|Born||Norman Frederick Hetherington
29 May 1921
Lilyfield, New South Wales, Australia
|Died||6 December 2010
Greenwich, New South Wales, Australia
|Notable works||Mr. Squiggle|
Jim Russell Award
Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM)
He is best remembered today as the creator of the long-running Australian children's television show Mr. Squiggle, and as the sole operator and voice of its star performer, the Mr. Squiggle marionette.
- 1 Family
- 2 War service
- 3 Cartoonist
- 4 Puppetry
- 5 Television
- 6 Mr. Squiggle
- 7 Smiley's Good Teeth Puppet Theatre
- 8 Javanese Shadow Puppet Theatre
- 9 Awards
- 10 Death
- 11 Tributes
- 12 Hetherington's Works
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
He was the son of Frederick Hetherington (1883–1951), who was born in Hexham, Northumberland, England — one of the seven children of Thomas Hetherington and Margaret Diana Hetherington (née Ritson) — and Ellen Mary Hetherington (1888–1976) (née Markwell). They were married at Balmain in 1918, and Norman Frederick Hetherington was born on 29 May 1921 in Lilyfield.
He grew up at 35 Meryla Street, Burwood. He attended primary school at Burwood Public School from 1927 to 1933, and secondary school at Sydney's Fort Street Boys' High School from 1934 to 1937. He studied art, full-time, at East Sydney Technical College (now known as the National Art School), from 1937–1938; and, because he had taken a position with one if Sydney's largest advertising agencies, Lintas (Lever International Advertising), he transferred to part-time studies, studying at night from 1939 to 1941 (when he enlisted in the army).
In 1958, he married Margaret (née Purnell); she would later write all of the scripts for Mr. Squiggle. They moved to the Sydney suburb of Mosman in 1960, and Hetherington remained there until his death.
He served with the First Australian Army Entertainment Unit during World War II.
BRENDAN TREMBATH: Let me take you a little further back, during the war you were attached to an entertainment unit. What sort of entertainment did you provide the troops?
NORMAN HETHERINGTON: I was invited by the producer of the particular entertainment group, Des Turner, who pre-war had been with the ABC in sound effects, and he was the producer, and he talked me into joining and being on stage every night and caricaturing people in the audience, caricaturing them on large sheets of paper on a board; colonels, cooks, captains, sergeant-majors… must've done hundreds and hundreds of them, but it was fun.
BRENDAN TREMBATH: Where did you perform during the war?
NORMAN HETHERINGTON: Oh, Dutch New Guinea, which is now Irian Jaya, New Guinea, New Britain and all the Torres Strait Islands, Thursday Island, Horn Island, Good Island, Entrance Island, Hayman Island, Jacky Jacky which was on the tip of Cape York, and WA over there where they thought they were going to have problems. It kept one busy.
"Heth" [Norm Hetherington], our cartoonist, apart from doing lots of little bits and pieces in the show, has his own specialty: lightning caricatures of the most prominent personalities in every unit we play to.
It is marvellous how he goes about getting his subjects.
He usually goes to the unit early on in the day to chat people up, finding ones he wants to "do" in the show, making little sketches of their salient features on a pad.
Then, back at the unit, he prepares his easel for the show.
During the act he goes into his spiel, introducing each of his subjects with some very funny ad libs, then with a flourish of his brushes he magically sketches each personality.
It’s a great act and very popular.
In his spare time he designs costumes for various new spots in the show, draws up posters we can put up on a unit’s noticeboard, and usually finds time to think up and sketch some cartoons he sends down to the papers on the mainland.
You can see his stuff in many of the magazines.
Corporal Michael Pate NX120651 (extract from a letter sent home by Pate in 1945).
He had attended classes at the National Art School before the war; and once the war was over, he continued his studies, and attended classes there four nights a week.
When he was only 15, and still a student at Fort Street Boys’ High School, Hetherington sold his first cartoon to The Bulletin magazine. He contributed to The Bulletin from time to time over the next few years; and he even continued to do so whilst he was in the army.
As a freelance cartoonist he sold work to magazines that included Man, Man Junior, Army, Humour and Quiz: "His modus operandi was to approach the best paying magazine first and continue on until he got down to the worst paying with whatever was left of his work".
He was discharged from the army in May 1946, and was immediately asked to join the full-time Bulletin staff; he continued to work for The Bulletin until 1961 (when all of the staff were sacked by Frank Packer, its new owner). He had worked alongside such luminaries as Norman Lindsay, Ted Scorfield and Percy Lindsay.
Early in his career, he signed his cartoons and caricatures with "Heth" and the last two digits of the year. For example, a signature of "Heth 42" would identify Hetherington as the artist of the work, and 1942 as the year in which it had been drawn.
In the late 1940s, he changed his manner of signing his cartoons; it was no longer written horizontally, and it no longer displayed the year's last two digits. Whilst the signature "Heth" was still exclusively written in capital letters; it now took the form of "HETH", rather than "HETH". The letters were now rotated sideways, and the signature was written vertically running down the page from the top-left to the bottom-right (see left); and was read with one's head tilted to the right.
Many of those who were not aware of this imagined he was signing his work with (non-rotated) imitations of a number of Chinese characters, traditionally written vertically, that needed to be read with one's head tilted to the left.
Popular Science Monthly
His interest in marionettes began in 1935 when his father, who was the head carpenter for a major shipping line, gave him a copy of an American magazine called Popular Science Monthly, which contained instructions for making a puppet out of used bicycle inner tubes.
In a 1971 interview, he told Marie Toshack that he made his first "professional puppet" in 1952. It was a clown, made specifically for a puppet show called "The Reluctant Dragon", at the old Mercury Theatre.
Even in these first shows, critics were remarking on the "wit, whimsy, and lively inventiveness" of his performance with his marionettes, and were very impressed with the skill and craftsmanship with which his puppets had been created.
In a 1977 interview, Hetherington explained to Sue Molloy that his interest in marionettes "was the outcome of a professional interest in cartoons, and amateur interest in theatre and a hobby of puppets", remarking that, in his view, "puppets are only three-dimensional cartoons".
The Clovelly Puppet Theatre
In the interview he also revealed that his burgeoning puppet hobby had been further developed, after the war, under the guidance of the psychologist, Doris Mary Matheson (1896–1969), who, along with her sister Elsie Grace Rivett (1887–1964), had founded the Children's Library and Crafts Movement in 1934 (which became the Creative Leisure Movement in 1969).
Driven by the support, encouragement and guidance of Mrs. Matheson, Hetherington became involved, along with Richard Bradshaw, and Edith Constance Murray (née Blackwell) (1897–1988), with regular performances at the sisters' Clovelly Puppet Theatre (which they had established in 1949), which staged puppet shows every Saturday, in an old army hut in Burnie Park, Clovelly.
Describing it as "a nurturing ground", Hetherington said that this was where and when his puppetry changed from being just a hobby into a lifelong interest.
The Meryla Marionettes
During the 1950s, whilst pursuing his own rapidly developing personal interest in puppetry, he created a number of shows with the group he led, the Meryla Puppet Group. He was soon working on his own, as The Meryla Marionettes, with a series of shows that were very popular with children.
In November 1957, he was performing on stage for children during Saturday matinees at Sydney cinemas; and performing at three different locations on the one afternoon . Along with Igor’s Puppets, the Merlya Marionettes performed on stage at the children’s matinees at The Coronet Cinema, Bondi Junction, The Sixways Cinema, at Bondi, and the Randwick Cinema, at Randwick, on Saturday 23 November 1957; and at The Bondi Road Cinema, at Bondi, The Sixways Cinema, at Bondi, and The Woollahra Cinema, at Woollahra on Saturday 30 November 1957. Hetherington (assisted by Annette MacArthur-Onslow) and his puppets also performed live, on television, on Christmas Day 1957.
In the beginning, the shows were often performed at children's libraries. Hetherington was always keen to demonstrate to his young audiences just how easily puppets could be made.
From time to time, his own children participated in his performances for the Australian Theatre for Young People during the school holidays, and also in the shows that he presented at various Department Stores (Anthony Horden's, Farmer's, Grace Bros., and David Jones, etc.), such as "Enchanted Scarecrow", "The Magic Tinderbox", "The Moon for Supper", "Nicky's Christmas Snowman".
His innovative and creative design and construction skills were such that, from time to time, he was also asked to design puppets for others to operate in their own shows.
The photograph of "Smiley" on the front page of The Sydney Morning Herald of Tuesday 2 June 1970, provides a beautiful sense of just how wonderfully skilled Hetherington was in designing and constructing puppets, and the detailed, intricate nature of the mechanical devices and the special sets that he designed for his shows, and just how much children loved them.
Having attended the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's television training school some time prior to the introduction of television to Australia, Hetherington began his television career in 1956, creating Nicky and Noodle for the Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC); and another series, Jolly Gene and His Fun Machine for Channel Seven in 1957.
In 1958, Hetherington created Mr. Squiggle, a moon-dwelling marionette with a pencil for a nose; and, and the character first appeared on the Children's TV Club on ABC TV, as MISTER JOLLY SQUIGGLE by "Heth". Hetherington was granted the copyright (no.8027) for Mr. Squiggle in 1962; and his application stated that he had first created "Mr. Squiggle" on 1 August 1958).
…Mr. Squiggle… looked much like Noddy but with a long pencil for a nose. Mr. Squiggle was a visitor from outer space, and would arrive to the show in his spaceship. Mr. Squiggle would interact with a female host, and make drawings from [the squiggles] sent in by children. As the [children's] sketches included nothing more than a few random lines, the alien would often turn them into drawings of people, animals and so forth — using his pencil nose. The images would rest on Blackboard, a grumpy character who shouted "Hurry up". "Upside down" was often heard from Mr. Squiggle, and to the audience’s delight, the drawing would be incomprehensible until the host turned it upside-down. Hetherington was operating the puppet from above, so saw the drawing upside-down himself.
The Mr. Squiggle puppet is a Sicilian style of marionette, with a rod running through its head. This [allowed] him to provide enough force to be able to draw with its nose — and presumably why the character [had] such a tall hat.
The marionette had a very heavy head, and it was always manipulated by and voiced by Hetherington himself as the sole operator. The gentle politeness of Mr. Squiggle, and the gentle strength of Hetherington's well-modulated voice was immediately attractive to children, at a time when most of the other Australian TV channels had violent, raucous, and brash ventriloquist acts associated with their children's shows.
Exploiting the "fusion" of his skills as both puppeteer and cartoonist, he used the tip of the pencil that formed the puppet's nose to convert "squiggles" that had been sent in to the television station by young viewers into full-realised drawings and cartoons. Most significantly, given all of the mechanics of his marionette's performance, all of these "squiggle" conversions by Mr. Squiggle were always performed with the original children's drawing up-side down.
When asked, in 2009, in one of the "Moment in Time" segments of the ABC TV programme Can We Help?, on behalf of a viewer, Miriam Webster, whether Mr. Squiggle had lead in his pencil or whether it was "something more extraterrestrial", Norman Hetherington replied: "It started off with a very large felt pen, a very thick felt pen; but, in Studio 23, we were very close to the lights, and the heat would dry up the felt, and it wasn’t very good, so we graduated to crayon, and then to oil chalk, and then [to] chalk."
Initially intended as a temporary fill-in, the show ran on ABC for 40 years, Mr. Squiggle's first appearance on ABC TV was on 1 July 1959, and he drew his last picture on ABC TV on 9 July 1999.
When interviewed by Sarah Collerton in 2009, Hetherington told her that "I taught Mr Squiggle to draw and now he draws better than I do".
Smiley's Good Teeth Puppet Theatre
In March 1962, the Dental Health Education and Research Foundation was established at the University of Sydney to promote the philosophy and practice of preventive dentistry and, in particular, communicate positive dental health messages to the general population. Preliminary studies had convinced the Foundation that "dental health literature of a hand-out nature was virtually useless unless it was used to supplement information or knowledge already passed on to the recipient by a dentist or some other authoritative person". Moreover, it was soon found that the presence of Dental Health Educators in primary schools, instructing children up to 12 years in such things as diet, oral hygiene and plaque control, was not as effective as anticipated.
In 1967, Hetherington was consulted by the Foundation; and, with the initial notion of strongly augmenting the work of the Dental Health Educators, he was responsible for establishing the "Smiley's Good Teeth Puppet Theatre", starring a new puppet, Smiley ("a little boy who gets toothache because he has not looked after his teeth properly"), that delivered performances based on a script that had been produced in collaboration with the Foundation, that featured all of its desired preventive dentistry messages. The first performance — which, it had been decided by that time, would run "in parallel with" (rather than "as part of") the dental health educator programme — was in February 1968, with the specific target of the younger, primary school children.
The shows were performed with two puppeteers, with the assistant operating Smiley, and Hetherington everything else. The show, and its associated Good Teeth Club — to which Hetherington, having emerged from behind the puppet stage, would invite the delighted children to join at the end of each of his performances (Anon, 1970) — was immensely popular with the school children immediately it began its operation.
The principal character of the Theatre is a boy called 'Smiley' who is the hero of the plot. He is shown visiting his dentist and receiving a teeth-care talk. The audience participates with Smiley in defeating 'Danny Decay', the villain of the story, by all repeating the four 'Good Teeth Rules'. After visiting his dentist, the scene changes to the Good Teeth Circus. Smiley is entertained by various circus performers, depicting fruit and vegetable jugglers and other good food characters, including the Master of Ceremonies 'Bristles Toothbrush' who helps Smiley to maintain decay-free teeth.
Children who attend performances of the Good Teeth Puppet Theatre are invited to write letters about what they have seen and to send drawings of the characters represented. Each child is given a leaflet summarizing the dental health message. It includes a colour-in chart illustrating some of the characters in the show and a certificate entitling the child to a membership of Smiley's Good Teeth Club. There are many hundreds of thousands of members of Smiley's Good Teeth Club throughout Australia.
The Foundation was overjoyed to discover that evaluations showed that, even after six months, the children could remember 70% of the dental health messages associated with the show (Woolley, 1980).
In 1970, as part of a weekend workshop conducted by the Australian Dental Association and the Dental Health Education and Research Foundation at Sydney University, Hetherington demonstrated his work to the assembled dentists, by allowing them to observe him deliver an entire performance to a group of children from Newtown North Primary School. They were all greatly impressed with his work.
As time passed, Hetherington became less involved in the actual delivery of the performances and often hired other puppeteers to perform the shows. For the four years his son Stephen studied at Sydney University (i.e., from 1977 to 1980), Stephen worked part-time on the show as a puppeteer, and the person who spoke to the children before and after each show. The other puppeteer who teamed with Stephen was Pam Sahm; she operated Smiley.
Javanese Shadow Puppet Theatre
Given his wide range of appropriate skills and experience, Hetherington was invited to work with a group of undergraduate students (ranging from second to fourth year) from the (then) Department of Indonesian and Malayan Studies at the University of Sydney, over the entire three-term year of 1980, in the task of preparing them for a performance of "Irawan Rabi", or "Irwan’s Wedding", as it had been adapted for a western audience by James R. Brandon, in the manner of the traditional Javanese shadow puppet theatre (or wayang kulit) (Day, 1981).
He was asked to assist them to acquire an understanding of shadow puppet design, train them in the appropriate techniques of puppet manipulation, guide them into a smooth performance, as well as transferring an understanding of puppetry stagecraft (Day, 1981).
Apart from the extensive training he delivered to the students, and the advice that he gave to the entire company on puppetry stagecraft, he was also a very important participant in the joint construction of the final script, the musical improvisations used during the performance, and the comic routines that were woven throughout the entire performance. (Day, 1981).
The eventual performance, the culmination of the entire year’s project/course, was performed by six of the students, along with “eight metre-high puppets made from plywood”, a “life-size monster with expendable heads” and a “foam-rubber monkey”. It was a great success (Day, 1981).
The details of the performance, as well as a full record of the entire workshop process, have been recorded in a case book, and slides and a tape of the production were made. A thirty-page document on the project, intended for publication, is now being prepared, and the possibility of using the production as the basis for a wayang performance "kit" for schools has also been discussed.
Hetherington and his wife received several honours and awards, including the Penguin Award in 1984, and again in 1989, from the Television Society of Australia "for their outstanding contribution to children's television in Australia".
…in 1989 the Australian Cartoonists' Association presented Hetherington with a signed artist's smock; it awarded him a life membership in 2008; and [on 14 November 2009] the association presented him with the coveted Stanley Award for his outstanding contribution to Australian cartooning at the Stanley Awards ceremony in Sydney.
He received a standing ovation at the presentation where many fellow cartoonists acknowledged that they were encouraged to pick up a pencil by virtue of being able to watch Mr. Squiggle's antics on television each week.
Many artists, cartoonists, and puppeteers have acknowledged their debt to Norman Hetherington and his work, including:
- Christine Assange, Australian puppeteer and mother of Julian Assange.
- Peter Broelman, Australian editorial cartoonist, caricaturist and illustrator.
- Chris "Roy" Taylor, Herald-Sun cartoonist.
- Annette MacArthur-Onslow, author, illustrator of children's books, and one-time assistant to Hetherington (e.g., on Christmas Day 1957).
- Ross McCaughey, Australian cartoonist and book illustrator.
- Spare Parts Puppet Theatre.
- Hilary Talbot, Australian puppeteer and puppet designer.
- Chris "Roy" Taylor, Herald-Sun cartoonist.
- Ben Wood, Australian book and magazine illustrator.
- "Heth", Army Daze by Heth: From Civvy to Commando in 40 Easy Laughs, Pinnacle Press (Magpie Series), (Sydney), 1945.
- Hetherington, N., Puppets of Australia, Australian Council for the Arts, (Sydney), 1974.
- Hetherington, N. & Hetherington, M., Mr. Squiggle and the Great Moon Robbery, Australian Broadcasting Commission, (Sydney), 1980.
- Hetherington, N. & Hetherington, M., Hand Shadows, Angus & Robertson, (North Ryde), 1988.
- Hetherington, N. & Hetherington, M., Mr. Squiggle and the Preposterous Purple Crocodile, ABC Enterprises, (Sydney), 1992.
- Blair, D. (ed.), Blown to Blazes and Other Works of J. B. Blair, David Blair, (Sydney), 2007.
- Gardiner, S., Reflections, Wentworth Books, (Surry Hills), 1979.
- Hetherington, M., Mr. Squiggle and the Preposterous Purple Crocodile, ABC Enterprises, (Sydney), 1992.
- Hosking, C., Old Tales in a New Land: Some European Customs and Legends, Angus and Robertson, (Sydney), 1957.
- Pate, M., An Entertaining War, Dreamweaver Books, (Sydney), 1986.
Norman Hetherington was an avid supporter of the Book Collectors Society of Australia. In his memory, one of his cartoons appears on the back cover of the society journal Biblionews.
- Mr Squiggle: Who's Pulling the Strings?, Mosman Festival, 3 September 2005.
- Professor Stephen Hetherington, School of History and Philosophy, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales.;
Stephen, at the age of 10, assisting his father.
- MacPherson, D., "Antenna to rival Simon Townsend", The Guide, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Monday, 12 March 1984), p.6.;
Bone, P., "Something New for the Young", The Green Guide, The Age, (Thursday, 3 September 1987), p.7.
- World War II Nominal Roll: Norman Frederick Hetherington (NX131018).
- Transcript of interview with Brendan Trembath, The World Today: ABC Local Radio", Thursday, 1 September , 2005.
- Pate, (1986), p.150.
- McDonald, J., "Drawn from the ranks", The Sydney Morning Herald, (Saturday, 2 August 2008).
- Hetherington, N., "My Bulletin Days", 1946-1961, Biblionews and Australian Notes & Queries, No.360, (December 2008), pp.143-147.
- Foyle (2010).
- Foyle and Carman (2010) speak of it appearing to have been "written in a Chinese-like jumble".
- This was an article by Florence Fetherston Drake, on how to make marionettes from old inner tubes, that commenced on page 58 of Popular Science Monthly, Vol.127, No.3, (September 1935) THE BALLARD INSTITUTE AND MUSEUM OF PUPPETRY: Practical Marionettes Made From Old Inner Tubes.
Later articles (which, along with that first article, were eventually accumulated into a book () were:
Drake, F.F., "Its Great Fun to Give a Circus at Home With These Comical Animal Puppets", Popular Science Monthly, Vol.127, No.6, (December 1935), pp.67, 92-93;
Drake, F.F., "Puppet Heads Modeled from Newspaper Pulp", Popular Science Monthly, Vol.128, No.1, (January 1936), pp.57, 90-91;
Drake, F.F., "Marionette Bodies", Popular Science Monthly, Vol.128, No.2, (February 1936), pp.65, 109-111;
Drake, F.F., "Constructing Simple Marionette Stages", Popular Science Monthly, Vol.128, No.3, (March 1936), pp.64-65, 105;
Drake, F.F., "Stage Sets and Scenery for Marionette Shows", Popular Science Monthly, Vol.128, No.4, (April 1936), pp.71, 106-108;
Drake, F.F., "Properties for Marionette Shows", Popular Science Monthly, Vol.128, No.5, (May 1936), pp.70-71, 103-105;
Drake, F.F., "Lighting the Miniature Stage", Popular Science Monthly, Vol.129, No.1, (July 1936), pp.67, 91-92; and
Drake, F.F., "Trick Marionettes Will Enliven Your Puppet Shows", Popular Science Monthly, Vol.129, No.5, (November 1936), pp.72-73, 83-105.
- Toshack, (1971).
- L.B., "Puppets at the Mercury", The Sydney Morning Herald, (Monday, 22 June 1953), p.4.
- Molloy, (1977).
- For more on Doris Mary Matheson, née Rivett (1896-1969) and Elsie Grace Rivett (1887-1964), see Godden, G., "Rivett, Doris Mary (1896–1969)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, 1988.
- Carr, V., "The Actor in the Wings", The Australian Women's Weekly, (Wednesday, 26 February 1969), p.7.;
Benson, P.D., "Good Show, Super 'Roo", The Australian Women's Weekly, (Wednesday, 25 September 1974), p.113.
- Design and Art Australia Online Biography: Edith Constance Murray; for many years Edith, who was a foundation member of the Puppetry Guild of NSW, and served as its Secretary for many years is generally regarded today as the founder of as the founder of UNIMA Australia (Union Internationale de la Marionnette, ot the International Puppetry Association).
- Richard Bradshaw and Katharine Brisbane, "Puppet Theatre", pp.82-85 in Rubin, D. (ed), World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre, Volume 5: Asia/Pacific, Routledge, (London), 1998.
- Children Cheer Puppet Heroes, The (Sydney) Sunday Herald, (Sunday, 29 May 1949), p.5.;
Young People's Theatre Opens, The (Sydney) Sunday Herald Playtime, (Sunday, 19 June 1949), p.1.;
Square Dancing, The (Sydney) Sunday Herald Playtime, (Sunday, 22 October 1950), p.1.;
Henderson, B., "A Theatre That Pays For Itself", The Sydney Morning Herald, (Saturday, 14 August 1954), p.13.;
Film-maker in puppet show, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Friday, 2 May 1969), p.12.
- Molloy, (1977); Bradshaw, (December 2010).
Milne, G., Theatre Australia (Un)Limited: Australian Theatre Since the 1950s, Rodopi, (Amsterdam), 2004.
- Mercury Theatre, The (Sydney) Sunday Herald, (Sunday, 14 June 1953), p.16.
- Hetherington chose to use the name "Meryla" because that was (a) the name of the street in which he grew up, (b) had learned how to manipulate a marionette, and (c) had constructed his first puppets. It is also significant that, in the first few decades, his single operator puppet shows were always introduced as "The Meryla Marionettes present…", rather than as "Norman Hetherington presents…". Eventually, however, they became known as The Norman Hetherington Puppets (e.g., ; ).
- Hoyts Suburban Theatres: Special Children’s Matinee, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Saturday 23 November 1957), p.22.
- Hoyts Suburban Theatres: Special Children’s Matinee, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Saturday, 30 November 1957), p.22.
- ABN Channel 2: Wednesday 25 December 1957: 4:00PM: "KINDERGARTEN PLAYTIME — Jan McKay introduces the Meryla Puppets with Norm. Hetherington and Annette MacArthur-Onslow", Sydney Morning Herald TV Guide, (Monday, 23 December 1957), p.4.
- For example, in the school holidays of May 1969, his son Stephen assisted his father in presenting a series of shows: Some Holiday Treats for the Children, The (Sydney) Sun-Herald, (Sunday, 11 May, 1969), p.128.
- For example, See These Today: Free Puppet Show!, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Wednesday 8 September 1954), p.11;
Youngsters Meet the Stars, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Thursday, 2 September 1954), p.3;
Puppet Show, The Sydney Morning Herald's Women's Section, (Thursday, 15 December 1955), p.5.
- Richards, (1977).
- In 1990, for example, he designed and constructed a set of puppets for Maddy Slabacu's performance of Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Books (Cochrane, 1990); and he designed and constructed all the puppets for Richard Bradshaw's performance of The Mysterious Potamus in 1979 (Camens, (1979).
- History of the ABC: The 50s - The Postwar Years,
- Australia's National TV: ABN Channel 2 Commences: Fascinating Puppet Shows, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Monday, 5 November 1956), p.7.
- ABV 2 (26 March 1959) 5PM.
- ATN 7 (7 October 1957), 5PM.
- ABC TV programme: The Way We Were: Kids TV: Mr. Squiggle and Miss Pat (with Mark Trevorrow), 10 July 2004. programme summary. ABV— Channel 2: Wednesday, 9 March 1960: 5.0: Children's TV Club: including Mr. Jolly Squiggle.
- Find of the Month: A star is born!, National Archives of Australia, February 2005.
- Guss, (2010).]
- Shelley, G., "20 Years of Mr. Squiggle", The Herald TV Guide, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Monday, 2 July 1979), p.8.
- "Miriam Webster from Willoughby has sent us in search of the secret behind Mr. Squiggle's famous nose. Who better to ask than his creator, Norman Hetherington?": Moment in Time, Can We Help?, Episode 36, Friday 16 October 2009.
- ABC TV: Transcript: "What was Mr. Squiggle's nose made from?", Moment in Time, Can We Help?, Episode 36, Friday 16 October 2009.
- In a 2008 interview with Matthew Perkins, Hetherington said that he had been give a week's notice that the ABC TV wanted him to perform; and that, quite unusually, he was not required to audition (Perkins, 2008).
- Spacewalk time, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1 September 2005.
- Australian film and television chronology: The 1950s: National Film and Sound Archive.
- Collerton, (2009).
- In May 1999, Australia Post issued a set of five different stamps, featuring four of the best-loved children's television programmes. Along with the stamp featuring Mr. Squiggle (who "starred" as the centre of the group), there was one stamp for Here's Humphrey, one stamp for Bananas in Pyjamas, and on the other side of Mr. Squiggle, two stamps for Play School. There was also a special first day cover for the set: Children's TV, Australian Stamp Bulletin, No.250, (May-July 1999), p.3.
- Woolley, (1980), p.249.
- Anon, (1969).
- One of his assistants was Geoff. Murray, the grandson of Edith Murray
- The Certificate of Membership of the Good Teeth Club, indicated that the member had promised to do three things:
"I will keep my teeth clean",
"I will eat the right food and give my teeth plenty of chewing exercise", and
"I will visit my dentist three times a year" (Anon, 1969).
- Column Eight, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Monday, 5 August 1968), p.1.
- Woolley, (1980), p.251.
According to Anon, (1970), one of the children's letters to Smiley read:"To Smelly, I like that part when your toof got filled in … I hop you like my picheur that I have drowed".
- "Evaluation studies of the school programs revealed that after six months children were able to recall more than 70% of the dental health message. Results of a recent WHO survey of the oral health status of 13-14-year-olds in Canterbury (New Zealand), Sydney (Australia), Trondelag (Norway), Yamanashi (Japan) and Hannover (West Germany) showed that the Sydney children [who had seen Hetherington's show] had the lowest caries rate" (Woolley, 1980, p.254).
- A puppet (aged about 10) goes to university, The Sydney Morning Herald, (Tuesday, 18 August 1970), p.16.
- Anon, (1970).
- Pam was the wife of the Mosman potter, Bernard Sahm (see Pinson, P. & Warren, G., "Sahm, Bernard (1926–2011)", Obituaries Australia, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 2011.
- As well as the students and Hetherington, the company included an academic, Anthony Day, an actress, Ludmilla Doneman, a director from the university’s Theatre Studies Workshop, Derek Nicholson, and a post-graduate student and accomplished performer of Javanese gamelan music, Jenny Lindsay (Day, 1981, p.17).
- Day, (1981), p.18.
- "Search Australia Honours". It's An Honour. Australian Government. 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
- Foyle, 2010.
- Man behind Mr Squiggle dies, ABC News, 6 December 2010.
- Aaron Cook, Farewell to creator of ABC's Mr Squiggle, The Sydney Morning Herald, 7 December 2010.
- The text of his eulogy is reprinted at Bradshaw (2010).
- Dennehey, K., "Mum's the word on Julian and Mr Squiggle", The Blacktown Sun, 12 December 2010.
- Homage to Norman Hetherington: cartoon by Peter Broelman, drawn on 6 December 2010.
- Packer, R.C., "Television Parade", The Australian Women's Weekly, (Wednesday, 12 December 1956), p.10.; Worth Reporting: Strings on Her Fingers, The Australian Women's Weekly, (Wednesday, 20 November 1957), p.34.
- His comments on "Norman Hetherington" appeared on his blog-site (The South Avocado Blog) on Tuesday, 7 December 2010.
- "Heth" provided the dust-jacket cover's illustration.
- ABC Radio programme: AM: "Mr Squiggle's creator dies": Tuesday, 7 December 2010 (Timothy McDonald, reporter).
- ABC TV programme: Australian Story: 30 October 1996: "Mr. Squiggle".
- ABC TV programme: The Collectors: 2010: Episode 21: (Friday 30 July 2010): "Mr. Squiggle". (promo: "Coming up on Collectors . . . This weeks episode of COLLECTORS will put a smile on many a face - Mr. Squiggle drops in!")
- Anon, "Wonderbox", The Australian Women's Weekly, (Wednesday, 28 October 1964), p.17.
- Anon, "Make that third set unnecessary", The Sydney Morning Herald, (Monday, 20 October 1969, p.13.
- Anon, "All say 'cheese', please", The Sydney Morning Herald Women's Section, (Thursday, 4 June 1970), p.6.
- Bradshaw, R.,"Norman Hetherington 1921 - 2010 (Eulogy)", O.P.E.N., No.11, (December 2010), pp.2-4.
- Camens, J. "The Mysterious Potamus", The Australian Women's Weekly, (Wednesday, 17 January 1979), p.17.
- Cochrane, P., "Maddy's Living Dangles on a Shoestring", The Sydney Morning Herald, (Monday, 2 July 1990), p. 5.
- Collerton, S., "Mr Squiggle Rockets to 50th Birthday", ABC News Online, 2 July 2009.
- Day, A., "Reading Irawan Rabi (Irawan's Wedding)", Asian Studies Review, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 17–18.
- Design and Art Australia Online Biography: Norman Hetherington.
- Dunn, E. & Munro, K., "Art on a Plate", The Sydney Morning Herald, 11 November 2008.
- Foyle, L., "Creative Mind Thrilled Children", The Sydney Morning Herald, Wednesday, 8 December 2010.
- Foyle, L. & Carman, G., "Cartoonist drew Mr Squiggle to life: Norman Hetherington, 1921-2010", The Sydney Morning Herald, Wednesday, 8 December 2010.
- Guss, Naomi, "Australian puppetry - Mr. Squiggle", School of Puppetry, 6 December 2010).
- Hetherington, N., "My Bulletin Days", 1946–1961, Biblionews and Australian Notes & Queries, No.360, (December 2008), pp. 143–147.
- Jones, M., "Mr. Squiggle Chalks Up 30 Years", The Australian Women’s Weekly, (July 1989), p. 65.
- Miner, J., "Mr. Squiggle is still drawing the children", The Sydney Morning Herald, (Wednesday, 11 July 1984), p.17.
- Molloy, Sue, "Puppets will present A Christmas Tale", The (Sydney) Sun-Herald, (Sunday, 11 December 1977), p. 197.
- Mosman Art Gallery: Tribute to Norman Hetherington, 10 December 2010.
- Musgrove, N., "Many Happy Returns to Mr. Squiggle", The Australian Women's Weekly, (Wednesday, 24 July 1974), p.57.
- O.P.E.N., Theme Issue: Norman Hetherington OAM, O.P.E.N. (Oz Puppetry Email Newsletter), No.11, December 2010.
- Panozzo, S., "Norman Hetherington: The 2009 Stanleys: The Jim Russell Award for Outstanding Contributions to Cartooning", Inkspot, No.60, (Summer 2009), pp.26-27.
- Pate, M., An Entertaining War, Dreamweaver Books, (Sydney), 1986.
- Perkins, M., "Mr Squiggle rockets in", 720 ABC Perth, 4 April 2008.
- Richards, B., "Parents Guide to Holiday Fun: Stage Shows Aplenty for Kiddies", The (Sydney) Sun-Herald, (Sunday, 18 December 1977), p.110.
- Toshack, M., "Pulling the strings in a magic world", The Sydney Morning Herald, (Wednesday, 24 November 1971, p.20.
- Wilson, P.J. & Milne, G., The Space Between: The Art of Puppetry and Visual Theatre in Australia, Currency Press, (Sydney ), 2004.
- Woolley, J.M., "Changing Oral Hygiene Attitudes and Habits", International Dental Journal, Vol.30, No.3, (September 1980), pp. 249–256.
- Wynhausen, E., "Mr Squiggle's Still Sharp as he Chalks up 40", The Australian, (Monday, 26 July 1999), p. 3.