Noli me tangere (novel)

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Noli me tangere
Noli Me Tangere.jpg
The original front cover of the book
Author José Rizal
Country Philippines (first printing in Berlin)
Language Spanish
Genre Novel, satire, Philippine history
Publication date
1887
Media type Print (hardcover)
Followed by El filibusterismo

Noli me tangere (Latin for Touch Me Not) is a novel written by José Rizal, considered as one of the national heroes of the Philippines, during the colonization of the country by Spain to expose the inequities of the Spanish Catholic priests and the ruling government.

Originally written in Spanish, the book is more commonly published and read in the Philippines in either Filipino or English. Together with its sequel, El filibusterismo, the reading of Noli is obligatory for high school students throughout the archipelago.

Title[edit]

The title is Latin for "Touch me not", and is taken from John 20:17 in the Bible , where a newly-risen Jesus admonishes a bewildered Mary Magdalene: "Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father."[1]

Early English translations of the novel used titles like An Eagle Flight (1900) and The Social Cancer (1912), disregarding the symbolism of the title, but the more recent translations were published using the original Latin title. It has also been noted by the Austro-Hungarian writer Ferdinand Blumentritt that “Noli me tangere” was a name used by ophthalmologists for cancer of the eyelids; that as an ophthalmologist himself Rizal was influenced by this fact is suggested in the novel's dedication, “To My Country”.

Background[edit]

José Rizal, a Filipino nationalist and medical doctor, conceived the idea of writing a novel that would expose the ills of Philippine society after reading Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. He preferred that the prospective novel express the way Filipino culture was backward, anti-progress, anti-intellectual, and not conducive to the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment. He was then a student of medicine in the Universidad Central de Madrid.

In a reunion of Filipinos at the house of his friend Pedro A. Paterno in Madrid on 2 January 1884, Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines written by a group of Filipinos. His proposal was unanimously approved by the Filipinos present at the party, among whom were Pedro, Maximino and Antonio Paterno, Graciano López Jaena, Evaristo Aguirre, Eduardo de Lete, Julio Llorente and Valentin Ventura. However, this project did not materialize. The people who agreed to help Rizal with the novel did not write anything. Initially, the novel was planned to cover and describe all phases of Filipino life, but almost everybody wanted to write about women. Rizal even saw his companions spend more time gambling and flirting with Spanish women. Because of this, he pulled out of the plan of co-writing with others and decided to draft the novel alone.

Plot[edit]

Having completed his studies in Europe, young Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin came back to the Philippines after a seven-year absence. In his honor, Don Santiago de los Santos, also known as "Captain Tiago", a family friend, threw a welcome home party, attended by friars and other prominent figures. One of the guests, Fray Dámaso Vardolagas, the former curate of San Diego, belittled and slandered Ibarra.

The next day, Ibarra visits his betrothed María Clara, the beautiful daughter of Captain Tiago and affluent resident of Binondo. Their long-standing love was clearly manifested in this meeting, and María Clara cannot help but reread the letters her sweetheart had written her before he went to Europe. Before Ibarra left for San Diego in time for the town fiesta, Lieutenant Guevara, a Civil Guard, reveals to him the incidents preceding the death of his father, Don Rafael Ibarra, a rich hacendero of the town.

According to Guevara, Don Rafael was unjustly accused of being a heretic, in addition to being a subversive — an allegation brought forth by Dámaso because of Don Rafael's non-participation in the Sacraments, such as Confession and Mass. Fr. Dámaso's animosity towards Ibarra's father is aggravated by another incident when Don Rafael helped out in a fight between a tax collector and a child, with the former's death being blamed on him, although it was not deliberate. Suddenly, all those who thought ill of him surfaced with additional complaints. He was imprisoned, and just when the matter was almost settled, he died of sickness in jail. His remains, formerly interred at the local cemetery, were removed as per Fray Dámaso's orders a few years past.

Revenge was not in Ibarra's plans, instead he carried through his father's plan of putting up a school, since he believed education would pave the way to his country's progress (all throughout the novel, the author refers to both Spain and the Philippines as two different countries but part of the same nation or family, with Spain seen as the mother and the Philippines as the daughter). During the inauguration of the school, Ibarra would have been killed in a sabotage had Elías — a mysterious man who had warned Ibarra earlier of a plot to assassinate him — not saved him. Instead the hired killer met an unfortunate incident and died.

After the inauguration, Ibarra hosted a luncheon which Fr. Dámaso gate-crashed. The friar again insulted Ibarra, who ignored the priest's insolence, but when the latter slandered the memory of his dead father, he was no longer able to restrain himself and lunged at Dámaso, prepared to stab him. Consequently, Dámaso excommunicated Ibarra for assaulting a cleric, taking this opportunity to persuade the already-hesitant Tiago to forbid his daughter from marrying Ibarra. The friar instead wanted María Clara to marry Alfonso Linares de Espadaña, a Peninsular who just arrived from Spain.

With the help of the Governor-General, Ibarra's excommunication was lifted and the Archbishop of Manila decided to receive him into the Church once again.

A revolt happened soon after, and both Spanish colonial officials and friars implicated Ibarra as its mastermind. Thus, he was arrested and detained, later disdained by those who had become his friends.

Meanwhile, in Capitán Tiago's residence, a party was being held to announce the upcoming wedding of María Clara and Linares. Ibarra, with the help of Elías, took this opportunity to escape from prison. Before leaving, Ibarra spoke to María Clara and accused her of betraying him, thinking she gave the letter he wrote her to the jury. María Clara explained that she would never conspire against him, but that she was forced to surrender Ibarra's letter to Father Salví, in exchange for the letters written by her mother, Doña Pia, even before she, María Clara, was born.

María Clara, thinking Ibarra had been killed in the shooting incident, was greatly overcome with grief. Robbed of hope and severely disillusioned, she asked Dámaso to confine her to a nunnery. Dámaso reluctantly agreed when she threatened to take her own life, demanding, "the nunnery or death!"[2] Unbeknownst to her, Ibarra was still alive and able to escape, as it was Elías who had taken the shots.

It was Christmas Eve when Elías woke up, fatally wounded, in the forest where he had instructed Ibarra to meet him. Instead, Elías found the altar boy Basilio cradling his already-dead mother, Sisa. The woman had lost her mind after learning that Basilio and her other son, Crispín, were chased out of the convento by the sacristan mayor on suspicions of stealing two gold pieces.

Elías, convinced he would die soon, instructs Basilio to build a funeral pyre and cremate his and Sisa's corpses. He tells Basilio that, if nobody reaches the place, he was to return later and dig as he would find gold. Elías then tells the boy to take the gold and use it to get an education. In his dying breath, he instructed Basilio to continue dreaming about freedom for his motherland with the words:

Elías died thereafter.

In the epilogue, it was explained that Tiago became addicted to opium and was seen to frequent the opium house in Binondo. María Clara became a nun and Salví, who had lusted after her from the beginning of the novel, regularly used her to sate his carnal desires. One stormy evening, a beautiful yet insane woman was seen on the roof of the nunnery, crying and cursing the heavens for the fate it had handed her. While the woman was never identified by name, the novel insinuates that it was María Clara.

Publication history[edit]

Rizal finished the novel in December 1886. At first, according to one of Rizal's biographers, Rizal feared the novel might not be printed, and that it would remain unread. He was struggling with financial constraints at the time and thought it would be hard to pursue printing the novel.

Financial aid came from a friend named Máximo Viola; this helped him print the book at Berliner Buchdruckerei-Aktiengesellschaft in Berlin. Rizal was initially hesitant, but Viola insisted and ended up lending Rizal 300 for 2,000 copies. The printing was finished earlier than the estimated five months. Viola arrived in Berlin in December 1886, and by March 21, 1887, Rizal had sent a copy of the novel to his friend, Blumentritt.[3]

Recent English editions[edit]

On August 21, 2007, a 480-page English-language version of Noli me tangere was released to major Australian book stores. An Australian edition of the novel was published by Penguin Classics (an imprint by Penguin Books) to represent the company's "commitment to publish the major literary classics of the world."[4] American writer Harold Augenbraum, who first read Noli in 1992, translated the novel. A writer well-acquainted with translating other Hispanophone literary works, Augenbraum proposed to translate the novel after being asked for his next assignment in the publishing company. Intrigued by the novel and knowing more about it, Penguin nixed their plan of adapting existing English versions and instead translated it on their own.[4]

Reaction and legacy[edit]

This novel and its sequel, El filibusterismo (nicknamed El fili), were banned in Spanish Philippines because of their portrayal of corruption and abuse by the colonial government and the Catholic Church. Copies of the book were nevertheless smuggled in and hidden, and when Rizal returned to the Philippines after completing medical studies, he quickly ran afoul of the local government. A few days after his arrival, Rizal was summoned to Malacañan Palace by Governor-General Emilio Terrero, who told him of the charge that Noli me tangere contained subversive elements. After a discussion, Terrero was appeased but still unable to offer resistance to pressure from the Church against the book. The persecution can be discerned from Rizal's letter to Leitmeritz:

Rizal was exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao, then later arrested for "inciting rebellion" based largely on his writings. Rizal was executed by firing squad at the Luneta outside Manila's walls on December 30, 1896 at the age of thirty-five, at the park that now bears his name.

Influence on Filipino nationalism[edit]

Rizal depicted nationality by emphasising the positive qualities of Filipinos: the devotion of a Filipina and her influence on a man's life, the deep sense of gratitude, and the solid common sense of the Filipinos under the Spanish regime.

The work was instrumental in creating a unified Filipino national identity and consciousness, as many natives previously identified with their respective regions. It lampooned, caricatured and exposed various elements in colonial society. Two characters in particular have become classics in Filipino culture: María Clara, who has become a personification of the ideal Filipina woman, loving and unwavering in her loyalty to her spouse; and the priest Father Dámaso, who reflects the covert fathering of illegitimate children by members of the Spanish clergy.

The book indirectly influenced the Philippine Revolution of independence from Spain, even though Rizal actually advocated direct representation to the Spanish government and an overall larger role for the Philippines within Spain's political affairs. In 1956, Congress passed Republic Act 1425, more popularly known as the Rizal Law, which requires all levels in Philippine schools to teach the novel as part of their curriculum. Noli me tangere is being taught to third year secondary school students, while its sequel El filibusterismo is being taught for fourth year secondary school students. The novels are incorporated to their study and survey of Philippine literature.[5] Both of Rizal's novels were initially banned from strict Catholic educational institutions given its negative portrayal of the Church, but this taboo has been largely superseded as religious schools conformed to the Rizal Law.

Major characters[edit]

Crisóstomo Ibarra[edit]

Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin, commonly referred to the novel as Ibarra or Crisóstomo, is the novel's protagonist. The mestizo (mixed-race) son of Filipino businessman Don Rafael Ibarra, he studied in Europe for seven years.[6] Ibarra is also María Clara's fiancé.

Several sources claim that Ibarra is also Rizal's reflection: both studied in Europe and both persons believe in the same ideas. Upon his return, Ibarra requested the local government of San Diego to construct a public school to promote education in the town.[7]

María Clara[edit]

A crayon sketch of Leonor Rivera–Kipping by Rizal. Rivera, who was Rizal's cousin and longtime love interest, is the commonly accepted basis for the María Clara character.
Main article: María Clara

María Clara de los Santos y Alba, commonly referred to as María Clara, is Ibarra's fiancée and the most beautiful and widely celebrated girl in San Diego.[8] She was raised by Capitán Tiago de los Santos, San Diego's cabeza de barangay (town head), and his cousin, Isabel. In the later parts of the novel, she was revealed to be an illegitimate daughter of Father Dámaso, the comer curate of the town, and Doña Pía Alba, Capitán Tiago's wife, who had died giving birth to María Clara.[9]

At the novel's end, a heartbroken yet resolved María Clara entered the Beaterio de Santa Clara (a nunnery) after learning the truth of her parentage and mistakenly believing her lover Crisóstomo to have been killed. In the epilogue, Rizal stated that it is unknown if María Clara is still living within the walls of the convent or she is already dead.[10]

Kapitán Tiago[edit]

Don Santiago de los Santos, known by his nickname Tiago and political title Capitán Tiago is a Filipino businessman and the cabeza de barangay (barangay head) of the town of San Diego. He is also known as the father of María Clara.[8]

In the novel, it is said that Kapitán Tiago is the richest man in the region of Binondo and he possessed real properties in Pampanga and Laguna de Bay. He is also said to be a good Catholic, a friend of the Spanish government and thus was considered a Spaniard by the colonial elite. Capitán Tiago never attended school, so he became the domestic helper of a Dominican friar who gave him an informal education. He later married Pía Alba from Santa Cruz.[8]

Padre Dámaso[edit]

Main article: Father Dámaso

Dámaso Verdolagas, or Padre Dámaso is a Franciscan friar and the former parish curate of San Diego. He is notorious for speaking with harsh words, highhandedness, and his cruelty during his ministry in the town.[11] An enemy of Crisóstomo's father, Don Rafael Ibarra, Dámaso is revealed to be María Clara's biological father.[9] Later, he and María Clara had bitter arguments whether she would marry Alfonso Linares de Espadaña (which he preferred) or to enter the nunnery (her desperate alternative).[12] At the end of the novel, he is again reassigned to a distant town and later found dead in his bed.[10]

Elías[edit]

Elías is Ibarra's mysterious friend and ally. Elías made his first appearance as a pilot during a picnic of Ibarra and María Clara and her friends.[13] He wants to revolutionize the country and to be freed from Spanish oppression.[14]

The 50th chapter of the novel explores the past of Elías and history of his family. In the past, Ibarra's great-grandfather condemned Elías' grandfather of burning a warehouse which led to misfortune for Elías' family. His father was refused the hand of his mother as her family had discovered his past and lineage. In the long run, Elías and his twin sister were raised by their maternal grandfather. When they were teenagers, their distant relatives called them hijos de bastardo (illegitimate children). One day, his sister disappeared which led him to search for her. His search led him into different places, and finally, he became a fugitive and subversive.[15]

Pilosopo Tacio[edit]

Filosofo Tacio, known by his Tagalized name Pilosopo Tasyo, is another major character in the story. Seeking for reforms from the government, he expresses his ideals in paper written in a cryptographic alphabet similar from hieroglyphs and Coptic figures[16] hoping "that the future generations may be able to decipher it" and realized the abuse and oppression done by the conquerors.[17]

His full name is only known as Don Anastasio. The educated inhabitants of San Diego labeled him as Filosofo Tacio (Tacio the Sage) while others called him as Tacio el Loco (Tacio the Insane) due to his exceptional talent for reasoning.

Doña Victorina[edit]

Doña Victorina de los Reyes de Espadaña, commonly known as Doña Victorina, is an ambitious Filipina who classifies herself as a Spanish and mimics Spanish ladies by putting on heavy make-up.[11] The novel narrates Doña Victorina's younger days: she had lots of admirers, but she spurned them all because none of them were Spaniards. Later on, she met and married Don Tiburcio de Espadaña, an official of the customs bureau ten years her junior.[18] However, their marriage is childless.

Her husband assumes the title of medical "doctor" even though he never attended medical school; using fake documents and certificates, Tiburcio illegally practices medicine. Tiburcio's usage of the title Dr. consequently makes Victorina assume the title Dra. (doctora, female doctor).[18] Apparently, she uses the whole name Doña Victorina de los Reyes de de Espadaña, with double de to emphasize her marriage surname.[18] She seems to feel that this awkward titling makes her more "sophisticated."

Sisa, Crispín and Basilio[edit]

Sisa, Crispín, and Basilio represent a Filipino family persecuted by the Spanish authorities:

  • Narcisa or Sisa is the deranged mother of Basilio and Crispín. Described as beautiful and young, although she loves her children very much, she can not protect them from the beatings of her husband, Pedro.
  • Crispín is Sisa's 7-year-old son. An altar boy, he was unjustly accused of stealing money from the church. After failing to force Crispín to return the money he allegedly stole, Father Salví and the head sacristan killed him. It is not directly stated that he was killed, but a dream of Basilio's suggests that Crispín died during his encounter with Padre Salvi and his minion.
  • Basilio is Sisa's 10-year-old son. An acolyte tasked with ring the church's bells for the Angelus, he faced the dread of losing his younger brother and the descent of his mother into insanity. At the end of the novel, a dying Elías requested Basilio to cremate him and Sisa in the woods in exchange for a chest of gold located nearby. He will later play a major role in El filibusterismo.

Due to their tragic but endearing story, these characters are often parodied in modern Filipino popular culture.

  • Salomé - Elías' sweetheart. She lived in a little house by the lake, and though Elías would like to marry her, he tells her that it would do her or their children no good to be related to a fugitive like himself. In the original publication of Noli, the chapter that explores the identity of Elías and Salomé was omitted, classifying her as a total non-existing character. This chapter, entitled Elías y Salomé was probably the 25th chapter of the novel. However, recent editions and translations of Noli provides the inclusion of this chapter, either on the appendix or renamed as Chapter X (Ex).
  • Enjolras – The leader of Les Amis de l'ABC (Friends of the ABC) in the Paris uprising. Passionately committed to republican principles and the idea of progress. He and Grantaire are executed by the National Guards after the barricade falls.

Other characters[edit]

There are a number of secondary and minor characters in Noli me tangere. Items indicated inside the parenthesis are the standard Filipinization of the Spanish names in the novel.

  • Padre Hernándo de la Sibyla – a Dominican friar. He is described as short and has fair skin. He is instructed by an old priest in his order to watch Crisóstomo Ibarra.
  • Padre Bernardo Salví – the successor of Padre Dámaso as the Franciscan curate of San Diego, and who secretly lusts after María Clara. He is described to be very thin and sickly. It is also hinted that his surname, "Salvi" is the shorter form of "Salvi" ("salvation"), or "Salvi" is short for "salvaje" ("savage", "wild") hinting at the fact that he is willing to kill an innocent child, Crispín, who he accused of stealing money worth 2 onzas.
  • El Alférez (Alperes) – the unnamed chief of the Guardia Civil and husband of Doña Consolación. He is the sworn enemy of the priests in the town's power struggle.
  • Doña Consolación – wife of the Alférez, nicknamed as la musa de los guardias civiles (The muse of the Civil Guard) or la Alféreza. She was a former laundrywoman who passes herself as a peninsular, and is best remembered for her abusive treatment of Sisa.
  • Don Tiburcio de Espadaña – A Spanish quack doctor who is weak and submissive to his pretentious wife, Doña Victorina.
  • Teniente Guevara - a close friend of Don Rafael Ibarra. He reveals to Crisóstomo how Don Rafael Ibarra's death came about.
  • Alfonso Linares – A distant nephew of Tiburcio de Espadaña, the would-be fiancé of María Clara. Although he presented himself as a practitioner of law, it was later revealed that he is, like Don Tiburcio, a fraud. He later died from medications Don Tiburcio had given him.
  • Tía Isabel - Capitán Tiago's cousin, who helped raise María Clara and served as a surrogate mother figure.
  • Governor General (Gobernador Heneral) – Unnamed in the novel, he is the most powerful colonial official in the Philippines. He harbours great disdain for the friars and corrupt officials, and sympathises with Ibarra.
  • Don Filipo Lino – vice mayor of the town of San Diego, leader of the liberals.
  • Padre Manuel Martín - he is the linguist curate of a nearby town who delivers the sermon during San Diego's fiesta.
  • Don Rafael Ibarra - the deceased father of Crisóstomo Ibarra. Though he was the richest man in San Diego, he was also the most virtuous and generous.
  • Dona Pía Alba - wife of Capitán Tiago and mother of María Clara, she had died giving birth to her daughter. In reality, she was raped by Padre Dámaso.

Non-recurring characters[edit]

These characters were as mentioned in the novel, appeared once, mentioned many times or have no major contribution to the storyline.

  • Don Pedro Eibarramendia - the great-grandfather of Crisóstomo Ibarra who came from the Basque region of Spain, and whose descendants abbreviated their surname to Ibarra. He started the misfortunes of Elías' family. He died of unknown reasons, but was seen as a decaying corpse on a Balete tree.
  • Don Saturnino Ibarra - the son of Don Pedro, father of Don Rafael and grandfather of Crisóstomo Ibarra. He was the one who developed the town of San Diego. He was described as a cruel man but was very clever.
  • Sinang - Maria Clara's petite, cheerful, and lively friend. Because Crisóstomo Ibarra offered half of the school he was building to Sinang, he gained Capitan Basilio's support.
  • Andeng - Maria Clara's childhood friend. She is like a sister to Maria Clara since they shared the same wet nurse. She has a clear, cheerful look and a reputation for being a good cook. Her name is a diminutive of the name "Miranda" with the Tagalog participle "ng".
  • Iday, Neneng and Victoria - Maria Clara's other friends.
  • Capitán Basilio - Sinang's father, leader of the conservatives.
  • Pedro – the abusive husband of Sisa who loves cockfighting.
  • Tandáng Pablo – the leader of the tulisanes (bandits), whose family was destroyed because of the Spaniards.
  • El hombre amarillo (Taong Madilaw, "The yellow man") - one of Ibarra's would-be assassins. He is not named in the novel, and only described as such. In the novel, he carved the cornerstone for Ibarra's school. Instead of killing Ibarra, he was killed by his cornerstone.
  • Lucas - the brother of the Taong Madilaw. He planned a revolution against the government with Ibarra as the leader after he was turned down by Ibarra. He was said to have a scar on his left cheek. He would later be killed by the Sacristán Mayor.
  • Bruno and Tarsilo – a pair of brothers whose father was killed by the Spaniards.
  • Ñor Juan (Ñol Juan) - appointed as foreman of the school to be built by Ibarra
  • Capitana Tika (Rustica) - Sinang's mother and wife of Capitan Basilio.
  • Albino - a former seminarian who joined the picnic with Ibarra and María Clara. He was later captured during the revolution.
  • Capitana María Elena - a nationalist woman who defends Ibarra of the memory of his father.
  • Capitán Tinong and Capitán Valentín - other known people from the town of San Diego.
  • Sacristán Mayor - the unnamed church functionary who governs the altar boys and later murdered Crispín.

Translations[edit]

Many English and Tagalog translations have been made of Noli me tangere, as well as a few other languages. The copyrights of the original text have expired, and the copyrights of some translators have also expired, so certain translations are in the public domain and have been put online by Project Gutenberg.

English[edit]

Tagalog[edit]

Other languages[edit]

  • Au Pays des Moines (In the Land of Monks) (1899, French) by Henri Lucas and Ramon Sempau. Available freely via Project Gutenberg.[27]
  • N'y touchez pas ! (Don't touch it!) (1980, French) translation by Jovita Ventura Castro, Collection UNESCO, Connaissance de l'Orient, Gallimard, Paris.
  • Noli me tangere (1987, German) by Annemarie del Cueto-Mörth. Published by Insel Verlag.
  • Noli me tangere (2003, Italian) by Vasco Caini. Published by Debatte editore, Livorno, Italy, ISBN 88-86705-26-3.
  • Noli me Tangere: Filippijnsche roman (Noli Me Tangere: Filipino Novel) (1912, Dutch) by Abraham Anthony Fokker, published by Soerabajasch Handelsblad. Available freely via Project Gutenberg.[28]

Adaptations[edit]

The Noli has been adapted for literature, theater, television, and film.

In popular culture[edit]

  • A series of streets in the Sampaloc area of Manila are named after the characters Ibarra, Sisa and Basilio.
  • A street in Makati city is called Ibarra Street between Matanzas and Guernica streets
  • A restaurant serving Filipino cuisine at Greenbelt in Makati is called Restaurante Pia y Damaso,[36] after María Clara's biological parents.
  • A restaurant chain called Crisostomo features dishes from Filipino history and culture such as "Atcharra ni Ibarra". Its sister restaurant is called Elías.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "John 20 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Retrieved on 2012-10-02.
  2. ^ "Father Dámaso Explains". Web.archive.org. 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2014-07-09. 
  3. ^ "Noli Me Tángere". Jose Rizal University. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  4. ^ a b Ubalde, Mark J. (2007-08-22). "Rizal's Noli hits major Aussie book shelves". GMA News. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  5. ^ Republic Act 1425: AN ACT TO INCLUDE IN THE CURRICULA OF ALL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES COURSES ON THE LIFE, WORKS AND WRITINGS OF JOSE RIZAL, PARTICULARLY HIS NOVELS NOLI ME TANGERE AND EL FILIBUSTERISMO, AUTHORIZING THE PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
  6. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "II: Crisostomo Ibarra". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  7. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XIX: A Schoolmaster's Difficulties". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  8. ^ a b c Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "VI: Capitan Tiago". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  9. ^ a b Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "LXII: Padre Damaso Explains". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  10. ^ a b Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "Epilogue". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  11. ^ a b Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "I: A Social Gathering". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  12. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "LX: Maria Clara Weds". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  13. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXII: Fishing". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  14. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXIV: In the Wood". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  15. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "L: Elias". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  16. ^ In Chapter 25, Filosofo Tacio insisted to Ibarra that he cannot understand hieroglyphs or Coptic. Instead, he writes using an invented form of alphabet that is based on Tagalog language. Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXV: In the House of the Sage". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  17. ^ Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXV: In the House of the Sage". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  18. ^ a b c Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XLVII: The Espadañas". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  19. ^ "Friars and Filipinos". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  20. ^ http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/6737
  21. ^ "Noli me tangere : a complete English translation of Noli me tangere from the Spanish of Dr. Jose Rizal / by Camilo Osias". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  22. ^ "The lost Eden (Noli me tangere) A completely new translation for the contemporary reader by Leon Ma. Guerrero. Foreword by James A. Michener". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  23. ^ "Noli Me Tangere". Google Books. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  24. ^ "Noli Me Tangere". Google Books. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  25. ^ "Noli Me Tangere/Huag Acong Salangin Nino Man: Pascual Poblete Filipino translation by Rizal, Jose". Filipiniana.net. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  26. ^ "Noli Me Tangere". Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  27. ^ "Au Pays des Moines". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  28. ^ "Noli me Tangere: Filippijnsche roman". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  29. ^ "Critic After Dark: Ambitious failures (part 2)". Noel Vera. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  30. ^ "PELIKULA, ATBP.: PRE-WAR FILIPINO MOVIES". Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
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