Non-road engine

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Examples of non-road engines

Non-road engine (which may include non-road equipment and non-road vehicle) is an internal combustion engine or a gas turbine engine used for other purposes than being an engine of a vehicle operated on public roadways. The term is commonly used by regulators to classify the engines in order to control their emission. Non-road engines are used in an extremely wide range of applications which may include machinery and engines of vehicles in other modes of transportation with different fuel types such as gasoline and diesel fuel.[1] In many jurisdictions, the term non-road engine is assumed to refer to the engines that have mobility or portability which is separated from the term stationary engine.[2] The definition of non-road engine may explicitly exclude certain non-road vehicles such as aircraft, locomotives, and ocean-going marine vessels.[3] In Europe, the regulations are specifically clarified on the mobility by using the term non-road mobile machinery.[4] In Australia, the definition includes some stationary engines such as electric generators and pumps.[5]

Classifications[edit]

There are many classifications of the non-road engines based on the jurisdictions. The following are common classifications:[1][5]

In certain jurisdictions, the non-road engines may include stationary engines that are diesel powered.[2]

Emission standards[edit]

The rationale for establishing emission standards for non-road engines is that they are are a significant source of pollution. The engines of on-road vehicles have advanced emission controls which are not found on those non-road engines. The non-road engines also emit air pollution particles at much higher rates.

The emission standards are based on the engine classifications and vary in various jurisdictions. The main model regulations that are used by many counties are the United States Environmental Protection Agency through the section 213 of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7547) and the directive of the European Commission (the "mother Directive 97/68/EC, the amendments Directive 2002/88/EC, Directive 2004/26/EC, Directive 2006/105/EC, Directive 2011/88/EU and the last amendment Directive 2012/46/EU). The directives cover diesel engines, spark-ignition engines, constant-speed engines, railcars, locomotives and inland waterway vessels.[2][4]

Non-road diesel engines[edit]

The standards for non-road diesel engines are more harmonized. Many countries adopt the emission standards derived from either the US or the European models.

In the United States, the emission standards for non-road diesel engines are published in the US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 89 (40 CFR Part 89). Tier 1-3 Standards were adopted in 1994 and was phased in between 1996 and 2000 for engines over 37 kW (50 hp). In 1998 the regulation included engines under 37 kW and introduced more stringent Tier 2 and Tier 3 standards which was scheduled to be phased in between 2000 and 2008. In 2004, US EPA introduced the more stringent Tier 4 standards which was scheduled to be phased in between 2008 and 2015. The testing cycles used for certification follow the ISO 8178 standards.

In Europe which has standards for non-road diesel engines that harmonize the US EPA standards comprise gradually stringent tiers known as Stage I-IV standards. The Stage I/II was part of the 1997 directive (Directive 97/68/EC). It was implemented in two stages with Stage I implemented in 1999 and Stage II implemented between 2001 and 2004. In 2004, the European Parliament adopted Stage III/IV standards. The Stage III standards were further divided into Stage III A and III B were phased in between 2006 and 2013. Stage IV standards will be enforced in 2014.

Canada adopted the US standards in 1999. Korea modeled its Tier 2 standards from the US Tier 2. Russia adopted the European Stage I standards. Turkey adopted the European standards but with different implementation dates. China adopted the European Stage I/II standards in 2007.

India introduced its own standards in 2006 called Bharat (CEV) Stage II (based in part on European Stage I) and Bharat (CEV) Stage III (based on US Tier 2/3). Japan introduced its own standards that are similar but not harmonized to the US Tier 3 and Europe Stage III A. Brazil adopted the resolution in 2011 to set emission standards that are equivalent to US Tier 3 and European Stage III A.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Nonroad Engines, Equipment, and Vehicles". US Environment Protection Agency. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d "2013 Global Sourcing Guide". Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "2005 Nonroad Engine Fleet Characterization in the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley". RWDI AIR Inc. p. i. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Emissions from non-road mobile machinery". Enterprise and Industry DG, European Commission. Retrieved 24 December 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Non-road engines". Department of the Environment, Australian Government. Retrieved 24 December 2013.