Norman Armour

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Norman Armour
Norman Armour.jpg
United States Ambassador to Haiti
In office
July 25, 1932 – March 21, 1935
President Herbert Hoover
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by Dana G. Munro
Succeeded by George A. Gordon
United States Ambassador to Canada
In office
August 7, 1935 – January 15, 1939
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by Warren Delano Robbins
Succeeded by Daniel Calhoun Roper
United States Ambassador to Chile
In office
April 21, 1938 – June 10, 1939
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by James B. Cunningham
Succeeded by Claude G. Bowers
United States Ambassador to Argentina
In office
May 18, 1939 – June 29, 1944
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by Alexander W. Weddell
Succeeded by Spruille Braden
United States Ambassador to Spain
In office
December 15, 1944 – December 1, 1945
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Carlton J. H. Hayes
Succeeded by Philip W. Bonsal
United States Ambassador to Venezuela
In office
December 7, 1950 – October 2, 1951
President Harry S. Truman
Preceded by Walter J. Donnelly
Succeeded by Fletcher Warren
United States Ambassador to Guatemala
In office
October 18, 1954 – May 9, 1955
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded by John Emil Peurifoy
Succeeded by Edward J. Sparks
Personal details
Born (1887-10-14)October 14, 1887
Brighton, England
Died September 27, 1982(1982-09-27) (aged 94)
Nationality American
Political party Democratic Party
Spouse(s) Myra Sergueievna Koudashev
Alma mater Princeton University;
Harvard Law School

Norman Armour (October 14, 1887– September 27, 1982) was a career United States diplomat who The New York Times once called "the perfect diplomat". In his long career spanning both World Wars, he served as Chief of Mission in eight countries, as Assistant Secretary of State for Political Affairs, and married into Russian nobility.

Career[edit]

Armour was born in Brighton, England while his parents were vacationing there.[1] He grew up in Princeton, New Jersey and graduated from St. Paul's School and Princeton University in 1909. In 1913, he graduated from Harvard Law School before returning to Princeton to study diplomacy. His first posts were to Austria in 1912 and France from 1915-1916 before formally entering the Foreign Service.

Russia[edit]

One of his first assignments in the foreign service was as Second Secretary in the United States embassy in Petrograd in the Russian Empire, beginning in 1916 (during World War I). After the collapse of Czarist Russia, the Bolsheviks seized control of the government and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers which marked their exit from World War I. (These events precipitated the Russian Civil War which would lead to the formation of the Soviet Union in 1922.) Prior to the formal signing of the treaty, the United States partially evacuated their embassy, but Armour remained as part of the limited staff. On July 25, the Russian authorities ordered the diplomats out of Petrograd and a new legation was set up in Vologda. The North Russia Campaign, an Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War, further destabilized the situation and resulted in the legation becoming essentially under siege. (The Russian army had already attacked the British consulate and killed its Attache.) At this point, the order of events for Armour becomes somewhat unclear.

According to news reports of the time, Armour was arrested and brought back to Moscow, where he and other Americans (diplomats and otherwise) were allowed to flee the country on August 26, by train to Sweden, arriving on September 5. Later, it was revealed that Armour had during this period used a fake Norwegian passport and, disguised as a courier, sneaked back into Petrograd and arranged for Princess Myra Koudashev, of Petrograd to escape the country. (Contrary to the contemporary reports, his obituary in the New York Times also says that he did not travel in the refugee train from Moscow, but rather escaped himself to Finland, still disguised as a courier, where he caught up with them.) On November 2, shortly after they arrived back in the United States, they announced their engagement. They were married February 2, 1919 in Brussels, Belgium.

Russian background of Mrs. Armour[edit]

Née Myra Sergueievna Koudashev, Mrs. Amour was a daughter of a first marriage of Tatar Prince Serguey Vladimirovich Kudashev, to a Russian Countess of the Nieroth family, being born in Saint Petersburg, 7 April 1895.

Over the following years, diplomat Armour served in a number of embassies and consulates, including those in Belgium, The Netherlands, Uruguay, Italy, the United States Department of State (1922–1924), Japan (1925–1928), and France (1928–1932).

France[edit]

In 1929, after the death of Myron T. Herrick on March 31, 1929, Armour was made Chargé d'affaires and Head of the Embassy in Paris until the selection of a replacement. This was Armour's first time as Chief of Mission. Armour was also an extremely popular social figure in France and he and his wife were often written about in American newspapers, flaunting the Parisian high life.

Haiti[edit]

In 1932, Armour was elevated to Envoy and assigned as Minister to Haiti in the Caribbean. His primary responsibility in Haiti was to work toward returning the government of the country back to native hands at the conclusion of the United States occupation of Haiti which had been in effect since prior to World War I for some 19 years. He was selected to the position due to his fluency in French, but also as a sign to the Haitians that the United States would put a well-respected diplomat in their country. On August 7, 1933, Armour signed a treaty with Haiti "to return government functions to the Haitians by October 1944 and to withdraw the United States Marines stationed there by November 1944. (The plan succeeded ahead of schedule as Marines left the country on August 14, 1934.)

Canada[edit]

After the death in office of Warren Delano Robbins, Armour was made Minister to Canada. His appointment to Canada so soon after his success in Haiti was meant to underscore Canada's importance to the United States, according to the New York Times.

During his time in Canada, the State Department banned marriages between diplomatic personnel and the citizens of foreign countries they served due to potential conflict of interest problems. Though there were at this time 122 diplomats that had taken foreign wives, Armour's high-profile relationship with his highborn Russian wife and the way in which they were engaged were commonly cited by the press on both sides of the issue.

Chile & Argentina[edit]

In 1938, Armour was appointed as Ambassador to Chile, was a post in which he served relatively uneventfully.

The following year, he was appointed as Ambassador to Argentina, as the Second World War was heating up. During this period, Armour worked to negotiate better trade relations with these South American countries, and once the United States entered the war, to apply pressure on them to not support the Axis Powers. (One of the provisions of the treaty that he helped negotiate essentially cut off the supply of Tungsten, essential for steels in armored tanks and in electrical lamps, to Japan from Argentina. Imports from that country to Japan accounted for half of that country's supply.) However, Argentina refused to budge off key issues and remained ostensibly neutral.

In 1941, Armour was made honorary director of the 1st Pan-American Games which were to be held in 1942. The games were called off due to the war.

Near the end of the war, on January 26, 1944, Argentina finally caved to pressure from Britain and the United States and broke ties with the Axis Powers. However, almost immediately after, the General Edelmiro Julián Farrell seized power in a coup from President General Pedro Pablo Ramírez.

Both Generals backed quite closely General Juan Domingo Perón, their successor from June 1946 to July 1974, who was President in three different periods: 1946–1952, 1952-1955 till a military coup ousted him, and then from September 1973, after 18 years in the exile, to 1 July 1974 when he died.

As a result of this turmoil, the United States refused to recognize the legitimacy of the new government. Armour was ordered to remain in Argentina, but not to officially establish relations of any kind with the new government until a list of conditions were met. The United States officially suspended relations with the country on March 3, 1944, believing that the coup was backed by pro-Axis groups. Armour was officially recalled June 27, 1944.

After his recall, Armour was made acting-Chief of the Department of Latin American Affairs, now probably integrated under the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs in the State Department, until his appointment the following year, 15 December 1944, to Spain, presenting his credentials three and a half months later, March 24, 1945.

Spain & retirement[edit]

In Spain, Armour continued to apply pressure on the government of Francisco Franco due in part to its support of the Axis powers during the Second World War. On his retirement on November 29, 1945, formally, 1 December 1945, only 8 months afterwards, the United States further isolated Spain by refusing to send another Ambassador until 1951.

A resolution of the United Nations, document 32(I) 9 February 1946, commended General Franco's regimen stating:

.... the actual Spanish Government, founded through the help of the powers of the Axis, not possessing , in view of his origins , nature, historical and the intimate association with the agreeing States, the conditions justifying his admission...,

in Spanish:

....El actual gobierno español, el cual habiendo sido fundado con el apoyo de las potencias del Eje, no posee, en vistas de sus orígenes, su naturaleza, su historial y su íntima asociación con los Estados agresores, las condiciones que justifiquen su admisión.

During that period December 1945 - March 1951, the U.S. embassy remained open with a succession of Chargé d'Affaires, namely, Philip W. Bonsal, from March 1946 to June 1947, Paul T. Culbertson, from June 1947 to December 1952 and Stanton Griffis.

The later Chargé d'Áffaires was appointed on February 1, 1951 again as an Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary presenting his credentials: March 1, 1951, just only one month after his appointment but he relinquished the charge January 28, 1952, 12 months after.

In 1947, Armour came out of retirement to serve as an Assistant Secretary of State of Political Affairs under George C. Marshall. On July 15, 1948, he retired for a second time. Three years later, in 1950, Armour was asked out of retirement again to serve as Ambassador to Venezuela. In 1954, he came out of retirement for a third time to serve as Ambassador to Guatemala, a post he only served in for seven months.

According to an interview in 1976, Armour indicated that he was proudest of his work in 1954, protesting the attacks of Joseph R. McCarthy, a Republican Senator from Wisconsin, on the members of the Foreign Service, suspected of connivance with communism during the ongoing Cold War, in his February 9, 1950 Wheeling Speech on Lincoln Day to the Republican Women Club of Wheeling, West Virginia.

With a Russian wife, no matter whether she was an exiled Tsarist times aristocrat descending from Tatar Princes settled at the Saint Petersburg corridors of power centuries before, there werre grounds for deep suspicions, and as a Catholic member of the Democratic Party under Democrat Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman. The enemy was within and at thousands of Kilometers as well, something to worry about. indeed, for the next decades.

Armour died in 1982 and was buried in Princeton Cemetery.

References[edit]

  • "Allied Ambassadors Still In Petrograd". The New York Times. 1918-02-26. p. 2. 
  • "Bolsheviki Regime Practically at War With Allied Powers". The Atlanta Constitution. 1918-08-15. p. 1. 
  • "Americans Flee From Bolsheviki". The Atlanta Constitution. 1918-09-08. p. 3. 
  • "Story of Allied Consuls' Withdrawal From Russia Bares Bolshevik Threats". The Washington Post. 1918-09-15. p. 17. 
  • "To Wed Russian Princess". The New York Times. 1918-11-02. p. 15. 
  • "Embassy Secretary Back from Russia". The New York Times. 1918-11-06. p. 24. 
  • "Marriage Announcement". The New York Times. 1919-02-03. p. 15. 
  • "Hoover Appoints Norman Armour Envoy to Haiti". Chicago Daily Tribune. 1932-08-14. p. 3. 
  • "Armour Appointed Minister to Haiti". The New York Times. 1932-08-14. p. 14. 
  • "Treaty Signed with Haiti for Marines' Withdrawal". Los Angeles Times. 1933-08-08. p. 1. 
  • "Our Minister to Canada". The New York Times. 1935-05-22. p. 18. 
  • "Armour Gets Games Post". The New York Times. 1941-09-14. p. S8. 
  • Cortesi, Arnaldo (1941-11-28). "Argentina Sells U.S. All Tungsten". The New York Times. p. 1. 
  • "U.S. to Hold Up Recognition of Argentina Chief". Los Angeles Times. 1944-03-05. p. 1. 
  • "Recall Armour in New Blow at Argentine Rule". Chicago Daily Tribune. 1944-06-28. p. 8. 
  • "Armour New Head of U.S. Latin Bureau". The New York Times. 1944-07-19. p. 10. 
  • "Armour Quits Post Today". The New York Times. 1945-12-01. p. 2. 
  • "Norman Armour Named Assistant Secretary of State". Chicago Daily Tribune. 1947-06-10. p. 33. 
  • "Norman Armour Retires Again". The New York Times. 1948-07-16. p. 8. 
  • Krebs, Alvin (1982-09-29). "Norman Armour, 94, Dies". The New York Times. p. D26. 
  1. ^ Krebs, Albin. "NORMAN ARMOUR, 94, DIES; SERVED AS AN ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE". New York Times. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 

External links[edit]

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Myron T. Herrick
United States Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, France
1929
Succeeded by
Walter E. Edge
Preceded by
Dana G. Munro
United States Minister to Haiti
1932–1935
Succeeded by
George A. Gordon
Preceded by
Warren Delano Robbins
United States Minister to Canada
1935–1938
Succeeded by
Daniel C. Roper
Preceded by
Hoffman Philip
United States Ambassador to Chile
21 April 1938–10 June 1939
Succeeded by
Claude G. Bowers
Preceded by
Alexander W. Weddell
United States Ambassador to Argentina
19 June 1939–29 June 1944
Succeeded by
Spruille Braden
Preceded by
Carlton J. H. Hayes
United States Ambassador to Spain
1945
Succeeded by
Stanton Griffis
Preceded by
Walter J. Donnelly
United States Ambassador to Venezuela
7 December 1950–2 October 1951
Succeeded by
Fletcher Warren
Preceded by
John Peurifoy
United States Ambassador to Guatemala
October 18, 1954–May 9, 1955
Succeeded by
Edward J. Sparks