Nordazepam

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Nordazepam
Nordazepam.svg
Nordazepam3d.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
7-chloro-5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Pregnancy cat.
  •  ?
Legal status
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Metabolism Hepatic
Half-life 36-200 hours[1]
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS number 1088-11-5 YesY
ATC code N05BA16
PubChem CID 2997
DrugBank none
ChemSpider 2890 YesY
UNII 67220MCM01 YesY
KEGG D08283 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:111762 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL523 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C15H11ClN2O 
Mol. mass 270.71
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Nordazepam (marketed under brand names Nordaz, Stilny, Madar, Vegesan, and Calmday), also known as desoxydemoxepam, nordiazepam and desmethyldiazepam, is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative. Like other benzodiazepine derivatives, it has amnesic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant and sedative properties. However, it is used primarily in the treatment of anxiety. It is an active metabolite of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, prazepam, pinazepam, and medazepam.[2]

Side effects[edit]

Common side effects of nordazepam include somnolence, which is more common in elderly patients and/or people on high dose regimens. Hypotonia, which is much less common, is also associated with high doses and/or old age.

Contraindications and special caution[edit]

Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in the elderly, during pregnancy, in children, alcohol- or drug-dependent individuals and individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders.[3] In fact, changes in liver function associated with aging or diseases such as cirrhosis, may lead to impaired clearance of nordazepam.[4]

Pharmacology[edit]

Nordazepam is a partial agonist at the GABAA receptor, which makes it less potent than other benzodiazepines, particularly in its amnesic and muscle relaxing effects.[5] The elimination half life is between 36 and 200 hours, with wide variation among individuals, factors such as age and gender are known to impact it.[1] More specifically, nordazepam is hydroxylated to active metabolites including lorazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam before finally being glucuronidated and excreted in the urine.[6]

Pregnancy and nursing mothers[edit]

Nordazepam, like other benzodiazepines, easily crosses the placental barrier, so the molecule should not be administered during the first trimester of pregnancy.[7] In case of serious medical reasons nordazepam can be given in late pregnancy, but it should keep in mind that the baby, due to the pharmacological action of the drug, may experience side effects such as hypothermia, hypotonia, and sometimes mild respiratory depression. Since nordazepam and other benzodiazepines are excreted in breast milk, the molecule should not be administered to mothers who are breastfeeding. It is therefore indicated discontinue breast-feeding if there is an indication for a regular intake by the mother.[8]

Abuse[edit]

Nordazepam and other sedative hypnotic drugs are detected frequently in cases of people suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. Many drivers have blood levels far exceeding the therapeutic dose range suggesting a high degree of abuse potential for benzodiazepines.[9]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b C. Heather Ashton (March 2007). "Benzodiazepine Equivalence Table". benzo.org.uk. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  2. ^ Ator NA, Griffiths RR (September 1997). "Selectivity in the generalization profile in baboons trained to discriminate lorazepam: benzodiazepines, barbiturates and other sedative/anxiolytics". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 282 (3): 1442–57. PMID 9316858. 
  3. ^ Authier, N.; Balayssac, D.; Sautereau, M.; Zangarelli, A.; Courty, P.; Somogyi, AA.; Vennat, B.; Llorca, PM.; Eschalier, A. (November 2009). "Benzodiazepine dependence: focus on withdrawal syndrome". Ann Pharm Fr 67 (6): 408–413. doi:10.1016/j.pharma.2009.07.001. PMID 19900604. 
  4. ^ Klotz U, Müller-Seydlitz P (January 1979). "Altered elimination of desmethyldiazepam in the elderly". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 7 (1): 119–20. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1979.tb00908.x. PMC 1429605. PMID 367407. Retrieved 2014-09-19. 
  5. ^ Gobbi M, Barone D, Mennini T, Garattini S (May 1987). "Diazepam and desmethyldiazepam differ in their affinities and efficacies at 'central' and 'peripheral' benzodiazepine receptors". J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 39 (5): 388–91. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1987.tb03404.x. PMID 2886589. 
  6. ^ Marland, A (Jan–Feb 1999). "The urinary elimination profiles of diazepam and its metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam, in the equine after a 10-mg intramuscular dose.". J Anal Toxicol 23 (1): 29–34. doi:10.1093/jat/23.1.29. PMID 10022206. 
  7. ^ Olive G, Rey E (1983). "[Benzodiazepines and pregnancy. Transplacental passage, labor and lactation]". L'Encéphale (in French) 9 (4 Suppl 2): 87B–96B. PMID 6144535. 
  8. ^ Dusci LJ, Good SM, Hall RW, Ilett KF (January 1990). "Excretion of diazepam and its metabolites in human milk during withdrawal from combination high dose diazepam and oxazepam". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29 (1): 123–6. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1990.tb03612.x. PMC 1380071. PMID 2105100. Retrieved 2014-09-19. 
  9. ^ Jones AW; Holmgren A; Kugelberg FC. (April 2007). "Concentrations of scheduled prescription drugs in blood of impaired drivers: considerations for interpreting the results". Ther Drug Monit. 29 (2): 248–60. doi:10.1097/FTD.0b013e31803d3c04. PMID 17417081.