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A nod of the head is a gesture in which the head is tilted in alternating up and down arcs along the sagittal plane. In many cultures, it is most commonly, but not universally, used to indicate agreement, acceptance, or acknowledgment.
Nodding to indicate acceptance
Different cultures assign different meanings to the gesture. Nodding to indicate "yes" is widespread, and appears in a large number of diverse cultural and linguistic groups. Areas in which nodding generally takes this meaning include the Indian subcontinent (note that the head bobble also shows agreement there), Iran, Southeast Asia, most of Europe (see below), Latin America and North America. Nodding may also be used as a sign of recognition in some areas. Nodding is also used to show respect. Insult can be inferred if it is not returned in kind.
Nodding to indicate refusal
There are few exceptions with some countries swapping the meanings between nodding and shaking head: in Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Albania a single nod of the head up (not down) indicates a "no".
There are varying theories as to why nodding is so frequently used to mean "yes". One simple theory is that it is a form of bowing, indicating that one is prepared to accept what another person is saying or requesting. It has also been stated that babies, when hungry, search for milk by moving their heads vertically, but decline milk by turning their head from side to side.
An early survey of nodding and other gestures was The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, written by Charles Darwin in 1872. Darwin wrote to missionaries in many parts of the world asking for information on local gestures, and concluded that nodding for "yes" was common to many different groups.
Nodding as greeting
Nodding can also be used as a form of nonverbal greeting or acknowledgement of another's presence; in this context, it is essentially an especially mild form of bowing, with just enough movement to show a degree of respect without additional formality. This includes the traditional downwards nod, or the upwards nod (which is more informal and usually used among friends or subordinates). To increase the formality, the downwards nod may also be accompanied by a suitable verbal greeting.
- Darwin, Charles. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1913; Page 272, accessed through Google Book Search.
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