||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2008)|
|Born||July 21, 1932|
|School||Moderate Calvinism, Christian philosophy|
|Main interests||Philosophy of religion, Christian Apologetics, Moderate Calvinism|
Norman L. Geisler (born 1932) is a Christian apologist and the co-founder of Southern Evangelical Seminary outside Charlotte, North Carolina, where he formerly taught. He holds a Ph.D. in philosophy from Loyola University. Geisler is well known for his scholarly contributions to the subjects of Christian apologetics, philosophy, and moderate Calvinism and is the author, coauthor, or editor of over 60 books and hundreds of articles.
Geisler left the Evangelical Theological Society in 2003, after it did not expel Clark Pinnock, who advocates open theism. In the late 20th century, Geisler entered the Mormon arena: he co-authored When Cultists Ask: A Popular Handbook on Cultic Misinterpretation. 47 of the articles listed in the index regarded Mormonism. He contributed to The Counterfeit Gospel of Mormonism. In 2009, Geisler co-founded Veritas Evangelical Seminary in Murrieta California. The seminary offers masters degrees in Theology, Apologetics & Divinity. Geisler currently serves as Chancellor, distinguished Professor of Apologetics and Theology and occupant of the Norman L. Geisler Chair of Christian Apologetics.
Geisler's education includes a diploma (1955) and Th.B. (1964) from William Tyndale College, B.A. in philosophy (1958) and M.A. in theology (1960) from Wheaton College, and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Loyola University. He had additional graduate work at Wayne State University, the University of Detroit, and Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.
Geisler calls himself a "moderate Calvinist". Geisler rejects the traditional Calvinistic concepts of unconditional election (arguing that there is no condition only on God's part), irresistible grace (arguing instead that God persuades those who are "receptive to God's work") and limited atonement (arguing that the atonement is limited only in result). Yet critics reject the term "moderate Calvinism". James White calls it "merely a modified form of historic Arminianism." Michael Horton notes that historically "moderate Calvinism" referred to Amyraldianism, but "Geisler’s position is much further from Calvinism than Amyraldianism." While Geisler contrasts his position with what he calls "extreme" Calvinism, he does concede that "theologians we classify as extreme Calvinists consider themselves simply ‘Calvinists’ and would probably object to our categorizing them in this manner." Geisler contributed to the book Four Views on Eternal Security under the term "moderate Calvinism" but the general editor did not allow Geisler to use the term "extreme Calvinism", only "strong Calvinism".
|This section relies on references to primary sources. (January 2012)|
Geisler advocates the view called graded absolutism, which is a theory of moral absolutism which resolves the objection to absolutism that in moral conflicts we are obligated to opposites. Moral absolutism is the ethical view that certain actions are absolutely right or wrong regardless of other contexts such as their consequences or the intentions behind them. Graded absolutism is moral absolutism but clarifies that a moral absolute, like "Do not kill," can be greater or lesser than another moral absolute, like "Do not lie". According to graded absolutism, in moral conflicts, the dilemma is not that we are obligated to opposites, because greater absolutes are not opposites of lesser absolutes, and evil is not the opposite of good but is instead the privation of good. Since evil is the privation of good, only the privation of the greater good counts as evil, since whenever there is a moral conflict, we are only obligated to the greater good. The real dilemma is that we cannot perform both conflicting absolutes at the same time. 'Which' absolutes are in conflict depends on the context, but which conflicting absolute is ‘greater’ does not depend on the context. That is why graded absolutism is also called 'contextual absolutism' but is not to be confused with situational ethics. The conflict is resolved in acting according to the greater absolute. That is why graded absolutism is also called the 'greater good view', but is not to be confused with utilitarianism (see also prima facie right.)
Views on ethics
Geisler believes the American Revolution was not justified by the standards of either the Bible or Just war theory. However, he is not completely a pacifist either, believing that defensive wars are justified but revolutions are not.[page needed]
- Geisler, Norman (2003), Why I Resigned from The Evangelical Theological Society.
- Geisler & Rhodes 1997.
- Geisler 1998.
- Veritas Evangelical Seminary.
- Geisler, Norman L. "About". Official Web page.
- Geisler 1999b, p. 129.
- White, James, The Potter's Freedom, p. 29.
- Horton, Michael, Pinson, J Matthew, ed., Four Views on Eternal Security, p. 113.
- Geisler 1999b, p. 20.
- Pinson, J Matthew (ed.), Four Views on Eternal Security, p. 63, ISBN 0‐31023439‐5.
- Geisler 2009.
- Geisler 1989.
- Geisler, Norman L (1971), Ethics: Alternatives and Issues, Zondervan.
- ——— (1973), The Christian Ethic of Love, Zondervan.
- ——— (1974), From God to Us, Moody.
- ——— (1975), To Understand the Bible—Look for Jesus, Moody.
- ——— (1976), Christian Apologetics, Baker.
- ——— (1977), A Popular Survey of the Old Testament, Baker.
- ——— (1978), The Roots of Evil, Zondervan.
- ——— (1979), Inerrancy, Zondervan.
- ——— (1980), Introduction to Philosophy: A Christian Perspective, Baker.
- ——— (1981), Options in Contemporary Christian Ethics, Baker.
- ——— (1981), Biblical Errancy: Its Philosophical Roots, Zondervan.
- ——— (1982), Decide for Yourself: How History Views the Bible, Zondervan.
- ——— (1982), The Creator in the Courtroom—Scopes II, et al, Baker.
- ——— (1981), What Augustine Says, Baker.
- ——— (1983), Is Man the Measure?, Baker.
- ——— (1983), Cosmos: Carl Sagan's Religion for the Scientific Mind, Quest.
- ——— (1983), Religion of the Force, Quest.
- ——— (1984), To Drink or Not to Drink: A Sober Look at the Problem, Quest.
- ——— (1984), Perspectives: Understanding and Evaluating Today's World Views, Here's Life.
- ——— (1985), Christianity Under Attack (book, video series), Quest.
- ——— (1985), False Gods of Our Time, Harvest.
- ——— (1986) , General Introduction to the Bible (revised & expanded ed.), Moody.
- ——— (1986), Reincarnation Sensation, Tyndale.
- ——— (1987), Origin Science, Baker.
- ——— (1988) , Philosophy of Religion, Zondervan.
- ——— (1988), Signs and Wonders, Tyndale.
- ——— (September 1, 1989), Christian Ethics: Options and Issues (8 impr ed.), Baker, ISBN 978-0‐80103832‐7.
- ——— (1989), World's Apart, Baker.
- ——— (1989), Knowing The Truth About Creation, Servant.
- ——— (1989), The Infiltration of the New Age, Tyndale.
- ——— (1989), The Battle for the Resurrection, Thomas Nelson.
- ——— (1990), Apologetics in the New Age, Baker.
- ——— (1990), Come Let Us Reason: An Introduction to Logical Thinking, Baker.
- ——— (1990), Gambling: A Bad Bet, Fleming H Revell.
- ——— (1990), The Life and Death Debate, Greenwood.
- ——— (1991), In Defense of the Resurrection, Quest.
- ——— (1991), Thomas Aquinas: An Evangelical Appraisal.
- ——— (1991), Matters of Life and Death: Calm Answers to Tough Questions about Abortion and Euthanasia, Baker.
- ——— (1991), Miracles and the Modern Mind: A Defense of Biblical Miracles, Baker.
- ——— (1992), When Critics Ask: A Handbook on Bible Difficulties, Victor.
- ——— (1992), Miracles and the Modern Mind: A Defense of Biblical Miracles, Baker.
- ——— (1993), Answering Islam, Baker.
- ——— (1995), Roman Catholics and Evangelicals.
- ——— (1996), Love Is Always Right, Word.
- ——— (1997), Creating God in the Image of Man?, Bethany.
- ———; Rhodes, Ron (1997), When Cultists Ask: A Popular Handbook on Cultic Misinterpretation, Baker.
- ——— (1998), The Counterfeit Gospel of Mormonism, Eugene, OR: Harvest House.
- ——— (1998), Legislating Morality, Bethany House.
- ——— (1999), Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics, Baker.
- ——— (1999b), Chosen But Free, Bethany.
- ——— (2001), Unshakable Foundations, Bethany.
- ——— (2001), Why I Am a Christian, Baker.
- ——— (2001), Battle for God, Kregel.
- ——— (2002), Living Loud: Defending Your Faith, Broadman & Holman.
- ——— (2002), Systematic Theology, 1. Introduction – Bible, Bethany.
- ——— (2003), Systematic Theology, 2. God – Creation, Bethany.
- ——— (2003), Is Your Church Ready?, Zondervan.
- ——— (2003), Who Made God?, Zondervan.
- ——— (2004), Systematic Theology, 3. Sin – Salvation, Bethany.
- ——— (2004), I Don't Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist, Crossway.
- ——— (2005), Systematic Theology, 4. Church – Last Things, Bethany.
- ——— (2005), Bringing Your Faith To Work, Baker.
- ——— (2005), Correcting The Cults, Baker.
- ——— (2007), Love Your Neighbor, Crossway.
- ——— (2007), Essential Doctrine Made Easy, Rose.
- ——— (2008), A Popular Survey of the Old Testament, Baker.
- ——— (2008), A Popular Survey of the New Testament, Baker.
- ——— (2008), Conviction Without Compromise (Harvest House.
- ——— (2008), Is Rome the True Church?: A Consideration of the Roman Catholic Claim, Crossway.
- ——— (2008), When Skeptics Ask, Baker.
- ——— (2008), The Big Book of Bible Difficulties, Baker.
- ——— (April 17th, 2009), "Any Absolutes? Absolutely!", Equip (Christian Research Institute), DE198, retrieved 18 Oct 2013 .
- ——— (2009), The Apologetics of Jesus, Baker.
- ——— (2009), Making Sense of Bible Difficulties, Baker.
- ——— (January 1, 2010) , Christian Ethics: Contemporary Issues and Options [Christian Ethics: Options and Issues] (2 ed.), Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, ISBN 978-0‐80103879‐2.
- ——— (2011), If God, Why Evil?, Bethany.
- ——— (2011), Systematic Theology: In One Volume, Bethany, ISBN 978-0‐76420603‐0.
- ———; Roach, William C (2012), Defending Inerrancy: Affirming the Accuracy of Scripture for a New Generation, Packer, JI foreword, Baker, ISBN 978-0‐80101434‐5.
- ———; Nix, William E (2012), From God To Us Revised and Expanded: How We Got Our Bible, Moody, ISBN 978-0‐80242882‐0.
- ——— (2012), Big Book of Christian Apologetics, The: An A to Z Guide, A to Z Guides, Baker, ISBN 978-0‐80101417‐8.
- ———; Tunnicliffe, Patty (2013), Reasons for Belief: Easy-to-Understand Answers to 10 Essential Questions, Bethany, ISBN 978-0‐76421057‐0.
- ———; Brooks, Norman L (2013), When Skeptics Ask: A Handbook on Christian Evidences, Baker, ISBN 978-0‐80101498‐7.
- ——— (2013) , Christian Apologetics (revised & expanded ed.), Baker, ISBN 978-0‐80104854‐8.
- Geisler, Norman L, Official Webpage.
- ———, The Dating of the New Testament, Be thinking.
- ———, "I Believe… in the Resurrection of the Flesh", CRI (ICL net) (56).
- ———, "Answering Islam", CRI (interview) (ICL net) (72).
- Rhodes, Ron, "The Battle for the Resurrection", CRI (interview with Geisler) (ICL net) (41).