|Traded as||OMX: NOK1V
|Founded||Tampere, Grand Duchy of Finland (1865)
incorporated in Nokia (1871)
|Headquarters||Espoo, Uusimaa, Finland|
|Products||List of Nokia products|
|Services||List of Nokia products#Services|
|Revenue||€12.73 billion (2014)|
|€1.63 billion (2014)|
|€1.17 billion (2014)|
|Total assets||€21.06 billion (2014)|
|Total equity||€8.67 billion (2014)|
Number of employees
Nokia Oyj (Finnish: Nokia Oyj, Swedish: Nokia Abp; Finnish pronunciation: [ˈnokiɑ], UK //, US //) is a Finnish multinational communications and information technology company. Nokia is headquartered in Espoo, Uusimaa, in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2014, Nokia employed 61,656 people across 120 countries, conducts sales in more than 150 countries and reported annual revenues of around €12.73 billion. Nokia is a public limited-liability company listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange. It is the world's 274th-largest company measured by 2013 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500.
The company currently focuses on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures, technology development and licensing, and online mapping services. Nokia is also a significant contributor to the mobile telephony industry, having assisted in development of the GSM and LTE standards, and was, for a period, the largest vendor of mobile phones in the world. Nokia's dominance also extended into the smartphone industry through its Symbian platform, but it was soon overshadowed by the growing dominance of Apple's iPhone line and Android devices. Nokia eventually entered into a pact with Microsoft in 2011 to exclusively use its Windows Phone platform on future smartphones.
In September 2013, Microsoft announced that it would acquire Nokia's mobile phone business as part of an overall deal totaling €5.44 billion (US$7.17 billion). Stephen Elop, Nokia's former CEO, and several other executives joined the new Microsoft Mobile subsidiary of Microsoft as part of the deal, which was completed on 25 April 2014.
In November 2014, following the Microsoft sale, Nokia announced plans to license its product designs and technologies to third-party manufacturers, primarily to enable a continued presence for the Nokia brand in the consumer electronics hardware market. The first product borne of this strategy is the Nokia N1 tablet.
- 1 History
- 1.1 1865 to 1967
- 1.2 1967 to 2000
- 1.3 2000 to 2010
- 1.4 2010 to 2013
- 1.5 2013-2014: Sale of mobile phone business to Microsoft
- 1.6 2014 to present
- 2 Operations
- 3 Corporate affairs
- 4 Logos
- 5 Controversies
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
1865 to 1967
Nokia Company's history started in 1865 when mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a ground wood pulp mill on the banks of the Tammerkoski rapids in the town of Tampere, in southwestern Finland (then, part of the Russian Empire). In 1868, Idestam built a second mill near the town of Nokia, fifteen kilometers (nine miles) west of Tampere, by the Nokianvirta river, which had better hydropower resources. In 1871, Idestam, with the help of close friend and statesman Leo Mechelin, renamed and transformed his firm into a share company, thereby founding "Nokia AB". The company's name came from the Nokianvirta river and the Nokia town, nearby which the factories of Eduard Polón's company, Suomen Gummitehdas, were located a few years later.
Eduard Polón (1861-1930), Nokia's founder, was a Finnish business leader. In 1898, Polón founded Finnish Rubber Works, manufacturer of galoshes and other rubber products, which later became Nokia's rubber business. At the beginning of the 20th century, Finnish Rubber Works established its factories near the town of Nokia and began using its name as its product brand. He was founder, CEO, Chairman of the Board and the largest shareholder of the Suomen Gummitehdas ("Finnish Rubber Works"). Polón decided to use the name "Nokia", the town where his factories were based, as a brand name for his products to differentiate his products from Russian competitors. The legacy of Suomen Gummitehdas lives on in Nokian Tyres.
Towards the end of the 19th century, Mechelin sought to expand into the electricity business, but his aspiration was initially thwarted by Idestam's opposition. However, Idestam's retirement in 1896 allowed Mechelin to become the company's chairman (from 1898 until 1914), and he subsequently convinced shareholders. In 1902, Nokia added electricity generation to its business activities.
In 1912, Arvid Wickström founded Finnish Cable Works, producer of telephone, telegraph and electrical cables and the foundation of Nokia's cable and electronics businesses. At the end of the 1910s, shortly after World War I, the Company was nearing bankruptcy. To ensure the continuation of electricity supply from Nokia's generators, Finnish Rubber Works acquired the business of the insolvent company. In 1922, Finnish Rubber Works acquired Finnish Cable Works. In 1937, Verner Weckman, a wrestler and Finland's first Olympic Gold medalist, became president of Finnish Cable Works, after 16 years as its technical director. After World War II, Finnish Cable Works supplied cables to the Soviet Union as part of war reparations. This gave the company a foothold for later trade.
Although these three companies—Suomen Gummitehdas, Suomen Kaapelitehdas and Nokia AB—were not formally merged, as the law did not allow it at the time, Polón continued to create a successful conglomerate that later became Nokia PLC. Polòn was the chairman, managing director, and the largest owner of the group for 30 years.
The three companies, jointly owned since 1922, were merged to form a new industrial conglomerate, Nokia Corporation, in 1967. The new company was involved in many industries, producing at various times paper products, car and bicycle tires, footwear (including rubber boots), communications cables, televisions and other consumer electronics, personal computers, electricity generation machinery, robotics, capacitors, military communications and equipment (such as the SANLA M/90 device and the M61 gas mask for the Finnish Army), plastics, aluminum and chemicals. Each business unit had its own director who reported to the first Nokia Corporation President, Björn Westerlund. As the president of the Finnish Cable Works, he had been responsible for setting up the company's first electronics department in 1960, sowing the seeds of Nokia's future in telecommunications.
1967 to 2000
The electronics section of the cable division was founded in 1960 and the production of its first electronic devices began in 1962: a pulse analyzer designed for use in nuclear power plants. In the 1967 fusion, that section was separated into its own division, and began manufacturing telecommunications equipment. A key CEO and subsequent chairman of the board was vuorineuvos Björn "Nalle" Westerlund (1912–2009), who founded the electronics department and let it run at a loss for 15 years. In the late 1960s and early 1970s Westerlund encouraged researchers to work on their own projects, which one top executive directly linked to the company's later expertise in mobile communications technologies.
In the 1970s, Nokia became more involved in the telecommunications industry by developing the Nokia DX 200, a digital switch for telephone exchanges. The DX 200 became the workhorse of the network equipment division. Its architecture enabled it to be developed into various switching products. In 1984, development of a version of the exchange for the Nordic Mobile Telephony network was started.
For a while in the 1970s, Nokia's network equipment production was separated into Telefenno, a company jointly owned by the parent corporation and by a company owned by the Finnish state. In 1987, the state sold its shares to Nokia and in 1992 the name was changed to Nokia Telecommunications.
The technologies that preceded modern cellular mobile telephony systems were the various pre-cellular mobile radio telephony standards. Nokia had been producing commercial and some military mobile radio communications technology since the 1960s, although this part of the company was sold some time before the later company rationalization. Since 1964, Nokia had developed VHF radio simultaneously with Salora Oy. In 1966, Nokia and Salora started developing the ARP standard (which stands for Autoradiopuhelin, or car radio phone in English), a car-based mobile radio telephony system and the first commercially operated public mobile phone network in Finland. It went online in 1971 and offered 100% coverage in 1978.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Nokia developed the Sanomalaitejärjestelmä ("Message device system"), a digital, portable and encrypted text-based communications device for the Finnish Defence Forces. The current main unit used by the Defence Forces is the Sanomalaite M/90 (SANLA M/90).
Involvement in NMT (1G)
In 1979, the merger of Nokia and Salora resulted in the establishment of Mobira Oy. Mobira began developing mobile phones for the NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony) network standard, the 1G, Finland's, as wells as world's first fully automatic cellular phone system that went online in 1981. In 1982, Mobira introduced its first car phone, the Mobira Senator for NMT-450 networks.
Nokia bought Salora Oy in 1984 and changed the company's telecommunications branch name to Nokia-Mobira Oy. The Mobira Talkman, launched in 1984, was one of the world's first transportable phones. In 1987, Nokia introduced it's first mobile phone, the Mobira Cityman 900 for NMT-900 networks (which, compared to NMT-450, offered a better signal, yet a shorter roam). While the Mobira Senator of 1982 had weighed 9.8 kg (22 lb) and the Talkman just under 5 kg (11 lb), the Mobira Cityman weighed only 800 g (28 oz) with the battery and had a price tag of 24,000 Finnish marks (approximately €4,560). Despite the high price, the first phones were almost snatched from the sales assistants' hands. Initially, the mobile phone was a "yuppie" product and a status symbol.
Nokia's mobile phones got a publicity boost in 1987, when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev was pictured using a Mobira Cityman to call from Helsinki to his communications minister in Moscow. This led to the phone's nickname of the "Gorba".
In 1988, Jorma Nieminen, resigning from the post of CEO of the mobile phone unit, along with two other employees from the unit, started a notable mobile phone company of their own, Benefon Oy (since renamed to GeoSentric).
One year later, Nokia-Mobira Oy became Nokia Mobile Phones.
Involvement in GSM (2G)
Nokia was a key developer of GSM (2G) (Global System for Mobile Communications), the second-generation mobile technology that could carry data as well as voice traffic. NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony), the world's first mobile telephony standard to allow international roaming, provided expertise for Nokia in developing GSM, which was adopted in 1987 as the new European standard for digital mobile technology.
Nokia delivered its first GSM network to Finnish operator Radiolinja in 1989. The world's first commercial GSM call was made on 1 July 1991 in Helsinki, over a Nokia-supplied network, by then-Prime Minister of Finland Harri Holkeri, using a prototype Nokia GSM phone. In 1992, the first GSM phone, the Nokia 1011, was launched. The model number refers to its launch date, 10 November. The Nokia 1011 did not yet employ Nokia's characteristic ringtone, the Nokia tune, which was introduced as a ringtone in 1994 with the Nokia 2100 series.
GSM's high-quality voice calls, easy international roaming and support for new services like text messaging (Short Message Service) laid the foundations for a worldwide boom in mobile phone use. GSM came to dominate mobile telephony in the 1990s, by mid-2008 accounting for about three billion subscribers, with more than 700 mobile operators across 218 countries and territories. Connections were growing at the rate of 15 per second, or 1.3 million per day.
In the 1980s, Nokia's computer division Nokia Data produced a series of personal computers called MikroMikko. MikroMikko was Nokia Data's attempt to enter the business computer market. The first model in the line, MikroMikko 1, was released on 29 September 1981, around the same time as the first IBM PC.
However, the personal computer division was sold to the British ICL (International Computers Limited) in 1991, which later became part of Fujitsu. MikroMikko remained a trademark of ICL and later Fujitsu. Internationally the MikroMikko line was marketed by Fujitsu as the ErgoPro. Fujitsu later transferred its personal computer operations to Fujitsu Siemens Computers, which shut down its only factory in Espoo, Finland (in the Kilo district, where computers had been produced since the 1960s) at the end of March 2000, thus ending large-scale PC manufacturing in the country.
Challenges of growth
In the 1980s under CEO Kari Kairamo, Nokia expanded into new fields, mostly by acquisitions. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the corporation ran into serious financial problems, partly due to heavy losses in its television manufacturing division. Kairamo committed suicide in 1988. After Kairamo's death, Simo Vuorilehto became Nokia's chairman and CEO. In 1990–1993, Finland underwent a severe recession, which also struck Nokia. Under Vuorilehto's management, Nokia was severely overhauled. The company responded by streamlining its telecommunications divisions and by divesting itself of the television and PC divisions.
Probably the most important strategic change in Nokia's history was made in 1992, however, when the new CEO Jorma Ollila made a crucial strategic decision to concentrate solely on telecommunications. As late as 1991, more than a quarter of Nokia's turnover came from sales in Finland. However, after the strategic change of 1992, Nokia sales to North America, South America and Asia became significant. The worldwide popularity of mobile telephones, beyond even Nokia's most optimistic predictions, created a logistical crisis in the mid-1990s, prompting Nokia to overhaul its entire supply chain. By 1998, Nokia's focus on telecommunications and its early investment in GSM technologies had made the company the world's largest mobile phone manufacturer, a position it held until 2012. Between 1996 and 2001, Nokia's turnover increased almost fivefold from 6.5 billion euros to 31 billion euros. Logistics continued to be a major advantages over rivals, along with greater economies of scale.
The company decided to exit consumer electronics in the 1990s and focused solely on the fastest growing segments in telecommunications. Nokian Tyres, manufacturer of tires, split from Nokia Corporation in 1988 and two years later Nokian Footwear, manufacturer of rubber boots, was founded. In 1989, Nokia also sold the original paper business; currently this company (Nokian Paperi) is owned by SCA. During the rest of the 1990s, Nokia divested itself of all other businesses.
2000 to 2010
Nokia launched the Nokia 3310 in 2000. It has become one of the most popular devices of all time. The Nokia 1100 handset launched in 2003, shipped over 200 million units, is the best-selling mobile phone of all time and the world's top-selling consumer electronics product, and contributed to the company's rise in developing markets. Nokia was one of the first to recognize the market opportunity in combining a game console and a mobile phone (both of which many gamers were carrying in 2003) into the N-Gage. The N-Gage was a mobile phone and game console meant to lure gamers away from the Game Boy Advance, though it cost twice as much.
Nokia acquired Smarterphone, a company making the Smarterphone OS for low end phones and merged it with Series 40 to form the Asha Platform, which also inherits some UI characteristics from Nokia's MeeGo platform. The Asha 501 was the first phone running the new OS.
Symbian was Nokia's main smartphone operating system until 2011. Symbian was popular among the smartphone market during the 2000s.
Some popular Symbian-powered devices include the Nokia 7650, the first S60 smartphone; Nokia N-Gage the first game-centric smartphone; Nokia 6600, the first Symbian smartphone to sold over a million unit with a soap-like design; Nokia 7610, the first Nokia with a megapixel camera; Nokia 6630 the first 3G Nokia smartphone; Nokia N90, the first camera-centric phone; Nokia N95, a popular slider; Nokia N82, with Xenon flash; Nokia E71, offering a full "qwerty" keyboard and premium build; Nokia 5800 XpressMusic the first full-touch smartphone; Nokia N97 with full-touchscreen and a side-sliding QWERTY keyboard; Nokia X6 the first capacitive touchscreen and the Nokia N8 with the newer Symbian^3 and 12 megapixel camera.
The Nokia N95 released in March 2007, with a 5-megapixel camera and sliding multimedia keys. Often considered Nokia's hero smartphone. (S60 3rd)
In April 2003, the troubles of the networks equipment division caused the corporation to resort to similar streamlining practices, including layoffs and organizational restructuring. This diminished Nokia's public image in Finland and produced a number of court cases and an episode of a documentary television show critical of Nokia.
In March 2007, Nokia signed a memorandum with Cluj County Council, Romania to open a plant near the city in Jucu commune. Moving the production from the Bochum, Germany factory to a low wage country created an uproar in Germany.
Nokia later moved its North American Headquarters to Sunnyvale, California.
In 2008, Nokia exited mobile phone distribution in Japan.
In February 2012, Nokia announced 4,000 lay-offs to move manufacturing from Europe and Mexico to Asia. In March 2012, Nokia laid off 1,000 employees from its Salo, Finland factory to focus on software. In June 2012, research facilities in Ulm, Germany and Burnaby, Canada closed, costing more jobs. The company also announced 10,000 lay-offs globally by the end of 2013.
In January 2013, Nokia terminated 1,000 employees from its IT, production and logistics divisions. The company planned to transfer about 715 jobs to subcontractors.
On 19 June 2006, Nokia and Siemens AG announced the companies would merge their mobile and fixed-line phone network equipment businesses, creating Nokia Siemens Networks. Each company has a 50% stake in the infrastructure company, headquartered in Espoo, Finland. About 20,000 Nokia employees transferred to this new company. On 8 August 2006, Nokia agreed to acquire online music distributor Loudeye Corporation for approximately US$60 million.
In July 2007, Nokia acquired the media sharing service Twango. In September 2007, Nokia agreed to acquire Enpocket, a supplier of mobile advertising technology and services. In 2007, Nokia agreed to acquire Navteq, a U.S.-based supplier of digital mapping data, for $8.1 billion and finalized the acquisition on 10 July 2008.
In September 2008, Nokia acquired OZ Communications, a privately held company with approximately 220 employees headquartered in Montreal, Canada.
On 24 July 2009, Nokia agreed to acquire certain assets of Cellity, a privately owned mobile software company, completed on 5 August 2009. In September 2009, Nokia acquired certain assets of Plum Ventures, Inc to complement Nokia's Social Location services.
Apple's iPhone, originally launched in 2007, was initially still outsold by Nokia smartphones, most notably the Nokia N95 for some time. Symbian had a dominating 62.5% market share as of Q4 2007 – ahead of Microsoft's Windows Mobile (11.9%) and RIM (10.9%).
However, with the launch of the iPhone 3G in 2008, Apple's year-on-year market share doubled by the end of that year and the market share of iPhone OS (now known as iOS) pulled ahead of Windows Mobile, although Nokia retained a 40.8% share by Q4 2008; nevertheless, it saw a decline of over 10% from Q4 2007, replaced by Apple's increasing share. The Nokia N96, released in late 2008, proved to be much less successful, although the Nokia 5800 XpressMusic was considered to be the iPhone 3G's main rival in some quarters. The success of the business-oriented Nokia E71, was not enough to halt the decline of Nokia's smartphone market share. On 24 June 2008, Nokia bought the Symbian operating system and the next year made it open source.
In early 2009, Nokia released the Nokia N97, a touchscreen device with a landscape QWERTY slider keyboard that was focused on social networking. It was a commercial success despite its mixed reception. The N97's closest competitor was the iPhone 3GS. In 2009 several devices were launched, such as the Nokia E52, which gained positive reception. However, Symbian's market share dropped from 52.4% in Q4 2008 to 46.1% a year later. RIM (subsequently Blackberry) increased its market share during the period from 16.6% to 19.9%, while Apple increased its share from 8.2% to 14.4%. Android grew to 3.9%.
2010 to 2013
In 2010, pressure on Nokia increased dramatically as Android and iOS continued to make gains. Other Symbian OEMs including Samsung Electronics and Sony Ericsson chose to make Android-based smartphones instead of Symbian, and by mid-2010 Nokia was its only OEM outside Japan. Nokia developed Symbian^3 to replace S60, but it never became popular. By Q4 2010, Symbian's market share dipped to 32%, surpassed by Android at 30%. Despite losing share, the smartphone unit was profitable and smartphone unit sales increased every quarter during 2010. An estimated 4 million units were sold in Q4 2010.
In February 2010, Nokia and Intel announced MeeGo, a merger of their Linux-based Maemo and Moblin projects aiming to create a unified mobile operating system for a wide array of devices, including tablets and smartphones. In particular, Nokia planned to use MeeGo as a successor to Symbian on its future smartphones, but despite of warm reception from all markets only Nokia N9 has been launched.
In an employee memo that surfaced in February 2011, Elop infamously described Nokia as being on a "burning platform", blaming the "war of ecosystems" between iOS and Android as part of Nokia's overall struggle, and asserting that the company needed to make major changes to its operation.
2011: Alliance with Microsoft, Windows Phone, and launch of Lumia
In February 2011, Stephen Elop and Microsoft's CEO Steve Ballmer jointly announced a major business partnership between the two companies, which would see Nokia adopt Windows Phone as its primary platform on future smartphones, replacing both Symbian and MeeGo. The deal also included the use of Bing as the search engine on Nokia devices, and the integration of Nokia Maps into Microsoft's own mapping services. Nokia announced that it would still release one device running the MeeGo platform in 2011, but that it would devote fewer resources to future development of the platform, and that it would phase out Symbian entirely. Aligning with Microsoft had been considered a possibility by analysts due to Elop's prior employment with the company. Nokia unveiled its first Windows Phone 7-based devices, the mid-range Lumia 710 and high-end Lumia 800, on 26 October 2011 at its Nokia World conference.
After this announcement, Nokia's share price fell about 14%, its biggest drop since July 2009. Nokia's smartphone sales, which had previously increased, collapsed. From the beginning of 2011 until 2013, Nokia fell from #1 to #10 in smartphone sales. Amid falling sales, Nokia posted a loss of 368 million euros for Q2 2011, whereas in Q2 2010, it had realized a profit of 227 million euros. On September 2011, Nokia has announced it would cut another 3,500 jobs worldwide, including the closure of its Cluj factory in Romania.
As Nokia was the largest mobile phone and smartphone manufacturer worldwide at the time, it was suggested the alliance would help Windows Phone. Nokia was overtaken by Apple as the world's biggest smartphone maker by volume in June 2011.  In August 2011 Chris Weber, head of Nokia's subsidiary in the U.S., stated "The reality is if we are not successful with Windows Phone, it doesn't matter what we do (elsewhere)." He further added "North America is a priority for Nokia (...) because it is a key market for Microsoft.".
Nokia reported "well above 1 million" sales for its Lumia line up to 26 January 2012, 2 million sales for the first quarter of 2012, and 4 million for the second quarter of 2012. In this quarter, Nokia only sold 600,000 smartphones (Symbian and Windows Phone 7) in North America. For comparison, Nokia sold more than 30 million Symbian devices world-wide in Q4 2010 and the Nokia N8 alone sold almost 4 million in its first quarter. In Q2 2012, 26 million iPhones and 105 million Android phones shipped, compared to only 6.8 million devices with Symbian and 5.4 million with Windows Phone.
While announcing an alliance with Groupon, Elop declared "The competition... is not with other device manufacturers, it's with Google." In June 2012, Nokia chairman Risto Siilasmaa told journalists that Nokia had a contingency plan in the event that Windows Phone failed, but did not specify what it was.
2012: Financial difficulties
On 8 February 2012, Nokia Corp. announced 4,000 layoffs at smartphone manufacturing plants in Europe by the end of 2012 to move assembly closer to component suppliers in Asia.
On 14 June 2012, Nokia announced 10,000 layoffs globally by the end of 2013 and shut production and research sites in Finland, Germany and Canada in line with continuing losses and the stock price falling to its lowest point since 1996.
On 18 June 2012, Moody's downgraded Nokia's bond rating to junk. Nokia CEO admitted that the company's inability to foresee rapid changes in the mobile phone industry was one of the major reasons for the problems.
On 4 May 2012, a group of Nokia investors filed a class action against the company as a result of disappointing sales. On 22 August 2012, it was reported that a group of Finnish Nokia investors were considering gathering signatures for the removal of Elop as CEO.
In December 2012, Nokia announced that it would be selling its headquarters Nokia House for €170 million, and leasing it back in the long-term. This decision was taken to slash costs as the company was during a financial crisis of falling revenues.
In total, Nokia laid off 24,500 employees by the end of 2013.
2013: Lack of profits
In January 2013, Nokia reported 6.6 million smartphone sales for Q4 2012 consisting of 2.2 million Symbian and 4.4 million sales of Lumia devices (Windows Phone 7 and 8). In North America, only 700,000 mobile phones have been sold including smartphones.
In May 2013 Nokia released the Asha platform for its low-end borderline smartphone devices. The Verge commented that this may be a recognition on the part of Nokia that they are unable to move Windows Phone into the bottom end of smartphone devices fast enough and may be "hedging their commitment" to the Windows Phone platform.
In the same month, Nokia announced its partnership with the world's largest cellular operator China Mobile to offer Nokia's new Windows-based phone, the Lumia 920, as Lumia 920T, an exclusive Chinese variant. The partnership was a bid by Nokia to connect with China Mobile's 700 million-person customer base.
Following the second quarter of 2013, Nokia made an operating loss of €115m (£98.8m), with revenues falling 24% to €5.7bn, despite sales figures for the Lumia exceeding those of BlackBerry's handsets during the same period. Over the nine-quarters prior to the second quarter of 2013, Nokia sustained €4.1 billion worth of operating losses. The company experienced particular problems in both China and the U.S.; in the former, Nokia's handset revenues were the lowest since 2002, while in the U.S., Francisco Jeronimo, analyst for research company IDC, stated: "Nokia continues to show no signs of recovery in the US market. High investments, high expectations, low results."
In July 2013, Nokia announced that Lumia sales were 7.4 million for the second quarter of the year – a record high.
2013-2014: Sale of mobile phone business to Microsoft
On 2 September 2013, Microsoft announced that it would acquire Nokia's mobile device business in a deal worth €3.79bn, along with another €1.65bn to license Nokia's portfolio of patents for 10 years; a deal totaling at over €5.4bn. Steve Ballmer considered the purchase to be a "bold step into the future" for both companies, primarily as a result of its recent collaboration. In an interview with Helsingin Sanomat, former Nokia executive Anssi Vanjoki commented that the Microsoft deal was "inevitable" due to the "failed strategy" of Stephen Elop.
The deal was closed on 25 April 2014 for "slightly more" than the originally stated €5.44 billion. Nokia's mobile phone assets became a part of Microsoft Mobile, a new subsidiary of Microsoft based in Finland. The deal was originally expected to be closed in March 2014, but was delayed by a tax dispute involving a factory in India—officials claimed that Nokia had not properly paid taxes on devices that were produced at the plant, but sold domestically (exports are exempt from taxes). Indian governments had required that Nokia place money in escrow before it was allowed to transfer control of the factory to Microsoft. As a result, the plant was not transferred to Microsoft, but would produce products on behalf of the company.
As part of the deal, Microsoft acquired the Asha and Lumia brands, but only had a limited license to the Nokia brand. Microsoft could only use the Nokia brand to promote Lumia products for 18 months after the closure of the acquisition, X products through December 2015, and feature phones such as the Series 30 series for 10 years. Microsoft did not acquire any rights to the Nokia tune, which the company may only use as the default ringtone on Nokia-branded devices. Nokia itself is also subject to a non-compete clause forbidding it from manufacturing any Nokia-branded phones until 31 December 2015. Microsoft also took over Nokia's website and social media outlets following the closure of the deal; this arrangement was in place for a minimum of one year after the closure. The company continued to use the Nokia name on smartphones through October 2014, when Microsoft announced that future Lumia devices would be branded with Microsoft's name and logo.
A number of Nokia executives joined Microsoft as a result; Stephen Elop became the head of Microsoft's devices team (which include products such as Xbox and Surface lines); Risto Siilasmaa replaced Elop as interim CEO, before the appointment of Rajeev Suri. Post-acquisition, Nokia now focuses on three core business units; its Here mapping service (which Microsoft will license for four years under the deal), its infrastructure division Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN), and on developing and licensing its "advanced technologies".
In July 2014, Microsoft announced a significant layoff of workers, including 12,500 workers from the former mobile phone group at Nokia. It was also reported that Microsoft had ended future development of Nokia's feature phone and X lines in favor of focusing exclusively on Windows Phone.
2014 to present
Nokia has been involved in the acquisition of other companies. These include Medio Systems by the HERE division.
On 17 November 2014, Nokia technologies head Ramzi Haidamus disclosed that the company planned to re-enter the consumer electronics business by licensing in-house hardware designs and technologies to third-party manufacturers. Haidamus stated that the Nokia brand was "valuable" but "is diminishing in value, and that’s why it is important that we reverse that trend very quickly, imminently." The next day, Nokia unveiled the N1, an Android 5.0 tablet manufactured by Foxconn, as its first product following the Microsoft sale. Haidamus emphasized that devices released under these licensing agreements would be held to high standards in production quality, and would "look and feel just like Nokia built it."
Nokia is a public limited-liability company listed on the Helsinki, Frankfurt, and New York stock exchanges. Nokia played a very large role in the economy of Finland. It is an important employer in Finland and works with multiple local partners and subcontractors. Nokia contributed 1.6% to Finland's GDP, and accounted for about 16% of Finland's exports in 2006.
Nokia Networks, (previously known as Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) and Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN)) is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland. It is the world's fourth-largest telecoms equipment manufacturer measured by 2011 revenues (after Ericsson, Huawei and Alcatel-Lucent). It has operations in around 150 countries.
The NSN brand identity was launched at the 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007 as a joint venture between Nokia (50.1%) and Siemens (49.9%), but is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia. It provides wireless and fixed network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms, as well as professional services to operators and service providers. It focuses on GSM, EDGE, 3G/W-CDMA, LTE and WiMAX radio access networks; core networks with increasing IP and multiaccess capabilities and services.
In July 2013, Nokia bought back all shares in Nokia Siemens Networks for a sum of US$2.21 billion and the NSN name was phased out. 
|This section relies too much on references to primary sources. (March 2015)|
HERE's map data originated in Navteq, a Chicago, Illinois-based provider of digital map data and location-based content and services for automotive navigation systems, mobile navigation devices, Internet-based mapping applications, and government and business solutions. Navteq was acquired by Nokia on 1 October 2007. Navteq's map data became part of the HERE Maps online service where users can download maps, use voice-guided navigation and other context-aware web services.
|This section relies too much on references to primary sources. (March 2015)|
Nokia Technologies develops and licenses innovations and the Nokia brand. 
Nokia technologies consists of an advanced development team. The development is done in wide areas from imaging, sensing, wireless connectivity, power management and advanced materials. Other areas are the expansion of IP licensing program.
Nokia technologies also provides public participation in its development through a program Invent with Nokia.
The control and management of Nokia is divided among the shareholders at a general meeting and the Nokia Leadership Team (left), under the direction of the board of directors (right). The chairman and the rest of the Nokia Leadership Team members are appointed by the board of directors. Only the Chairman of the Nokia Leadership Team can belong to both the board of directors and the Nokia Leadership Team. The board of directors' committees consist of the Audit Committee, the Personnel Committee and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee.
The operations of the company are managed within the framework set by the Finnish Companies Act, Nokia's Articles of Association and Corporate Governance Guidelines, and related board of directors adopted charters.
Former corporate officers
Nokia is a public limited liability company and is the oldest company listed under the same name on the Helsinki Stock Exchange, beginning in 1915. Nokia has had a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange since 1994. Nokia shares were delisted from the London Stock Exchange in 2003, the Paris Stock Exchange in 2004, the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 2007 and the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in 2012.
In 2007, Nokia had a market capitalisation of €110 billion; by 17 July 2012 this had fallen to €6.28 billion; by February 23rd 2015, the market cap had increased to €26.07 billion.
The official business language of Nokia is English. All documentation is written in English, and is used in official intra-company spoken communication and e-mail.
In May 2007, Nokia redefined its values after initiating a series of discussions worldwide as to what the new values of the company should be. Based on the employee suggestions, the new values were defined as: Engaging You, Achieving Together, Passion for Innovation and Very Human.
The Nokia House was the head office building of Nokia Corporation, located in Keilaniemi, Espoo, just outside Helsinki, the capital of Finland. The two most southern parts of the building were built in the early 1990s and the third most northern part was built in 2000. Around 5000 employees work in the premises.
NSN's provision of intercept capability to Iran
In 2008, Nokia Siemens Networks, a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens AG, reportedly provided Iran's monopoly telecom company with technology that allowed it to intercept the Internet communications of its citizens. The technology reportedly allowed Iran to use deep packet inspection to read and even change the content of everything from "e-mails and Internet phone calls to images and messages on social-networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter". The technology "enables authorities to not only block communication but to monitor it to gather information about individuals, as well as alter it for disinformation purposes,".
During the post-election protests in Iran in June 2009, Iran's Internet access was reported to have slowed to less than a tenth of its normal speeds, and experts suspected this was due to the use of the interception technology.
In July 2009, Nokia began to experience a boycott of their products and services in Iran. The boycott was led by consumers sympathetic to the post-election protest movement and targeted at those companies deemed to be collaborating with the Islamic regime. Demand for handsets fell and users began shunning SMS messaging.
The joint venture company, Nokia Siemens Networks, asserted in a press release that it provided Iran only with a 'lawful intercept capability' "solely for monitoring of local voice calls". "Nokia Siemens Networks has not provided any deep packet inspection, web censorship or Internet filtering capability to Iran," it said.
In 2009, Nokia heavily supported a law in Finland that allows companies to monitor their employees' electronic communications in cases of suspected information leaking. Contrary to rumors, Nokia denied that the company would have considered moving its head office out of Finland if laws on electronic surveillance were not changed. The Finnish media dubbed the law Lex Nokia because it was implemented as a result of Nokia's pressure.
The law was enacted, but with strict requirements for implementation of its provisions. Until February 2013, no company had used its provisions. In 25 February the Office of Data Protection Ombudsman confirmed that city of Hämeenlinna had recently given the required notice.
Nokia–Apple patent dispute
In October 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple Inc. in the U.S. District Court of Delaware claiming that Apple infringed on 10 of its patents related to wireless communication including data transfer. Apple was quick to respond with a countersuit filed in December 2009 accusing Nokia of 11 patent infringements. Apple's General Counsel, Bruce Sewell went a step further by stating, "Other companies must compete with us by inventing their own technologies, not just by stealing ours." This resulted in an ugly spat between the two telecom majors with Nokia filing another suit, this time with the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC), alleging Apple of infringing its patents in "virtually all of its mobile phones, portable music players, and computers." Nokia went on to ask the court to bar all U.S. imports of the Apple products including the iPhone, Mac and the iPod. Apple countersued by filing a complaint with the ITC in January 2010.
In June 2011, Apple settled with Nokia and agreed to an estimated one time payment of $600 million and royalties to Nokia. The two companies also agreed on a cross-licensing patents for some of their patented technologies.
Alleged tax evasion in India
Nokia's Indian subsidiary has been charged with non-payment of TDS and transgressing transfer pricing norms in India. The unpaid TDS of 30 billion, accrued during a course of six years, was due to royalty paid by the Indian subsidiary to its parent company.
- Sailfish OS – Continuation of MeeGo through Nokia's bridge program.
- Jolla - Company started by former Nokia employees which owns Sailfish OS.
- Newkia - Singapore-based company founded by ex-Nokia executive.
- Microsoft Mobile - The re-branding of Nokia Device and Services division after acquired by Microsoft.
- "Nokia Oyj" (in Finnish). YTJ.fi. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- "Nokia Corporation Report for Q4 2014 and Full Year 2014" (PDF). Nokia Corporation. 29 January 2015. Retrieved 29 Jan 2015.
- "Articles of Association of Nokia Corporation" (PDF). Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
- "Nokia – FAQ". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 16 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Global 500 2013". Fortune. 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "This is the new Nokia". The Verge. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- "Microsoft buys Nokia's Devices and Services Unit, unites Windows Phone 8 and its hardware maker". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Ovide, Shira. "Microsoft in $7.17 Billion Deal for Nokia Cellphone Business". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Nokia – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 16 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Nokia – The birth of Nokia – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 16 March 2009.[dead link]
- Helen, Tapio. "Idestam, Fredrik (1838–1916)". Biographical Centre of the Finnish Literature Society. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- Nokia Corporation 's official history, pages 12–13, Martin Häikiö, Edita, 2001
- "Nokian Footwear: Our Story". Nokian Footwear. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Palo-oja, Ritva; Willberg, Leena (1998). Kumi – Kumin ja Suomen kumiteollisuuden historia (in Finnish). Tampere, Finland: Tampere Museums. pp. 43–53. ISBN 9789516090651.
- "Finnish Cable Factory – Brief History" (PDF). Kaapelitehdas.fi. Archived from the original on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- "Nokia – Verner Weckman – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 20 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Nokia – The merger – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 16 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Industrial robot made by Nokia". Fabryka robotów. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "Nokia – Towards Telecommunications" (PDF). Nokia Corporation. August 2000. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Nokia – First electronic dept – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 16 March 2009.[dead link]
- Cord, David (April 2014). The Decline and Fall of Nokia. Helsinki: Schildts & Söderströms. p. 202. ISBN 978-951-52-3320-2.
- Kaituri, Tommi (2000). "Automaattisten puhelinkeskusten historia" (in Finnish). Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- Palmberg, Christopher; Martikainen, Olli (23 May 2003). "Overcoming a Technological Discontinuity – The Case of the Finnish Telecom Industry and the GSM" (PDF). The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "Nokia : The Journey of a Company from Paper Pulp to Mobile Phones". Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Check Point Software & Nokia Expand Partnership". Business Wire. 19 October 1999. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- Juutilainen, Matti. "Siirtyvä tietoliikenne, luennot 7–8: Matkapuhelinverkot" (PDF) (in Finnish). Lappeenranta University of Technology. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Puolustusvoimat: Kalustoesittely – Sanomalaitejärjestelmä" (in Finnish). The Finnish Defence Forces. 15 June 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "The Finnish Defence Forces: Presentation of equipment: Message device". The Finnish Defence Forces. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "Nokia 1100 phone offers reliable and affordable mobile communications for new growth markets" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 27 August 2003. Retrieved 26 May 2009.[dead link]
- "Nokia – Mobira Cityman – The move to mobile – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 14 May 2008.[dead link]
- "Nokia – Mobile era begins – The move to mobile – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 20 March 2009.[dead link]
- Karttunen, Anu (2 May 2003). "Tähdet syöksyvät, Benefon". Talouselämä (in Finnish) (Talentum Oyj). Retrieved 28 July 2009.
- "Nokia's Pioneering GSM Research and Development to be Awarded by Eduard Rhein Foundation" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 17 October 1997. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "Global Mobile Communication is 20 years old" (Press release). GSM Association. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Happy 20th birthday, GSM". ZDNet.co.uk (CBS Interactive). 7 September 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- "Nokia – First GSM call – The move to mobile – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 20 March 2009.[dead link]
- Smith, Tony (9 November 2007). "15 years ago: the first mass-produced GSM phone". Register Hardware. Situation Publishing Ltd. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- "Nokia – Nokia Tune – Mobile revolution – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 23 March 2009.[dead link]
- "3 Billion GSM Connections on the Mobile Planet – Reports The GSMA". GSM Association. 16 April 2008. Retrieved 21 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Nokia MikroMikko 1". Old-Computers.com. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Net – Fujitsun asiakaslehti, Net-lehden historia: 1980-luku" (in Finnish). Fujitsu Services Oy, Finland. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Historia: 1991–1999" (in Finnish). Fujitsu Services Oy, Finland. Retrieved 22 March 2009.[dead link]
- Hietanen, Juha (28 February 2000). "Closure of Fujitsu Siemens plant – a repeat of Renault Vilvoorde?". EIRO, European Industrial Relations Observatory on-line. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
Hietanen, Juha (28 February 2000). "Fujitsu Siemens tehdas suljetaan – toistuiko Renault Vilvoord?" (DOC) (in Finnish). EIRO, European Industrial Relations Observatory on-line. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "ViewSonic Corporation Acquires Nokia Display Products' Branded Business" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 17 January 2000. Retrieved 22 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Nokia Booklet 3G brings all day mobility to the PC world" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 24 August 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Pietilä, Antti-Pekka (27 September 2000). "Kari Kairamon nousu ja tuho". Taloussanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- "Finland: How bad policies turned bad luck into a recession". Centre for Economic Policy Research. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
- Häikiö, Martti; translated by Hackston, David (2001). Nokia Oyj:n historia 1–3 (A history of Nokia plc 1–3) (in Finnish). Helsinki: Edita. ISBN 951-37-3467-6. Retrieved 21 March 2008.
- "Nokia – Jorma Ollila – Mobile revolution – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 21 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Nokia – Leading the world – Mobile revolution – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 21 March 2009.[dead link]
- Reinhardt, Andy (3 August 2006). "Nokia's Magnificent Mobile-Phone Manufacturing Machine". BusinessWeek Online Europe. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- Professor Voomann, Thomas E.; Cordon, Carlos (1998). "Nokia Mobile Phones: Supply Line Management" (PDF). Lausanne, Switzerland: IMD – International Institute for Management Development. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- Ewing, Jack (30 July 2007). "Why Nokia Is Leaving Moto in the Dust". BusinessWeek Online. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
Lin, Porter; Khan, Raedeep; Piekute, Vaida; Luhtasela, Jussi; Fang, Debby (1 December 2005). "Supply Chain Management Case Nokia" (PDF). IMBA, College of Commerce, National Chengchi University. Retrieved 21 March 2009.[dead link]
- "History in brief". Nokian Tyres. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- Virki, Tarmo (5 March 2007). "Nokia's cheap phone tops electronics chart". Reuters. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- Saylor, Michael (2012). The Mobile Wave: How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything. Perseus Books/Vanguard Press. p. 81, 304.
- "Nokia Productions and Spike Lee premiere the world's first social film" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
- "Nokia seizes social internet and amplifies music experience" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
"Nokia 7705 Twist launched Stateside on Verizon (photo gallery)". Nokia Corporation. 10 September 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
"Nokia launches two new handsets under 'Asha' range". 9 August 2012.
- "Nokia's 808 PureView officially declared as the last Symbian device". NDTV. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Hungarian and Finnish Prime Ministers Inaugurate Nokia's "Factory of the Future" in Komárom" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 5 May 2000. Retrieved 22 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Nokia Networks takes strong measures to reduce costs, improve profitability and strengthen leadership position" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 10 April 2003. Retrieved 14 May 2008.[dead link]
- "Nokia Networks to shed 1,800 jobs worldwide; majority of impact felt in Finland". Helsingin Sanomat. 11 April 2003. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- Leyden, John (10 April 2003). "Nokia Networks axes 1,800 staff". The Register. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Nokia's Law (transcription)". YLE TV1, Mot. 17 January 2005. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Shell appoints Jorma Ollila as new Chairman" (Press release). Royal Dutch Shell. 4 August 2005. Retrieved 22 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Nokia moves forward with management succession plan" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 1 August 2005. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
Repo, Eljas; Melender, Tommi (19 September 2005). "Changing the guard at Nokia – Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo takes the helm". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Virtual Finland. Retrieved 22 March 2009.[dead link]
- "Nokia to set up a new mobile device factory in Romania" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 26 March 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Nokia to open cell phone plant near Cluj". Boston.com. Associated Press. 22 March 2007. Archived from the original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
"Nokia to build mobile phone plant in Romania". Helsingin Sanomat. 27 March 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "German Politicians Return Cell Phones Amid Nokia Boycott Calls". Deutsche Welle. 18 January 2008. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
"German State Demands €60 Million from Nokia". Der Spiegel. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Check Point Completes Acquisition of Nokia Security Appliance Business". 13 April 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
- "Nokia Will Layoff 4,000 and Move More Manufacturing to Asia | PCWorld Business Center". Pcworld.com. 2012-02-08. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Nokia Lays Off 1,000 Employees From Finnish Plant, Will Focus On Software". I2mag.com. 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Nokia closing B.C. research centre as it cuts 10,000 jobs". CBC News. Associated Press. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- Jyri Hänninen and Petri Sajari (18 January 2013). "Nokia lupaa vähennysten päättyvän Suomessa". Helsingin Sanomat. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Nokia completes acquisition of assets of Sega.com Inc." (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 22 September 2003. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- "Nokia to extend leadership in enterprise mobility with acquisition of Intellisync" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 16 November 2005. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Nokia completes acquisition of Intellisync" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 10 February 2006. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Nokia and Siemens to merge their communications service provider businesses" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 19 June 2006. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Nokia to acquire Loudeye and launch a comprehensive mobile music experience" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 8 August 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
"Nokia completes Loudeye acquisition" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Nokia acquires Twango to offer a comprehensive media sharing experience" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 24 July 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
"Nokia Acquires Twango – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)" (PDF). Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Nokia to acquire Enpocket to create a global mobile advertising leader" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- Niccolai, James (1 October 2007). "Nokia buys mapping service for $8.1 billion". InfoWorld (IDG). Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Nokia completes its acquisition of NAVTEQ" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 10 July 2008. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
- "Nokia to acquire leading consumer email and instant messaging provider OZ Communications". Taume News. 30 September 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2008.[dead link]
- "Nokia to acquire cellity" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 24 July 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
- "Nokia completes acquisition of cellity" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
- "Nokia has acquired Plum" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- "Nokia Acquires Browser Firm Novarra". Techie-buzz. 28 March 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
- "Nokia Acquires MetaCarta". informationweek. 11 April 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- Jesse Hicks (7 January 2012). "Nokia buys Smarterphone, developer of feature phone operating system". The Verge. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Brogan, Danny (14 June 2012). "Nokia's smartphone image quality to improve with acquisition of Scalado". Pocket-lint. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "The better iPhone: Nokia N95?". Scobleizer. 3 June 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Gartner Says Worldwide Smartphone Sales Reached Its Lowest Growth Rate With 3.7 Per Cent Increase in Fourth Quarter of 2008". Gartner. 11 March 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Bray, Jonathan (5 February 2011). "Nokia E71 review". Trusted Reviews. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Ziegler, Chris (24 June 2008). "Nokia buys Symbian, turns software over to Symbian Foundation". Engadget. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Magennis, Niall (5 February 2011). "Nokia E52 review". Trusted Reviews. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Lewis, Frank (7 September 2009). "Nokia E52 Review". CNET. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Schroeder, Stan (23 February 2010). "Smartphones in 2009: Symbian Dominates, iPhone, RIM and Android Rising Fast". Mashable. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Android smart phone shipments grow 886% year-on-year in Q2 2010". Canalys. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Perez, Marin (24 September 2010). "Sony Ericsson: Adios Symbian, hello Android". IntoMobile. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Arthur, Charles (19 October 2010). "Nokia N8 smartphone review: like hardware? You'll love this. Like software? Ah...". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Smartphone Bloodbath 2010: Now Final Numbers Q4 and Full Year 2010 – and each rival awarded their final grades". Communities Dominate Brands. 9 February 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Switcher". asymco. 2013-07-22. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Nokia N8 sales nearing 4 million units". GSMArena.com. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Intel and Nokia merge Moblin and Maemo to form MeeGo". TechRadar. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- "Intel: MeeGo exists because Microsoft let us down". TechRadar. 20 April 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- "Nokia and Microsoft form partnership". BBC. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- Weintraub, Seth (2011-02-08). "Nokia's Elop drops bomb: the platform is on fire". Fortune. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- John, Michael. "Microsoft announces Lumia". Cellz. Cellz. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Capitulation: Nokia adopts Windows Phone 7". =Ars Technica. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
- "Nokia Lumia 710 hands-on (video)". Engadget. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- Toor, Amar (2011-10-26). "Nokia announces the Lumia 800". Engadget. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- ben-Aaron, Diana (11 February 2011). "Nokia Falls Most Since July 2009 After Microsoft Deal". Bloomberg.
- "Lumia: Is the light visible?". Asymco. Horace Dediu. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Gartner Says Asia/Pacific Led Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales to Growth in First Quarter of 2013" (Press release). Gartner. Gartner, Inc. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Nokia to cut 3500 jobs worldwide; to shut Romania factory". 29 September 2011.
- "Gartner Says Sales of Mobile Devices in Second Quarter of 2011 Grew 16.5 Percent Year-on-Year; Smartphone Sales Grew 74 Percent" (Press release). Gartner. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- Ward, Andrew (21 July 2011). "Apple overtakes Nokia in smartphone stakes". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- "Recent Smartphone Shipments show Gainers & Losers". Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Fried, Ina (9 August 2011). "Nokia to Exit Symbian, Low-End Phone Businesses in North America". All Things Digital. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Nokia Q4 2011 net sales EUR 10.0 billion, non-IFRS EPS EUR 0.06 (reported EPS EUR −0.29) Nokia 2011 net sales EUR 38.7 billion, non-IFRS EPS EUR 0.29 (reported EPS EUR −0.31)". Nokia. 26 January 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Constantinescu, Stefan (26 January 2012). "Nokia Q4 2011 financial results: Over 1 million Lumia Windows Phones sold to date". IntoMobile. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Cooper, Daniel (11 April 2012). "Nokia: Two million Lumia phones sold in Q1 but profits still falling". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "Nokia ships 4 million Lumias in Q2 2012, over 7 million to date".
- "Nokia's Fight for AT&T Shelf Space Shows Hurdle for Lumia".
- [dead link]
- "Android smartphone share quadruples iOS in Q2".
- "Nokia's Lumia phones to show Groupon offers on maps". BBC.
- Chris Smith (30 June 2012). "Nokia promises back-up plan if Windows Phone fails". Techradar. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- "Nokia's Siilasmaa: Goal to regain competitiveness". YLS Uutiset. 28 June 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- Moen, Arild (8 February 2012). "Nokia to Cut 4,000 Jobs". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Nokia to cut 10,000 jobs; shut units". The Hindu. 14 June 2012.
- ben-Aaron, Diana (14 June 2012). "Nokia to Cut 10,000 Jobs as Elop Tries to Stanch Losses". Bloomberg.
- "Nokia Downgraded to Junk". Zacks.com. 2012-06-18. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Nokia CEO Stephen Elop admits failure to foresee fast-changing industry". 28 June 2012.[dead link]
- Reisinger, Don (2012-05-04). "Nokia, execs hit with class-action suit over disappointing Lumia sales | Mobile – CNET News". News.cnet.com. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Nokia Finnish investors considering gathering signatures to get CEO Elop sacked". Phonearena.com. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "Struggling Nokia sells HQ". 3 News NZ. 5 December 2012.
- "7 milestones in Nokia's year of woes". The Times of India. 15 June 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "Nokia Corporation Q4 and full year 2012 Interim Report".
- Savov, Vlad (9 May 2013). "Nokia hedges its commitment to Windows Phone with new Asha platform and $99 phone". The Verge. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Einhorn, Bruce (7 December 2012). "Nokia Deal Is Just the Beginning for China Mobile". Businessweek. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Charles Arthur (18 July 2013). "Nokia revenues slide 24% but Lumia sales rise offers hope". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Tom Warren (2013-07-18). "Nokia Lumia sales Q2 2013". The Verge. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
- "The Next Chapter: An open letter from Steve Ballmer and Stephen Elop". The Official Microsoft Blog. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- Jones, Chuck. "The Market Essentially Forced Microsoft To Buy Nokia". Forbes. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Nokian ex-pomo Anssi Vanjoki: Häpeällistä mutta väistämätöntä". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- Trenholm, Rich (25 April 2014). "Microsoft closes Nokia deal, pays more than expected". Cnet.com. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Nokia phone unit 'to be renamed Microsoft Mobile'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Nokia says its sale to Microsoft will close on April 25th". The Verge. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Nokia to Exclude India Plant From Microsoft Deal Over Tax Issues". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Microsoft's purchase of Nokia is still set to close by the end of March". The Verge. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Nokia Indian Plant Unlikely to Be Part of Microsoft Phone Deal". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Leaked Microsoft Document Tips Details of Nokia Brand Transition and More". NDTV. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- "There will never be another Nokia smartphone". The Verge. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Leak reveals when Microsoft must kill Nokia brand". PC Pro. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- "Microsoft Lumia will replace the Nokia brand". The Verge. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Tu, Janet I., "Microsoft layoffs signal a changing culture: The cuts are partly related to Microsoft’s acquisition of Nokia’s phone business and partly a reflection of Nadella’s vision of a Microsoft that’s less management heavy and more agile", The Seattle Times, 17 July 2014
- "Microsoft to slash 18,000 jobs in deepest cuts in tech giant's history". The Guardian. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Microsoft is killing off Nokia’s feature phones in favor of Windows Phone". The Verge. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- "Nokia, China Mobile sign $970 million framework deal" (Press release). Reuters. 10 October 2014.
- "Nokia looks to resurrect its valuable brand on future devices". The Verge. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Nokia's first device after Microsoft is an iPad mini clone that runs Android". The Verge. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- Kapanen, Ari (24 July 2007). "Ulkomaalaiset valtaavat pörssiyhtiöitä". Taloussanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Nokia is no longer Finland's most valuable company". phonearena.com. 4 April 2012.
- Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki (2001). "The role of Nokia in the Finnish Economy" (PDF). ETLA (The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy). Retrieved 21 March 2009.[dead link]
- Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki (2010). "NOKIA AND FINLAND IN A SEA OF CHANGE". ETLA – Research Institute of the Finnish Economy. Retrieved 12 November 2011.[dead link]
- "China's ZTE Q1 net income trails forecasts". Reuters. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Nokia Siemens Networks Fact Sheet" (PDF). Nokia Siemens Networks. Retrieved 9 July 2007.[dead link]
- "The Wave of the Future". Brand New: Opinions on Corporate and Brand Identity Work. UnderConsideration LLC. 25 March 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
"Reviews – 2007 – Nokia Siemens Networks". Identityworks. 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Structure". Nokia Corporation. 1 October 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
- Juhana Rossi (1 July 2013). "Nokia Pays $2.21 Billion for Siemens Stake in NSN". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Nokia Group Leadership Team". Nokia Corporation. May 2014. Retrieved 10 Aug 2014.
- "Meet the Board". Nokia Corporation. 2014. Retrieved 10 Aug 2014.
- "Audit Committee Charter at Nokia" (PDF). Nokia Corporation. 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Personnel Committee Charter at Nokia" (PDF). Nokia Corporation. 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee Charter at Nokia" (PDF). Nokia Corporation. 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Committees of the Board". Nokia Corporation. May 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- Virkkunen, Johannes (29 September 2006). "New Finnish Companies Act designed to increase Finland's competitiveness" (PDF). LMR Attorneys Ltd. (Luostarinen Mettälä Räikkönen). Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Corporate Governance Guidelines at Nokia" (PDF). Nokia Corporation. 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Suomalaisten yritysten ylin johto" (in Finnish). Retrieved 20 March 2009.
- "Nokia applies for delisting from the Frankfurt Stock Exchange". Reuters. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "Nokia Way and values". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "Official: Nokia to sell and lease back of Nokia House". InfaTech. December 4, 2012.
- Nokia House now has Microsoft Branding
- Microsoft Talo
- "HS Archives" (in Finnish). Helsingin Sanomat. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "NOKIA | Connecting Pople 1992 Vector Logo (AI EPS)". HDicon.com. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- Pitkänen, Juhani (Nokia's Art Director) (3 September 2007). "Nokia Strategic Marketing, Brand Identity". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- "NOKIA | Connecting Pople new Vector Logo (AI EPS)". HDicon.com. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- "Erik Spiekermann – Furniture, Designs & Home Decor". Design Within Reach. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
- "Our New Typeface". Nokia Little Blog of Branding. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- Cellan-Jones, Rory (22 June 2009). "Hi-tech helps Iranian monitoring". BBC News. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- Rhoads, Christopher; Chao, Loretta (22 June 2009). "Iran's Web Spying Aided By Western Technology". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company, Inc.). pp. A1. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- Kamali Dehghan, Saeed (14 July 2009). "Iranian consumers boycott Nokia for 'collaboration'". The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Limited). Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Provision of Lawful Intercept capability in Iran" (Press release). Nokia Siemens Networks. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009.[dead link]
- Ozimek, John (6 March 2009). "'Lex Nokia' company snoop law passes in Finland". The Register. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Nokia Denies Threat to Leave Finland". cellular-news. 1 February 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- Lex Nokian käytöstä ilmoitettiin ensimmäistä kertaa - Lex Nokia - Talous - Helsingin Sanomat
- Virki, Tarmo (18 January 2010). "SCENARIOS-What lies ahead in Nokia vs Apple legal battle". Reuters. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- "The war of the Smartphones: Nokia's new patent suit against Apple". Snartphone Reviews. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- "Nokia's Patent Settlement With Apple Won't Help Much". 14 June 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- Smith, Catharine (14 June 2011). "Apple Settles With Nokia in Patent Lawsuit". Huffington Post. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- ben-Aaron, Diana; Pohjanpalo, Kati (14 June 2011). "Nokia Wins Apple Patent-License Deal Cash, Settles Lawsuits". Bloomberg. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- "Income Tax department asks Nokia to pay Rs 13,000 crore". Economic Times. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
T. E. Raja Simhan (16 January 2013). "Nokia tax case: IT officials grill Price Waterhouse". Chennai: Business Line. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "Nokia suspected of flouting transfer pricing rules too". Business Line. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
|The Decline and Fall of Nokia||David J. Cord||Schildts & Söderströms||April 2014||304 pp||ISBN 978-951-52-3320-2|
|Winning Across Global Markets: How Nokia Creates Strategic Advantage in a Fast-Changing World||Dan Steinbock||Jossey-Bass / Wiley||May 2010||304 pp||ISBN 978-0-470-33966-4|
|Nokia: The Inside Story||Martti Häikiö||FT / Prentice Hall||October 2002||256 pp||ISBN 0-273-65983-9|
|Work Goes Mobile: Nokia's Lessons from the Leading Edge||Michael Lattanzi, Antti Korhonen, Vishy Gopalakrishnan||John Wiley & Sons||January 2006||212 pp||ISBN 0-470-02752-5|
|Mobile Usability: How Nokia Changed the Face of the Mobile Phone||Christian Lindholm, Turkka Keinonen, Harri Kiljander||McGraw-Hill Companies||June 2003||301 pp||ISBN 0-07-138514-2|
|Business The Nokia Way: Secrets of the World's Fastest Moving Company||Trevor Merriden||John Wiley & Sons||February 2001||168 pp||ISBN 1-84112-104-5|
|The Nokia Revolution: The Story of an Extraordinary Company That Transformed an Industry||Dan Steinbock||AMACOM Books||April 2001||375 pp||ISBN 0-8144-0636-X|
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|