Nodosauridae

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Nodosaurids
Temporal range: Late Jurassic - Late Cretaceous, 155–66Ma
Edmontonia model.jpg
Life restoration of Edmontonia rugosidens, Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Clade: Eurypoda
Suborder: Ankylosauria
Family: Nodosauridae
Marsh, 1890
Genera

See text.

Synonyms

Acanthopholididae Nopcsa, 1902
Acanthopholidae Nopcsa, 1917
Acanthopolidae Nopcsa, 1923 (lapsus calami)
Hylaeosauridae Nopcsa, 1902
Polacanthidae Wieland, 1911 Palaeoscincidae Nopcsa, 1918
Panoplosauridae Nopcsa, 1929
Struthiosauridae Kuhn, 1966
Edmontoniidae Bakker, 1988

Nodosauridae is a family of ankylosaurian dinosaurs, from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous Period of what are now North America, Asia, Antarctica and Europe.

Characteristics[edit]

Diagnostic characteristics for the Nodosauridae include the following: supraorbital boss rounded protuberance, occipital condyle derived from only the basioccipital and ornamentation present on the premaxilla. There is a fourth ambiguous character: the acromion, which is a knob-like process. All nodosaurids, like other ankylosaurs, may be described as medium-sized to large, heavily built quadrupedal herbivorous dinosaurs, possessing small denticulate teeth and parasagittal rows of osteoderms (a type of armour) on the dorsolateral surfaces of the body.

Classification[edit]

Taxonomy[edit]

The family Nodosauridae was erected by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1890, and anchored on the genus Nodosaurus. The following taxonomy follows Thompson et al., 2011 unless otherwise noted.[1]

Phylogeny[edit]

The clade Nodosauridae was first defined by Paul Sereno in 1998 as "all ankylosaurs closer to Panoplosaurus than to Ankylosaurus," a definition followed by Vickaryous, Maryanska, and Weishampel in 2004. Vickaryous et al. considered two genera of nodosaurids to be of uncertain placement (incertae sedis): Struthiosaurus and Animantarx, and considered the most primitive member of the Nodosauridae to be Cedarpelta.[5] The cladogram below follows the most resolved topology from a 2011 analysis by paleontologists Richard S. Thompson, Jolyon C. Parish, Susannah C. R. Maidment and Paul M. Barrett.[1] The placement of Polacanthinae follows its original definition by Kenneth Carpenter in 2001.[4]

Nodosauridae

Antarctopelta





Mymoorapelta




Hylaeosaurus



Anoplosaurus






Tatankacephalus



Polacanthus rudgwickensis


Polacanthinae

Gargoyleosaurus



Hoplitosaurus




Gastonia




Peloroplites



Polacanthus








Struthiosaurus



Zhejiangosaurus





Hungarosaurus




Animantarx




Niobrarasaurus



Nodosaurus



Pawpawsaurus



Sauropelta



Silvisaurus



Stegopelta



Texasetes




Edmontonia



Panoplosaurus










Timeline[edit]

21st century in paleontology 20th century in paleontology 19th century in paleontology 2090s in paleontology 2080s in paleontology 2070s in paleontology 2060s in paleontology 2050s in paleontology 2040s in paleontology 2030s in paleontology 2020s in paleontology 2010s in paleontology 2000s in paleontology 1990s in paleontology 1980s in paleontology 1970s in paleontology 1960s in paleontology 1950s in paleontology 1940s in paleontology 1930s in paleontology 1920s in paleontology 1910s in paleontology 1900s in paleontology 1890s in paleontology 1880s in paleontology 1870s in paleontology 1860s in paleontology 1850s in paleontology 1840s in paleontology 1830s in paleontology 1820s in paleontology Polacanthus Peloroplites Hoplitosaurus Gastonia Gargoyleosaurus Zhejiangosaurus Texasetes Tatankacephalus Struthiosaurus Stegopelta Silvisaurus Sauropelta Propanoplosaurus Pawpawsaurus Panoplosaurus Nodosaurus Niobrarasaurus Mymoorapelta Hylaeosaurus Hungarosaurus Glyptodontopelta Edmontonia Antarctopelta Anoplosaurus Animantarx 21st century in paleontology 20th century in paleontology 19th century in paleontology 2090s in paleontology 2080s in paleontology 2070s in paleontology 2060s in paleontology 2050s in paleontology 2040s in paleontology 2030s in paleontology 2020s in paleontology 2010s in paleontology 2000s in paleontology 1990s in paleontology 1980s in paleontology 1970s in paleontology 1960s in paleontology 1950s in paleontology 1940s in paleontology 1930s in paleontology 1920s in paleontology 1910s in paleontology 1900s in paleontology 1890s in paleontology 1880s in paleontology 1870s in paleontology 1860s in paleontology 1850s in paleontology 1840s in paleontology 1830s in paleontology 1820s in paleontology

Biogeography[edit]

The near simultaneous appearance of nodosaurids in both North America and Europe is worthy of consideration. Europelta is the oldest nodosaurid from Europe, it is derived from the lower Albian Escucha Formation. The oldest western North American nodosaurid is Sauropelta, from the lower Albian Little Sheep Mudstone Member of the Cloverly Formation, at an age of 108.5±0.2 million years. Eastern North American fossils seem older. Teeth of Priconodon crassus from the Arundel Clay of the Potomac Group of Maryland, which dates near the Aptian–Albian boundary. The Propanoplosaurus hatchling from the base of the underlying Patuxent Formation, dating to the upper Aptian, is the oldest known nodosaurid.[3]

Polacanthids are known from pre-Aptian fauna from both Europe and North America. The timing of the appearance of nodosaurids on both continents indicates that the origins of the clade preceded the isolation of North America and Europe, pushing the group's date of evolution back to at least the "middle" Aptian. The separation of Nodosauridae into European Struthiosaurinae and North American Nodosaurinae by the end of the Aptian provides a revised date for the isolation of the continents from each other by rising sealevels.[3]

Below is a table showing the age difference between continents. North American nodosaurids are teal, European nodosaurids are green, European polacanthids are blue, and North American polacanthids are brown. Other nodosaurids or polacanthids are black. This table supports the observations by Kirkland et al. (2013).[3]

Cretaceous Jurassic Late Cretaceous Early Cretaceous Late Jurassic Middle Jurassic Early Jurassic Glyptodontopelta Panoplosaurus Edmontonia Antarctopelta Struthiosaurus Hungarosaurus Niobrarasaurus Silvisaurus Texasetes Pawpawsaurus Zhejiangosaurus Dongyangopelta Anoplosaurus Stegopelta Nodosaurus Peloroplites Animantarx Tatankacephalus Sauropelta Europelta Priconodon Propanoplosaurus Gastonia Polacanthus Hoplitosaurus Hylaeosaurus Gargoyleosaurus Mymoorapelta Cretaceous Jurassic Late Cretaceous Early Cretaceous Late Jurassic Middle Jurassic Early Jurassic

  • James Kirkland et al. considers Mymoorapelta, Gargoyleosaurus, Hylaeosaurus, Polacanthus, Hoplitosaurus and Gastonia to be Polacanthids, outside of Nodosauridae.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Richard S. Thompson, Jolyon C. Parish, Susannah C. R. Maidment and Paul M. Barrett (2011). "Phylogeny of the ankylosaurian dinosaurs (Ornithischia: Thyreophora)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10 (2): 301–312. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.569091. 
  2. ^ a b Burns, Michael E. (2008). "Taxonomic utility of ankylosaur (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) osteoderms: Glyptodontopelta mimus Ford, 2000: a test case". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28 (4): 1102–1109. doi:10.1671/0272-4634-28.4.1102. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Kirkland, J. I.; Alcalá, L.; Loewen, M. A.; Espílez, E.; Mampel, L.; Wiersma, J. P. (2013). Butler, Richard J, ed. "The Basal Nodosaurid Ankylosaur Europelta carbonensis n. gen., n. sp. From the Lower Cretaceous (Lower Albian) Escucha Formation of Northeastern Spain". PLoS ONE 8 (12): e80405. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080405.  edit
  4. ^ a b Carpenter K (2001). "Phylogenetic analysis of the Ankylosauria". In Carpenter, Kenneth(ed). The Armored Dinosaurs. Indiana University Press. pp. 455–484. ISBN 0-253-33964-2. 
  5. ^ Vickaryous, M. K., Maryanska, T., and Weishampel, D. B. (2004). Chapter Seventeen: Ankylosauria. in The Dinosauria (2nd edition), Weishampel, D. B., Dodson, P., and Osmólska, H., editors. University of California Press.
  • Carpenter, K. (2001). "Phylogenetic analysis of the Ankylosauria." In Carpenter, K., (ed.) 2001: The Armored Dinosaurs. Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, 2001, pp. xv-526
  • Osi, Attila (2005). Hungarosaurus tormai, a new ankylosaur (Dinosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous of Hungary. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(2):370-383, June 2003.