Nordic combined

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Not to be confused with Alpine combined, in which athletes compete in downhill and slalom ski racing.
Nordic combined
Nordic combined pictogram.svg
Highest governing body International Ski Federation
First played 1892, Holmenkollen Ski Festival, Oslo
Characteristics
Team members Individuals or groups
Mixed gender no
Presence
Olympic Since the first ever Winter Olympics in 1924

The Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in cross-country skiing and ski jumping. Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics and the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup are ongoing. There is no women's competition sanctioned by the International Ski Federation.

History[edit]

The first major competition was held in 1892 in Oslo at the first Holmenkollen ski jump. King Olav V of Norway was an able jumper and competed in the Holmenkollen Ski Festival in the 1920s. It was in the 1924 Winter Olympics, and has been on the programme ever since. Until the 1950s, the cross-country race was held first, followed by the ski jumping. This was reversed as the difference in the cross-country race tended to be too big to overcome in ski jumping. The sport has been dominated by the Norwegians, supported by the Finns. It was not until 1960 that the Nordic grip on this discipline was broken when West German Georg Thoma won the gold medal at the 1960 Winter Olympics.[1]

Competition[edit]

Formats and variations currently used in the World Cup are:[2]

  • Individual Gundersen: competition starts with one competition jump from a normal or large hill. Later on the same day, the 10 kilometre cross-country race takes place. The winner starts at 00:00:00 and all other athletes start with time disadvantages according to their jumping score. The first to cross the finish line is the winner. A variation of this is the Final Individual Gundersen, consisting of two jumps and 15 kilometres of cross-country skiing in free technique.
  • Nordic Combined Triple: introduced in the 2013–14 FIS Nordic Combined World Cup, it features three different events on three days and one overall winner who is awarded extra World Cup points and prize money:
    • Day 1: 1 jump & 5 km Prologue
    • Day 2: 1 jump & 10 km Individual Gundersen (Top 50 from Day 1's competition)
    • Day 3: 2 jumps & 15 km Final Individual Gundersen (Top 30 from Day 2's competition)
  • Team Event: introduced in the 1980s, one team consists of four athletes who have one competition jump each. The total score of all four athletes determines the time disadvantages for the start of the ensuing 5 km cross-country race. The first team to cross the finish line wins.
  • Team Sprint: teams consist of two athletes each. In the ski jumping part, every athlete makes one competition jump like in the Individual Gundersen or Team Event formats and the time behind for the start of the successive cross-country race. The team to arrive first at the finish line wins the competition.

Included in the rules but currently not used in World Cup:

  • Penalty Race: instead adding a time disadvantage, distance is added to the cross-country part.
  • Mass Start: the only format in which the cross-country part takes place before the ski jumping. All competitors start into a 10 kilometre cross-country race in free technique at the same time. The final cross-country times are then converted into points for the ski jumping part. The winner is determined in a points-based system.

Events in the Olympics are: the sprint K120 individual, ski jumping K90 (70m), and Team/4x5km.[3]

Nordic Skiing Triple Crown Winners[edit]

Below is a list of Nordic skiers that have won at the Winter Olympics, FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, and Holmenkollen events. Bold years indicate when a skier achieved all the three wins in the same year.

Men's Nordic combined including the 25km biathlon event[edit]

Winner Country Winter Olympics FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Holmenkollen
Thorleif Haug  Norway 1924 1924 1919, 1920, 1921
Johan Grøttumsbråten  Norway 1928, 1932 1926, 1928, 1931, 1932 1923, 1926, 1928, 1929, 1931
Oddbjørn Hagen  Norway 1936 1934, 1935, 1936 1932, 1934, 1935
Heikki Hasu  Finland 1948 1948, 1950 1953
Simon Slåttvik  Norway 1952 1952 1948, 1950, 1951
Sverre Stenersen  Norway 1956 1954, 1956 1955, 1956, 1959[4]
Georg Thoma  Federal Republic of Germany 1960 1960, 1966 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966
Tormod Knutsen  Norway 1964 1964 1958
Franz Keller  Federal Republic of Germany 1968 1968 1967
Ulrich Wehling  German Democratic Republic 1972, 1976, 1980 1972, 1974, 1976, 1980 1975, 1976, 1977
Bjarte Engen Vik  Norway 1998 1999, 2001 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000
Jason Lamy-Chappuis  France 2010 2011 2007, 2010

Men's ski jump[edit]

Winner Country Winter Olympics FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Holmenkollen
Birger Ruud  Norway 1932, 1936 1931, 1932, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1948 1932
Arnfinn Bergmann  Norway 1952 1952 1952
Antti Hyvärinen  Finland 1956 1956 1956
Helmut Recknagel  German Democratic Republic 1960 1960, 1962 1957, 1960
Toralf Engan  Norway 1964 1962, 1964 1962
Vladimir Beloussov  Soviet Union 1968 1968 1968, 1970
Karl Schnabl  Austria 1976 1976 1976
Anton Innauer  Austria 1980 1980 1975
Matti Nykänen  Finland 1984, 1988 1982 1982
Kazuyoshi Funaki  Japan 1998 1999 1997
Simon Ammann   Switzerland 2002, 2010 2007 2002, 2007

Men's 50 km[edit]

Winner Country Winter Olympics FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Holmenkollen
Thorleif Haug  Norway 1924 1924 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1923, 1924
Nils Karlsson  Sweden 1948 1948 1947, 1951
Ole Ellefsæter  Norway 1968 1968 1967
Pål Tyldum  Norway 1972 1972 1969, 1972
Gunde Svan  Sweden 1988 1985, 1989 1986, 1990
Petter Northug  Norway 2010 2009 2010

Men's 18 km[edit]

Length shortened to 15 km in 1950

Winner Country Winter Olympics FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Holmenkollen
Martin Lundström  Sweden 1948 1948 1948
Hallgeir Brenden  Norway 1952 1952 1952

Men's 15 km[edit]

Holmenkollen ran 1954-85 and 1994

Winner Country Winter Olympics FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Holmenkollen
Hallgeir Brenden  Norway 1956 1956 1956
Eero Mäntyranta  Finland 1964 1964 1962, 1964, 1968
Harald Grønningen  Norway 1968 1968 1960, 1961
Gunde Svan  Sweden 1984 1989 1985

Women's 10 km[edit]

Holmenkollen ran 1954-86

Winner Country Winter Olympics FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Holmenkollen
Ljubov Kozyreva  Soviet Union 1956 1954, 1956 1955
Klavdija Bojarskikh  Soviet Union 1964 1964, 1966 1965, 1966
Toini Gustafsson  Sweden 1968 1968 1960, 1967, 1968
Galina Kulakova  Soviet Union 1972 1972, 1974 1970, 1979
Raisa Smetanina  Soviet Union 1976 1976 1975

Women's 30 km[edit]

Winner Country Winter Olympics FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Holmenkollen
Stefania Belmondo  Italy 1992 1993 1997, 2002

Women's 5 km[edit]

Olympic: 1964-98, FIS: 1963-99, Holmenkollen: 1966-91

Winner Country Winter Olympics FIS Nordic World Ski Championships Holmenkollen
Klavdija Bojarskikh  Soviet Union 1964 1964 1967
Helena Takalo  Finland 1976 1976, 1978 1976
Raisa Smetanina  Soviet Union 1980 1980 1975

Equipment[edit]

  • Ski bindings: secure only the toe of the boot to the ski. In cross-country, it must be placed so that not more than 57% of the entire ski length is used as the front part. In jumping, a cord attaches the ski to the boot and prevents the wobbling of skis during flight.
  • Ski boot
    • For jumping, a high-backed, flexible yet firm boots with a low cut at the front, designed to allow the skier to lean forward during flight.
    • For cross-country a skating boot is used.
  • Ski suit and helmet
  • Skis: jumping skis may have a length of a maximum 146% of the total body height of the competitor. Cross-country skis may be up to 2 meters long.
  • Ski poles
  • Ski wax: glide wax for speed is used in both types, and kick wax is used in cross-country.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Nordic Combined Equipment and History". FIS. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  2. ^ Nordic Combined World Cup. FIS http://www.fis-ski.com/nordic-combined/extra/faq.html |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  3. ^ "Nordic Combined". IOC. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  4. ^ Tied with Gunder Gundersen in 1959.