Noleby Runestone

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Noleby Runestone, which is also known as the Fyrunga Runestone or Vg 63 for its Rundata catalog listing, is a runestone in Proto-Norse which is engraved with the Elder Futhark. It was discovered in 1894 at the farm of Stora Noleby in Västergötland, Sweden.

Description[edit]

The Noleby Runestone was dated by Sophus Bugge to about 600 AD, and cannot be dated any younger than about 450 AD due to its language and rune forms.[1] It is notable because of its inscription runo [...] raginakundo which means "runes of divine origin" and which also appears in the later Sparlösa Runestone and the eddic poem Hávamál.[2] This is of importance for the study of Norse mythology since it indicates that the expressions and the contents of the Poetic Edda are indeed of pre-historic Scandinavian origin.

The runic inscription consists of three lines of text between bands, with the second line considered untranslatable and often listed as being a "meaningless formula."[1] The Noleby is the only runestone in Scandinavia that uses the star rune form H-rune.png for the j sound, all other runestones in Scandinavia use it during the younger futhark period for either an a or h sound or for ornamentation.[3] The name Hakoþuz in the last line of the inscription is believed to mean "crooked one,"[4] although other interpretations have been suggested.[5]

The Noleby Runestone is presently located in the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities in Stockholm.

Inscription[edit]

Transcription of the runes into Latin letters[edit]

runo fahi raginakudo toj-a ¶ unaþou ÷ suhurah : susi(h)---tin ¶ hakuþo[6]

Transliteration into Proto Norse[edit]

Runo fahi raginakundo toj[e'k]a. ... ... ... Hakoþuz.[6]

Translation into English[edit]

I prepare the suitable divine rune ... for Hakoþuz.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Antonsen, Elmer H. (2002). Runes and Germanic Linguistics. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 180–183. ISBN 3-11-017462-6. 
  2. ^ Lindow, John (1985). "Mythology and Mythography". In Clover, Carol J.; John, Lindow. Old Norse-Icelandic Literature: a Critical Guide. University of Toronto Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 0-8020-3823-9. 
  3. ^ Looijenga, Tineke (2003). Texts and Contexts of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions. Leiden: Brill. p. 143. ISBN 90-04-12396-2. 
  4. ^ Antonsen, Elmer H. (1988). "On the Mythological Interpretations of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions". In Jazayery, Mohammad Ali; Winter, Werner. Languages and Cultures: Studies in Honor of Edgar C. Polomé. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 47. ISBN 3-11-010204-8. 
  5. ^ Twelve interpretations of the Noleby runestone text.
  6. ^ a b c Project Samnordisk Runtextdatabas Svensk - Rundata.

Other sources[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]