Norman Golb (born in Chicago, Illinois in 1928) is the Ludwig Rosenberger Professor in Jewish History and Civilization at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. He earned his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1954. He joined the faculty of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati in 1958 before settling at the University of Chicago, where he has worked since 1963. Golb has also been a visiting scholar at the University of Wisconsin (1957–58), Harvard University (1966), and Tel Aviv University (1969–70).
Golb has been a key proponent of the viewpoint that the Dead Sea Scrolls found in Qumran were not the product of the Essenes, but rather of many different Jewish sects and communities of ancient Israel, which he presents in his book Who Wrote The Dead Sea Scrolls?: The Search For The Secret Of Qumran. In the 1990s, Golb was an advocate for the freeing of the Scrolls for academic pursuit. (The Dead Sea Scrolls were controlled by John Strugnell at the time, and other scholars had no access to them).
Golb was also the discoverer, in 1962, of the Kievan Letter, the earliest document attesting to Jewish habitation of Kiev. He also identified Obadiah the Proselyte as the author of the oldest known manuscript of Hebrew music (12th century), the earliest extant legal record of the Jews of Sicily, a new document dealing with the First Crusade and new manuscript materials relating to the Jews of Rouen. Finally, he recovered a genizah document describing a European convert to Judaism (11th century) and an original manuscript of the Khazars.
In 2010, his adult son Raphael Golb was convicted on 30 of 31 counts, including identity theft, criminal impersonation, and aggravated harassment, for using multiple sockpuppet accounts to attack and impersonate historians he perceived as rivals of his father, Norman Golb. Golb defended his actions as "satirical hoaxes" protected by free-speech rights. He was disbarred and sentenced to six months in prison but remained free on appeal on $25,000 bail.
- (1998) The Jews in medieval Normandy: A social and intellectual history New York: Cambridge University Press.
- (1997) Judaeo-Arabic studies: proceedings of the Founding Conference of the Society for Judaeo-Arabic Studies Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers. (Conference Proceedings from the Founding Conference of the Society for Judaeo-Arabic Studies)
- (1995) Who wrote the Dead Sea scrolls?: The search for the secret of Qumran New York: Scribner.
- (1994) "The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Ethics of Museology" (Journal Article in The Aspen Institute quarterly: AQ : issues and arguments for leaders )
- (1992) "The Freeing of the Scrolls and Its Aftermath" (Journal Article in The Qumran chronicle)
- (1992) "The Qumran-Essene Hypothesis: A Fiction of Scholarship" (Journal Article in The Christian century)
- (1990) "Khirbet Qumran and the Manuscripts of the Judaean Wilderness: Observations on the Logic of their Investigation" (Journal Article in Journal of Near Eastern studies)
- (1989) "The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Perspective" (Journal Article in The American scholar)
- (1985) Les Juifs de Rouen au Moyen Age: Portrait d'une culture oubliée Rouen: Université de Rouen. (Book in the series Publications de l’Université de Rouen )
- (1984) "A Marriage Document from Wardunia de-Baghdad" (Journal Article in Journal of Near Eastern studies)
- (with Omeljan Pritsak. (1982) Khazarian Hebrew documents of the tenth century Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
- (1980) "The Problem of Origin and Identification of the Dead Sea Scrolls" (Journal Article in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society held at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge)
- (1976) Toledot hayehudim be'ir rouen bimé habenayim Tel Aviv, Israel: Dvir Publishing House.
- (1973) A Judaeo-Arabic Court Document of Syracuse, A.D. 1020 (Journal Article in Journal of Near Eastern studies )
- (1972) Spertus College of Judaica Yemenite manuscripts Chicago: Spertus College of Judaica Press.
- (1967) The Music of Obadiah the Proselyte and his Conversion (Journal Article in The Journal of Jewish studies)
- (1965) Notes on the Conversion of Prominent European Christians to Judaism During the Eleventh Century (Journal Article in The Journal of Jewish studies)
- (1957) "Literary and Doctrinal Aspects of the Damascus Covenant in the Light of Karaite Literature" (Journal Article in The Jewish Quarterly Review: New Series)
- (1957) "Sixty Years of Genizah Research" (Journal Article in Judaism)
- "Dispute Over Dead Sea Scrolls Leads to a Jail Sentence" (November 18, 2010) New York Times
- "NY lawyer gets jail in Dead Sea Scrolls case" (November 18, 2010) AP.