Non-Hausdorff manifold

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In mathematics, it is a usual axiom of a manifold to be a Hausdorff space, and this is assumed throughout geometry and topology: "manifold" means "(second countable) Hausdorff manifold".

In general topology, this axiom is relaxed, and one studies non-Hausdorff manifolds: spaces locally homeomorphic to Euclidean space, but not necessarily Hausdorff.

Examples[edit]

Line with two origins[edit]

The most familiar non-Hausdorff manifold is the line with two origins, or bug-eyed line.

This is the quotient space of two copies of the real line

R × {a} and R × {b}

with the equivalence relation

(x,a) \sim (x,b)\text{ if }x \neq 0.\;

This space has a single point for each nonzero real number r and two points 0a and 0b. In this space all neighbourhoods of 0a intersect all neighbourhoods of 0b, so it is non-Hausdorff.

Further, the line with two origins does not have the homotopy type of a CW-complex, or of any Hausdorff space.[1]

Branching line[edit]

Similar to the line with two origins is the branching line.

This is the quotient space of two copies of the real line

R × {a} and R × {b}

with the equivalence relation

(x,a) \sim (x,b)\text{ if }x < 0.\;

This space has a single point for each negative real number r and two points x_a, x_b for every non-negative number: it has a "fork" at zero.

Etale space[edit]

The etale space of a sheaf, such as the sheaf of continuous real functions over a manifold, is a manifold that is often non-Hausdorff. (The etale space is Hausdorff if it is a sheaf of functions with some sort of analytic continuation property.)[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gabard, pp. 4–5

References[edit]

  • Gabard, Alexandre, A separable manifold failing to have the homotopy type of a CW-complex, arXiv:math.GT/0609665v1