Nonverbal learning disorder

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A nonverbal learning disorder or nonverbal learning disability (NLD or NVLD) is a neurological disorder characterized by a significant discrepancy between higher verbal skills and lower motor, visuo-spatial, and social skills on an IQ test.[1]

NLD involves deficits in perception, coordination, socialisation, non-verbal problem-solving, and understanding of humour.[2]

Nonverbal learning disorder is a common co-existing disorder in people who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.[3]

Ongoing debate surrounds the relationship between Asperger syndrome and NLD, as research on the condition is ongoing and procedures can differ from AS research.[2] Although most people with Asperger syndrome (AS) fit the criteria for NLD, a diagnosis of AS is often preferred.[2] In this instance, some researchers assert that an AS diagnosis is more clinically useful than an NLD diagnosis, and argue that NLD would be an example of excessive diagnostic splitting.

NLD can also occur with other disorders. As with Asperger syndrome, NLD exists on a spectrum, and those affected can experience it in a range of ways. Those with an NLD diagnosis can experience some or all of the symptoms, and to varying degrees.

Some proponents of the category believe that this discrepancy is attributable to dysfunction in the right cerebral hemisphere.[1][4]

Symptoms[edit]

Non-verbal communication[edit]

People with this disability may misunderstand non-verbal communications, or they may understand the communications but be unable to formulate an appropriate response. This can make establishing and maintaining social contacts difficult. Eye contact can also be difficult for people with NLD, either because they are uncomfortable with maintaining it or because they do not remember that others expect it. Similarly, knowing when and how to use physical contact and recognizing emotions in others and expressing them for oneself can be problematic.

Verbal communication[edit]

People with NLD may be described as talking too much and too quickly, and they may be early readers, good at grammar, and good spellers. Children with NLD may speak months earlier than neurotypical children (as early as 7 months).[citation needed] Verbal communication skills are often strong, and people with NLD often rely on verbal communication as their main method of gathering information and maintaining social contact with other people. As a result, they often depend on verbal reasoning skills to compensate in areas where they have deficits. For example, they may "talk themselves through" a situation involving a large number of and/or a wide variety of visuo-spatial and/or numerical data. People with NLD can become confused and feel overwhelmed when the number and variety of nonverbal stimuli exceed their processing abilities, especially when those stimuli must be processed in "real time."[citation needed]

Numerical and spatial awareness[edit]

Arithmetic and mathematics can be very difficult for people with NLD. Young children with NLD are often seen as brighter than their peers.[citation needed] However, as these children enter the upper elementary grades or begin middle school and they are left to handle more tasks on their own, things can rapidly begin to deteriorate. They can have problems with finding their way, remembering assignments. They can struggle with math and misunderstand teachers and peers. They can be accused of being lazy or uncooperative. An NLD person's math skills are typically several years behind those of their peers. Teachers and peers are often confused by this because the NLD person has superior language skills, which are mistakenly associated with overall genius.[citation needed]

Motor[edit]

People with NLD often have motor difficulties. This can manifest in their walking and running, which sometimes appear stiff. They may have difficulty with activities requiring good balance and feel unsteady when climbing up or down. They may also be more likely to run into things, due to judging distances poorly. Fine motor skills can also be poor, causing difficulty with writing, drawing, and tying shoelaces. Those with NLD are often labeled as "clumsy" or "stiff" by teachers and peers.

Anxiety[edit]

People with NLD, more than many others, fear failure. Because of difficulties with nonverbal communication, people with NLD often worry excessively about offending other people. They may feel that they have to do too much at once, and then do not know where to start. This allows them to stagnate, and then do nothing. Sometimes they try to multitask and again end up doing nothing, which can lead to frustration. They may experience the world around them as a chaos, the actions that they must perform well and quickly creating a sense of helplessness. Clumsiness in performing tasks may be criticized by teachers or in the workplace, causing further fear of failure.[citation needed]

Depression[edit]

Individuals with NLD also commonly experience clinical depression, often because their difficulties with non-verbal communication make it hard to make friends and they feel isolated, lonely, and misunderstood by others. There is a high incidence of suicide within the NLD population. Sometimes they are angry at themselves more than others, creating a sense of uselessness which can lead to depression and/or suicide.[citation needed]

Epidemiology[edit]

Nonverbal learning disabilities affect one in ten learning disabled children.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Treffert, Darold. "Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD or NVLD)". Wisconsin Medical Society. 
  2. ^ a b c Fitzgerald, Michael; Corvin, Aiden (2001). "Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (The Royal College of Psychiatrists) 7 (4): 310–318. doi:10.1192/apt.7.4.310. ISSN 1472-1481. 
  3. ^ Semrud-Clikeman M, Bledsoe J (October 2011). "Updates on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders". Curr Psychiatry Rep 13 (5): 364–73. doi:10.1007/s11920-011-0211-5. PMID 21701839. 
  4. ^ "Nonverbal Learning Disorders Association". 
  5. ^ Liza Little, PsyD, RN. "The Misunderstood Child: The Child With a Nonverbal Learning Disorder".