Norderney

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Norderney
Aerial view of Norderney from the west
Aerial view of Norderney from the west
Flag of Norderney
Flag
Coat of arms of Norderney
Coat of arms
Norderney   is located in Germany
Norderney
Norderney
Coordinates: 53°42′26″N 07°08′49″E / 53.70722°N 7.14694°E / 53.70722; 7.14694Coordinates: 53°42′26″N 07°08′49″E / 53.70722°N 7.14694°E / 53.70722; 7.14694
Country Germany
State Lower Saxony
District Aurich
Subdivisions 2 Ortsteile Fischerhafen, Nordhelmsiedlung
Government
 • Mayor Frank Ulrichs (SPD)[1]
Area
 • Total 26.3 km2 (10.2 sq mi)
Elevation 5 m (16 ft)
Population (2013-12-31)[2]
 • Total 5,845
 • Density 220/km2 (580/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 26548
Dialling codes 04932
Vehicle registration AUR, NOR
Website www.norderney.de
Norderney as seen from space
The Conversationshaus (2010)

Norderney is one of the seven populated East Frisian Islands off the North Sea coast of Germany. It is also a municipality in the district of Aurich in Lower Saxony.

The island is 14 km long and about 2.5 km wide, having a total area of about 26.3 square kilometres (10.2 sq mi) and is therefore Germany's tenth largest island. Norderney's population amounts to about 6,200 people. In 1946 Norderney gained municipal status and belongs to the Aurich "Kreis" (county). On the northern side of the island lies a 14 km long sandy beach.

The neighbouring island to the east is Baltrum, which lies about 800m (half a mile) away beyond the Wichter Ee. To the west is the island of Juist, about 3 km away on the other side of the Norderneyer Seegatt.

The entire eastern half of Norderney belongs to the Wadden Sea National Park of Lower Saxony. Access to the park is restricted, as it is subdivided in zones of different accessibility for the protection of the wildlife. The status as a National Park also affects all kinds of traffic on the island, while especially car traffic is subject to strict regulations.

The mainland is easily reached via ferry operated by AG Reederei Norden-Frisia from the harbour, Norddeich pier near the northern German city of Norden. Norderney also possesses an airport with a 1,000 metre runway.

Coat of arms and flag[edit]

Since 10 July 1928 the coat of arms of the city of Norderney depicts the local landmark, the "Kap," or cape building. A dune and water is shown underneath. Such high structures helped mariners identify the island and orient themselves in earlier times. There are similar buildings on Borkum and Wangerooge. The Norderney cape building was built in 1848 from wood, and was replaced in 1870 with a stone building. At night a fire was lit in the top part of the structure. Today lighthouses have taken over this function. The island painter Poppe Folkerts designed the coat of arms.

Norderney is one of the smallest German communities to fly its own flag. The small city flag has horizontal blue and white stripes and a black and white checkered area on the left side. The blue colour stands for the sea, white symbolizes the colour of the sand, and black stands for the Norderney sea sign.

History[edit]

Of the seven East Frisian islands, Norderney is the youngest. The island has only existed in its present form since the middle of the 16th century, being the eastern remnant of the larger island Buise. The larger island of Buise was split into two parts during the Grote Mandrenke flood of 1362, the eastern half at first being called Ostrende. What was left of Buise shrunk in size over the years and finally disappeared into the North Sea during the St. Peter's Flood of 1651. Ostrende, on the other hand, grew in size, and is noted in a 1550 census as "Norder neys Oog" (Northern New Island), and having a church and 18 houses. The inhabitants at this time worked principally as fishermen. In the second half of the 18th century the sea trade industry grew in importance. Next to fishing, tourism became important to the island economy. In 1797, Norderney became the first German resort on the North Sea.

Norderney timeline
  • 13th-14th centuries — There are no sources concerning the first settlements on Norderney, but it is believed that the first durable settlements were established during the 13th and 14th centuries. A town developed in the western part of the island, protected by high dunes.
  • 1398 — First documented mention of the island.
  • 1650 — The island is about 8.3 km long and the town has about 18 houses and 101 inhabitants.
  • 1717 — Severe storm flood. (Christmas Flood)
  • 1744 to 1806 — East Frisia and its islands belong to Prussia.
  • 1797 — Founding of a resort on the island. Meeting and bath houses were built. The resort offered bathing machines for men and women. Islanders boarded guests in their houses.
  • 1799 — One of the first wooden, straw covered resort houses was built.
  • 1800 — Official opening of the resort with 250 guests.
  • 1806 — Napoleon defeats Prussia. East Frisia becomes part of the Kingdom of Holland. The resort operation comes to a standstill.
  • 1811 — Reopening of the resort with 618 guests.
  • 1819 — "Royal Institute of Seabathing."
  • 1830 — Shellfish harvesting becomes the most important activity of the islanders.
  • 1836 — Crown Prince Georg of Hannover, Herzog von Cumberland, visits Norderney for the first time and from 1851 holds court each summer on the island. During this time the resort gained a strong following of the rich and famous.
  • 1858 — A 950 meter long deck with Promenade is built.
  • 1862 — Building of the island's Windmill.
  • 1866 — Prussia annexes the Kingdom of Hanover. Norderney becomes again a Royal Prussian sea bathing establishment.
  • 1899 — The island has 4,018 inhabitants and 26,000 resort guests. Norderney features a number of improvements, including a hospital, central school building, a water system, electricity for the promenade, stables, gas works, and a pier.
  • 1901 — Establishment of the angelfish catching operation.
  • 1914 — Resort operations ceased due to the Great War.
  • 1919 — The resort re-opens, but with only 14,000 guests.
  • 1921 — The city of Norderney and the northern German Lloyd rent the resort.
  • 1925 — 5,564 inhabitants and 38,140 guests. Deutsche Luft Hansa commences scheduled flights to the island.

Cultural references[edit]

Climate[edit]

Norderney has a maritime temperate climate, with generally less extreme temperatures than on the nearby mainland. Precipitation is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year, but autumn seems to be slightly wetter, with November being the wettest month with 87.6 mm (3.45 in) while February is the driest with 40.7 mm (1.60 in). The Island also has more sunshine hours than the mainland, with more than 1,600 hours per year. Sea temperatures are fluctating between 3 to 7°C (38 to 45°F) in the winter and over 20°C (68°F) in the summer months. In July 2014 a new alltime record high was reached with 34.1°C (93.4°F).

Climate data for Norderney Island
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.7
(53.1)
14.2
(57.6)
21.8
(71.2)
26.2
(79.2)
30.3
(86.5)
32.2
(90)
34.1
(93.4)
33.7
(92.7)
30.2
(86.4)
22.9
(73.2)
16.6
(61.9)
12.8
(55)
34.1
(93.4)
Average high °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
3.6
(38.5)
6.1
(43)
9.4
(48.9)
14.1
(57.4)
17.0
(62.6)
18.8
(65.8)
19.4
(66.9)
17.0
(62.6)
13.0
(55.4)
8.1
(46.6)
4.8
(40.6)
11.2
(52.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
1.8
(35.2)
4.0
(39.2)
6.9
(44.4)
11.2
(52.2)
14.4
(57.9)
16.3
(61.3)
16.8
(62.2)
14.5
(58.1)
10.8
(51.4)
6.3
(43.3)
3.2
(37.8)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
0.0
(32)
1.9
(35.4)
4.5
(40.1)
8.7
(47.7)
12.1
(53.8)
14.1
(57.4)
14.5
(58.1)
12.3
(54.1)
8.7
(47.7)
4.4
(39.9)
1.3
(34.3)
6.9
(44.4)
Record low °C (°F) −15.5
(4.1)
−15.3
(4.5)
−9.6
(14.7)
−2.8
(27)
1.1
(34)
5.1
(41.2)
9.1
(48.4)
8.9
(48)
5.6
(42.1)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.1
(19.2)
−12.7
(9.1)
−15.5
(4.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 60.0
(2.362)
40.7
(1.602)
52.8
(2.079)
41.2
(1.622)
48.7
(1.917)
62.7
(2.469)
76.0
(2.992)
72.8
(2.866)
72.2
(2.843)
80.2
(3.157)
87.6
(3.449)
74.5
(2.933)
769.4
(30.291)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 45.6 76.3 120.2 175.2 226.3 223.7 209.9 209.3 145.8 101.5 56.0 38.2 1,628
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[3]
Source #2: European Climate Assessment and Dataset[4]

Trivia[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]