests that more than 60% of people are negatively affected by it.[3] The resulting insomnia and sleep deprivation can cause exhaustion, changes in mood, sleepiness, impaired productivity, fatigue, increased risk of accidents, and cognitive dysfunction.[17][18][19] 25% of falls that older individuals experience happen during the night, of which 25% occur while waking up to void.[20]In addition, nocturia may also increase risk of mortality and morbidity.[citation needed]

A quality of life test for people who experience nocturia was published in 2004. The pilot study was conducted only on men.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Van Kerrebroeck, Philip; Abrams, Paul; Chaikin, David; Donovan, Jenny; Fonda, David; Jackson, Simon; Jennum, Poul; Johnson, Theodore; Lose, Gunnar; Mattiasson, Anders; Robertson, Gary; Weiss, Jeff; Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society (2002). "The standardisation of terminology in nocturia: Report from the standardisation sub-committee of the International Continence Society". Neurourology and Urodynamics 21 (2): 179–83. doi:10.1002/nau.10053. PMID 11857672. 
  2. ^ a b Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Blaivas, Jerry G.; Stember, Doron S.; Brooks, Maria M. (1998). "Nocturia in adults: Etiology and classification". Neurourology and Urodynamics 17 (5): 467–72. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6777(1998)17:5<467::AID-NAU2>3.0.CO;2-B. PMID 9776009. 
  3. ^ a b c Schatzl, G; Temml, C; Schmidbauer, J; Dolezal, B; Haidinger, G; Madersbacher, S (2000). "Cross-sectional study of nocturia in both sexes: Analysis of a voluntary health screening project". Urology 56 (1): 71–5. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(00)00603-8. PMID 10869627. 
  4. ^ Lundgren, Rolf (2004). "Nocturia: A new perspective on an old symptom". Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 38 (2): 112–6. doi:10.1080/00365590310020033. PMID 15204390. 
  5. ^ Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon (2013). "Current Evaluation and Treatment of Nocturia". Korean Journal of Urology 54 (8): 492–8. doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.8.492. PMC 3742899. PMID 23956822. 
  6. ^ Hennessy, Catherine H.; Shen, John K. (1986). "Sources of 'Unreliability' in Multidisciplinary Team Assessment of the Elderly". Evaluation Review 10 (2): 178–92. doi:10.1177/0193841X8601000202. 
  7. ^ a b Weiss, JP; Blaivas, JG (2002). "Nocturnal polyuria versus overactive bladder in nocturia". Urology 60 (5 Suppl 1): 28–32; discussion 32. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(02)01789-2. PMID 12493348. 
  8. ^ Rivkees, SA; Dunbar, N; Wilson, TA (2007). "The management of central diabetes insipidus in infancy: Desmopressin, low renal solute load formula, thiazide diuretics". Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism 20 (4): 459–69. doi:10.1515/JPEM.2007.20.4.459. PMID 17550208. 
  9. ^ Matthiesen, TB; Rittig, S; Nørgaard, JP; Pedersen, EB; Djurhuus, JC (1996). "Nocturnal polyuria and natriuresis in male patients with nocturia and lower urinary tract symptoms". The Journal of Urology 156 (4): 1292–9. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)65572-1. PMID 8808857. 
  10. ^ Parthasarathy, Sairam; Fitzgerald, Marypat; Goodwin, James L.; Unruh, Mark; Guerra, Stefano; Quan, Stuart F. (2012). "Nocturia, Sleep-Disordered Breathing, and Cardiovascular Morbidity in a Community-Based Cohort". In Bayer, Antony. PLoS ONE 7 (2): e30969. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030969. PMC 3273490. PMID 22328924. 
  11. ^ Weiss, JP; Blaivas, JG (2003). "Nocturia". Current Urology Reports 4 (5): 362–6. doi:10.1007/s11934-003-0007-1. PMID 14499058. 
  12. ^ a b Griffiths, DJ; McCracken, PN; Harrison, GM; Gormley, EA (1993). "Relationship of fluid intake to voluntary micturition and urinary incontinence in geriatric patients". Neurourology and Urodynamics 12 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1002/nau.1930120102. PMID 8481726. 
  13. ^ Mattiasson, A; Abrams, P; Van Kerrebroeck, P; Walter, S; Weiss, J (2002). "Efficacy of desmopressin in the treatment of nocturia: A double-blind placebo-controlled study in men". BJU International 89 (9): 855–62. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.02791.x. PMID 12010228. 
  14. ^ Lose, G; Lalos, O; Freeman, RM; Van Kerrebroeck, P; Nocturia Study, Group (2003). "Efficacy of desmopressin (Minirin) in the treatment of nocturia: A double-blind placebo-controlled study in women". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 189 (4): 1106–13. doi:10.1067/S0002-9378(03)00593-3. PMID 14586363. 
  15. ^ Rembratt, A.; Riis, A.; Norgaard, J.P. (2006). "Desmopressin treatment in nocturia; an analysis of risk factors for hyponatremia". Neurourology and Urodynamics 25 (2): 105–9. doi:10.1002/nau.20168. PMID 16304673. 
  16. ^ Rovner, ES; Wein, AJ (2003). "Update on overactive bladder: Pharmacologic approaches on the horizon". Current Urology Reports 4 (5): 385–90. doi:10.1007/s11934-003-0013-3. PMID 14499063. 
  17. ^ Hetta, J (1999). "The impact of sleep deprivation caused by nocturia". BJU International. 84 Suppl 1: 27–8. PMID 10674891. 
  18. ^ Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Bliwise, Donald L.; Nørgaard, Jens Peter (2011). "The effect of nocturia on sleep". Sleep Medicine Reviews 15 (2): 91–7. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2010.03.002. PMC 3137590. PMID 20965130. 
  19. ^ Kobelt, G; Borgström, F; Mattiasson, A (2003). "Productivity, vitality and utility in a group of healthy professionally active individuals with nocturia". BJU International 91 (3): 190–5. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04062.x. PMID 12581002. 
  20. ^ Jensen, J; Lundin-Olsson, L; Nyberg, L; Gustafson, Y (2002). "Falls among frail older people in residential care". Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 30 (1): 54–61. doi:10.1080/140349401753481592. PMID 11928835. 
  21. ^ Abraham, Lucy; Hareendran, Asha; Mills, Ian W; Martin, Mona L; Abrams, Paul; Drake, Marcus J; MacDonagh, Ruaraidh P; Noble, Jeremy G (2004). "Development and validation of a quality-of-life measure for men with nocturia". Urology 63 (3): 481–6. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2003.10.019. PMID 15028442. 

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