Nokalakevi

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Nokalakevi
ნოქალაქევი
Nokalakevi99.jpg
The eastern fortifications of Nokalakevi
Nokalakevi is located in Georgia (country)
Nokalakevi
Shown within Georgia
Alternate name Tsikhegoji, Archaeopolis
Location Senaki, Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, Georgia
Coordinates 42°21′26″N 42°11′38″E / 42.35722°N 42.19389°E / 42.35722; 42.19389Coordinates: 42°21′26″N 42°11′38″E / 42.35722°N 42.19389°E / 42.35722; 42.19389
Type Settlement
Area 20 ha (49 acres)
History
Periods Hellenistic to Early Byzantine

Nokalakevi (Georgian: ნოქალაქევი) also known as Archaeopolis (Greek Αρχαιόπολις, literally meaning "ancient town") and Tsikhegoji ("Fortress of Kuji"), is a village and archaeological site in the Senaki municipality, Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti region, Georgia.

History[edit]

Nestled by the picturesque river Tekhuri, on the northern edge of the Colchian plain in Samegrelo, western Georgia, lie the impressive ruins of Nokalakevi. Occupying some 20ha, the site was known to early Byzantine historians as Archaeopolis, and to the neighbouring Georgian (Kartlian) chroniclers as Tsikhegoji, or the fortress of Kuji — a semi-mythical Colchian ruler or 'Eristavi'. The fortress is located 15 km from the modern town of Senaki on the Martvili road, and would have commanded an important crossing point of the river Tekhuri, at the junction with a valuable strategic route that still winds through the neighbouring hills to Chkhorotsqu in central Samegrelo. Nokalakevi-Archaeopolis played a pivotal part in the major wars fought between the Byzantines and Sasanians in the South Caucasus during the sixth century AD. It was one of the key fortresses guarding Lazika (modern Mingrelia) from Sasanian, Persian and Iberian (East Georgian/Kartlian) attack. During the war of AD 540-562, the Persians' failure to take Nokalakevi-Archaeopolis from the Byzantines and the Laz eventually cost them control of Lazika.

The early Byzantine defensive fortifications of Nokalakevi-Archaeopolis take advantage of the site's position within a loop of the river Tekhuri, which has carved a gorge through the local limestone to the west of the fortress. Furthermore, the steep and rugged terrain to the north of the site made the citadel established there almost unassailable. A wall connected this 'upper town' to the 'lower town' below, where excavations have revealed substantial stone buildings of the fourth to sixth century AD. Beneath these late Roman period layers there is evidence of several earlier phases of occupation and abandonment, from the eighth to second centuries BC [1]

Archaeological work at the site[edit]

The Forty Martyrs Church

Modern study of the site began in the decades before the formal Russian annexation of Samegrelo, with a visit by the Swiss philologist Frédéric Dubois de Montpéreux in 1833-4. He identified the ruins as the Archaeopolis of Byzantine historians and argued that the site was Aia, the ancient Colchian capital of the Greek Argonaut myth.[2][3] This, unsurprisingly, stimulated much scholarly interest, which culminated in the 1920s with proposals for an archaeological excavation. In the winter of 1930-31, a joint German-Georgian team, led by Dr Alfonse-Maria Schneider of Freiburg University, traced the line of the walls and excavated about 40 survey trenches and one of the towers, as well as what they erroneously believed to be the agora in the 'lower' town. Their findings — including an impressive hoard of gold solidi of the Emperor Maurice (AD 584-602) — confirmed Dubois de Montpéreux's identification of the site with Archaeopolis, without settling the question of Aia.[4] Most scholars continued (and continue) to prefer the traditional identification of Aia with Kutaisi.

Map of Lazica with Archaeopolis in the country's centre

The political upheavals of the 1930s and the onset of war interrupted further archaeological excavation. Nevertheless interest in Georgia's history continued to grow, prompting various scholarly visits and articles about Nokalakevi from the 1930s [5] to the 1960s (see [3] for a discussion of previous work at Nokalakevi). Finally in 1973 a major state-sponsored expedition was set up, headed by Parmen Zakaraia. This expedition undertook major excavations and conservation work at Nokalakevi until the early 1990s when the collapse of the Soviet Union and the civil disturbances of Georgia's early years of independence brought a halt to funding and serious damage to the expedition's infrastructure [6][7][8][9]

Large-scale excavations were resumed in 2001 with a collaborative project, headed by Professor David Lomitashvili, of the S. Janashia State History Museum (now the Georgian National Museum) and the newly formed Anglo-Georgian Expedition to Nokalakevi (AGEN) co-directed by Ian Colvin, Dr Paul Everill and Benjamin Neil.[10] The Anglo-Georgian Expedition celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2010 and collaborative work continues at Nokalakevi.

References[edit]

  1. ^ LOMITASHVILI, D. 1993. Stratigrafia nokalakevis nakalakarze (VII ubnis mixedvit), in Zakaraia, P. (ed.) Nokalakevi-Arkeopolisi : arkeologiuri gatxrebi III 1983–1989. Tbilisi
  2. ^ DUBOIS DE MONTPEREUX, F. 1839. Voyage du Caucase, volume 3 (Elibron facsimile 2005): 51-62. Paris
  3. ^ a b LOMOURI, N. 1981. Nokalakevis shestsavlis istoria, in Zakaraia, P. (ed.) Nokalakevi-Arkeopolisi : arkeologiuri gatxrebi I 1973–1977. Tbilisi
  4. ^ SCHNEIDER, A.-M. 1931. Archaeopolis (Nokalakewi), in Forschungen und Fortschritte 27, 20 Sept. 1931: 354-5
  5. ^ QAUKHCHISHVILI, S. 1936. Georgika: bizantieli mcerlebis cnobebi Sakartvelos šesaxeb; scriptorum byzantinorum excerpta ad Georgiam pertinentia. Tbilisi, Sakartvelos SSR mecnierebata akademiis gamomcemloba
  6. ^ ZAKARAIA, P. (ed.). 1981. Nokalakevi-Arkeopolisi: arkeologiuri gatxrebi I 1973–1977. Tbilisi
  7. ^ ZAKARAIA, P. (ed.) 1987. Nokalakevi-Arkeopolisi: arkeologiuri gatxrebi II 1978–1982. Tbilisi
  8. ^ ZAKARAIA, P. (ed.). 1993. Nokalakevi-Arkeopolisi: arkeologiuri gatxrebi III 1983–1989. Tbilisi
  9. ^ ZAKARAIA, P. & T. KAPANADZE. 1991. Cixegoji-Arkeopolisi-Nokalakevi xurotmozgvreba. Tbilisi
  10. ^ EVERILL, P., COLVIN, I., NEIL, B. and LOMITASHVILI, D. 2010. Nokalakevi-Archaeopolis: ten years of Anglo-Georgian collaboration. Antiquity 84 (326)

External links[edit]