Non-allelic homologous recombination
It usually occurs between sequences of DNA that have been previously duplicated through evolution, and therefore have low copy repeats (LCRs). When non-allelic homologous recombination occurs between different LCRs, deletions or further duplications of the DNA can occur. This can give rise to rare genetic disorders, caused by the loss or increased copy number of genes within the deleted or duplicated region. It can also contribute to the copy number variation seen in some gene clusters.
As LCRs are often found in "hotspots" in the human genome, some chromosomal regions are particularly prone to NAHR.  Therefore multiple patients may manifest with similar deletions or duplications, resulting in the description of genetic syndromes. Examples of these include NF1 microdeletion syndrome, 17q21.3 recurrent microdeletion syndrome or 3q29 microdeletion syndrome.
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