|His Royal Highness
Samdech Krom Preah
|President of the Supreme Privy Council|
12 December 2008
|Preceded by||Position established|
|3rd President of the National Assembly|
25 November 1998 – 14 March 2006
|Prime Minister||Hun Sen|
|Vice President||Heng Samrin
|Preceded by||Chea Sim|
|Succeeded by||Heng Samrin|
|First Prime Minister of Cambodia
35th Prime Minister of Cambodia
2 July 1993 – 6 August 1997
|Second Prime Minister||Hun Sen|
|Preceded by||Hun Sen|
|Succeeded by||Ung Huot|
|President of the Funcinpec Party|
19 January 2015
|Preceded by||Norodom Arunrasmy|
February 1992 – 18 October 2006
|Preceded by||Nhiek Tioulong|
|Succeeded by||Keo Puth Rasmey|
|President of the Norodom Ranariddh Party|
November 2006 – October 2008
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Chhim Siek Leng|
December 2010 – August 2012
|Preceded by||Chhim Siek Leng|
|Succeeded by||Pheng Heng|
|President of the Community of Royalist People's Party|
16 March 2014 – 17 January 2015
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Member of Parliament
for Kampong Cham
2 July 1993 – 12 December 2006
2 January 1944 |
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
|Political party||Funcinpec Party (1983–2006; 2015–present)|
|Community of Royalist People's Party (2014-15)
Norodom Ranariddh Party (2006–08; 2010-12)
(m. 1968; div. 2010)
Norodom Rattana Devi
|Alma mater||University of Provence|
|Monarchical styles of
|Reference style||His Royal Highness|
|Spoken style||Your Royal Highness|
Norodom Ranariddh (Khmer: នរោត្តម រណឬទ្ធិ; born 2 January 1944) is a Cambodian prince, politician and law academic. He is the second son of former king Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia and a half-brother of the current king, Norodom Sihamoni. Ranariddh is a graduate of the University of Provence and started his career as a law researcher and lecturer in France. In 1983, Ranariddh joined FUNCINPEC, and became its secretary-general in 1989. He was subsequently elected as FUNCINPEC president in 1992, and after the party won the 1993 general election, Ranariddh became the First Prime Minister of Cambodia in a coalition government with Hun Sen as the Second Prime Minister. Relations between Ranariddh and Hun Sen became sour from early 1996 and a coup d'état was launched in July 1997 which resulted in Ranariddh's sacking. After the coup, Ranariddh went into exile in Thailand but was granted a royal pardon in March 1998 and he returned to Cambodia to lead FUNCINPEC to contest in the 1998 general election. Ranariddh was subsequently appointed as the President of the National Assembly at the end of 1998 until his resignation in March 2006.
In October 2006, Ranariddh was sacked as the President of the FUNCINPEC party and he went on to form the Norodom Ranariddh Party (NRP) the following month. After two criminal charges were laid against him, Ranariddh went into exile in Malaysia. He subsequently received a pardon from Sihamoni in September 2008, and announced his retirement from politics after he returned to Cambodia. Ranariddh was made the President of the Supreme Privy Council in December 2008. In December 2010, Ranariddh came out of retirement to lead the NRP again, and after a lengthy and failed attempt to merge the NRP and FUNCINPEC, Ranariddh announced his retirement for a second time. In March 2014, Ranariddh came out of retirement again and launched the Community of Royalist People's Party (CRPP) in 2014. The following year in January 2015, Ranariddh dissolved the CRPP and returned to FUNCINPEC. He was subsequently re-elected as the FUNCINPEC president.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Entry into politics
- 3 Co-premiership (1993-1997)
- 4 Continued leadership in FUNCINPEC (1997-2006)
- 5 Recent political activities (2006-present)
- 6 Palace relations
- 7 Personal life
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
Ranariddh was born in Phnom Penh to Sihanouk and Phat Kanhol, a ballet dancer attached to the royal court. Ranariddh was separated from his mother at three years old when she remarried, and subsequently grew up mostly under the care of an aunt; Norodom Ketkanya and a grandaunt, Norodom Sobhana. Ranariddh attended primary school at Norodom School and part of his high school studies in Lycee Descartes in Phnom Penh. During his free time, Ranariddh made frequent visits to the royal palace to visit his grandparents King Suramarit and Queen Kossamak. In 1958, Ranariddh was sent to a boarding school in Marseille together with his half-brother Norodom Chakrapong. Ranariddh initially planned to pursue medical studies as he excelled in the science subjects, but was persuaded by Queen Kossamak to pursue law studies instead. After he finished high school in 1961, Ranariddh enrolled into the undergraduate programme of law at the University of Paris. In Paris, Ranariddh struggled to cope with his studies, and which he attributed to the differing lifestyle norms between Marseille and Paris. Ranariddh returned to Marseille in 1962 where he enrolled into the law faculty at the University of Provence (now part of Aix-Marseille University), and obtained his Bachelor and Master's degrees in 1968 and 1969 respectively, both specialising in Public Law.
After completing his master's, Ranariddh went on to take the PhD qualifying examinations within 1969. Ranariddh subsequently returned to Cambodia, and worked briefly as an official at the Interior Ministry. When Lon Nol staged a coup against Sihanouk in March 1970, Ranariddh was fired from his job and fled into the jungle where he associated closely with the anti-Lon Nol resistance leaders. Ranariddh was captured in 1971 along with several members of the royal family, and spent six months in prison before being released. Ranariddh subsequently returned to the University of Provence where he completed his PhD in 1974. Between 1976 and 1979, Ranariddh worked as a research fellow at the CNRS, and was awarded a higher diploma in air transport by the time he left in 1979. Ranariddh went back to the to the University of Provence for the third time, and taught courses in constitutional law and political sociology. Shortly before Ranariddh left his full-time teaching duties in 1983, Ranariddh had became an associate professor.
Entry into politics
Initial years in FUNCINPEC
When Sihanouk formed FUNCINPEC in 1981, Ranariddh initially declined an invitation to join the party as he disagreed with FUNCINPEC's association with the Khmer Rouge. After Sihanouk persuaded Ranariddh to join the party, Ranariddh relented and became a special representative to Sihanouk in June 1983. In March 1985, Ranariddh was appointed the inspector-general of the Armee Nationale Sihanoukiste (ANS, also informally known as the FUNCINPEC army). Ten months later in January 1986, Ranariddh was anointed by Sihanouk to be the commander in chief and chief of staff for ANS. Sihanouk resigned from the presidency of Funcinpec in August 1989, paving the way for Ranariddh to become its secretary-general in 1989. In September 1990, Ranariddh was made a member of the Supreme National Council of Cambodia (SNC), a transitional organisation headed by Sihanouk to prepare that served to represent sovereign interests in the United Nations. In February 1992, Ranariddh was elected as the president of the FUNCINPEC.
Ranariddh was appointed one of the council members for UNTAC when it was formed in 1992. He spent time travelling between Bangkok and Phnom Penh, and while in Phnom Penh, Ranariddh led efforts to open FUNCINPEC party offices across the country. However, party offices in the rural parts of the country faced multiple incidents of attacks from government troops and killings of low-level party officials. The attacks led to top-level FUNCINPEC officials such as Norodom Sirivudh and Sam Rainsy to dissuade Ranariddh from registering the party for the 1993 general elections. When news of FUNCINPEC's decision not to run in the general elections reached Yasushi Akashi, the chief-de-mission for UNTAC, he successfully persuaded Ranariddh to run in the elections. When the election campaign started in April 1993, Ranariddh and other FUNCINPEC officials wore T-shirts depicting Sihanouk in their campaign trail, despite an election rule stipulated by the UNTAC administration not to use Sihanouk's name for the election.
The voting was carried out in May 1993, and FUNCINPEC secured about 45 percent of all valid votes, accounting for 58 out of a total of 120 parliamentary seats. The Cambodian People's Party (CPP) led by Chea Sim and Hun Sen refused to recognise the election results over allegations of electoral fraud and pressured Sihanouk to take state power. On 10 June 1993, General Sin Song and Chakrapong threatened to secede eight eastern provinces from Cambodia. Chakrapong's secession threat prompted Sihanouk to accede to the suggestion of Chea Sim and Hun Sen. Ranariddh returned four days later to preside over a parliamentary meeting which made Sihanouk the Head of State of Cambodia with Hun Sen and Ranariddh serving as co-Prime Ministers. A new constitution was drafted during this period of time and completed by September 1993. Sihanouk resigned from his position as the Head of State and was re-instated as the King of Cambodia. In turn, Ranariddh assumed the role of First Prime Minister while Hun Sen assumed the role of Second Prime Minister.
Co-operation and co-administration with CPP
The then-political representative of UN secretary-general to Cambodia, Benny Widyono observed that although Ranariddh held a senior position in name to Hun Sen, he held less executive powers. Nevertheless, Ranariddh developed a close working relationship with Hun Sen, and both of them would attend public functions together regularly until 1996. While Cambodia was still under the administration of an interim government in August 1993, Ranariddh and Hun Sen jointly applied for the country's membership in the International Organization of the Francophonie. The decision to enter the Francophonie drew flak from students in higher educational institutes, and Ranariddh responded to the calls by approaching both English and French-speaking countries to provide more technical assistance to support the country's language curriculum.
Ranariddh was an admirer in the political and economic systems of Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia. According to Ranariddh, these countries were characterised by hybrid regimes, active economic interventionism and limited press freedom, were good models to propel Cambodia's socio-economic growth. During an interview in August 1995, Ranariddh espoused the view that economic development of Cambodia should take precedence over democratic and human rights. In the initial months of the administration, Ranariddh actively courted the leaders of various regional countries such as Singapore and Malaysia to invest in Cambodia. Ranariddh established the Cambodian Development Council (CDC) in early 1994, a statutory board to oversee regulatory affairs relating to foreign investment which he served as its chairperson. The then-Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, showed strong enthusiasm to Ranariddh's plans. Mahathir was particularly enthusiastic to encouraging Malaysian businessmen to invest and assist the development of the tourism, infrastructural development and telecommunications industries.
As the chairman of the CDC, Ranariddh approved of at least 17 business development project proposals submitted by Malaysian businessmen between August 1994 and January 1995. The projects mostly covered infrastructural development such as building of a racing track, power plants, petrol kiosks Businessmen from various countries, as well as establishing oil palm estates and timber logging concessions. In November 1994, the CDC opened a tender to build a casino off Sihanoukville and proposals submitted by three companies were shortlisted for consideration; Ariston Berhad from Malaysia, Unicentral Corporation from Singapore and Hyatt International from the US. Ariston's proposal was valued at USD$1.3 billion, and part of the proposal also included a plan to bring in a luxury cruiser fitted with a casino to Cambodia while the Sihanoukville resort was built. Before the tender was concluded, Ariston's luxury cruiser was brought to Phnom Penh in the early December. The then-Tourism Minister, Veng Sereyvuth suspected of possible of insider trading between CDC and Ariston. The tender was awarded to Ariston Berhad, and Ranariddh represented the government delegation to sign an official agreement with Ariston to secure the tender in January 1995. Ariston conceded the operations of the luxury cruiser, named Heritage to Unicentral Corporation.
In 1992, the UNTAC administration outlawed forest logging and timber exports, and Ranariddh issued an order to temporarily lift the ban on timber exports in October 1993. The Khmer Rouge which controlled parts of western and northern Cambodia, engaged in these activities for a source of revenue. The felled trees are sold to Thai forestry companies for timber. The Cambodian government on its part, was unable to impose the law in territory controlled by the Khmer Rouge and were eager to retrieve some of the logging revenues that went to the Khmer Rouge. The following January, Ranariddh and Hun Sen signed a bilateral agreement with then-Thai Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai permitting felled trees to be legally exported to Thailand on a temporary basis until 31 March 1994. The agreement provided for the creation of designated customs zones within Thai territory and allow Cambodian custom officials to inspect the logs and collect revenues from companies. However, the government allowed existing logging concessions to remain valid in spite of a ban on further logging, which resulted in more trees being felled in Khmer Rouge-controlled areas. This had the effect of accumulating a new stockpile of felled trees which became evident by the end of March 1994. In turn, Ranariddh and Hun Sen to give special authorisation for the felled trees to be exported to North Korea. In August 1994, Ranariddh and Hun Sen granted a logging concession to a Malaysian forestry company, Samling Berhad to fall timber in Rattanakiri and Mondulkiri. When news of the logging concession to Samling Berhad was published, protests from the Khmer Loeu ensued, and prompted Ranariddh to issue a new logging ban in April 1995. However, both Ranariddh and Hun Sen separately granted additional logging concessionaires to more Malaysian and Thai forestry companies even after the ban was introduced.
Early challenges to the government
In late June 1994, the former plotters of the 1993 secessionist movement, Chakrapong and Sin Song met up with Sin Sen. Sin Sen was a former CPP internal security chief, who shared Sin Song and Chakrapong's unhappiness of being denied state positions in the coalition government. The three of them discussed plans to stage a coup to overthrow the coalition government. On 2 July, Sin Song commanded 12 APCs and three hundred police troops from Prey Veng and marched towards Phnom Penh. Nhek Bun Chhay, a military general allied to Ranariddh, detected the Sin Song's troop movements and sent his troops to intercept them. Sin Song promptly ordered his troops to return to Prey Veng upon meeting Nhek Bun Chhay's troops. Over the next few days, government troops arrested Sin Song, Chakrapong and Sin Sen and placed them under house arrest, though Sin Song managed to escape to Thailand while Chakrapong was sent into exile to Malaysia.
In October 1994, Ranariddh and Hun Sen jointly dropped Sam Rainsy as the Finance Minister during a cabinet reshuffle. Rainsy was appointed as Finance Minister by Ranariddh in 1993, but both Prime Minister became uncomfortable working with Rainsy due to his pursuits over allegations of corruption inside the government. Rainsy also became a popular figure who was also supported by Sihanouk, and Ranariddh saw his popularity as a potential threat to his Funcinpec presidency. Rainsy's expulsion as the Finance Minister sowed unhappiness with Norodom Sirivudh, who resigned as Foreign Minister the following month. In March 1995, Rainsy publicly questioned Ranariddh's acceptance of an Fokker 28 airplane and a $108 million commission from Ariston Berhad during a corruption forum. Rainsy's comments upset Ranariddh, and the latter introduced a motion to remove Rainsy as the Member of Parliament in June 1995 over charges of demagogy and failure to toe the party line.
Direct conflicts with Hun Sen
Ranariddh's relations with Hun Sen began to sour from early January 1996, when Hun Sen submitted a government circular to reinstate January 7–the anniversary of the liberation of Khmer Rouge forces by the Vietnamese from Phnom Penh as a national holiday. Ranariddh had countersigned the circular, and when the contents of the circular was publicised, and 12 lawmakers from FUNCINPEC sent a letter of protest to Sihanouk over the holiday's reinstatement. A few days later, Ranariddh charged the Vietnamese army of encroaching into territory of four Cambodian provinces bordering Vietnam, apparently to tone down dissatisfaction from party members. During a closed-door FUNCINPEC meeting in the later part of January 1996, party members criticised Hun Sen and the CPP for monopolizing government power, and also chided Ranariddh for being too subservient to Hun Sen.
In March 1996, Ranariddh openly expressed his unhappiness over his relationship with Hun Sen and the CPP at the FUNCINPEC congress. Ranariddh likened his role as that of a "puppet prime minister" as well as that of Funcinpec Ministers as puppets, and questioned of outstanding delays in appointing FUNCINPEC district officials as district chief. Ranariddh issued a threat to dissolve the National Assembly before the end of 1996 should Funcinpec's demands are not met. Several FUNCINPEC MPs, especially Loy Sim Chheang and Ahmad Yahya, called on Ranariddh to reconcile with Sam Rainsy and work with his newly formed Khmer Nation Party to contest in the subsequent general election. A month after the FUNCINPEC congress, Ranariddh took a vacation to Paris where he attended a meeting with Sihanouk, Rainsy, Chakrapong and Sirivudh. A few days after the meeting on 27 April, Sihanouk declared that FUNCINPEC had no intention to leave the coalition government, dissociated themselves from anti-CPP protests and appraised Hun Sen and the CPP. According to Widyono, Sihanouk's statement was an attempt to defuse Ranariddh's tension with Hun Sen.
At the beginning of May 1996, Hun Sen's government formally established relations with South Korea, a move which Ranariddh had long resisted due to Sihanouk's long-standing relations with North Korea. Several Funcinpec MPs took the advantage of Ranariddh's absence to secretly declare their support for Hun Sen, and among them included the then-governor of Siem Reap Toan Chhay and Agriculture Minister Tao Seng Huor. Around the same time, Ranariddh implicitly expressed his discomfort with Hun Sen by stating that the Cambodian constitution only provides for one prime minister, and that the dual Prime Minister system was ineffective and technically illegal. During a series of CPP party meetings in late June, Hun Sen urged provincial governors from the CPP not to attend events hosted by Ranariddh. Hun Sen chided Ranariddh for not following up his threat to leave the coalition government in March, and went on to call him a "real dog".
Construction of the resort-cum-casino at Sihanoukville, which Ranariddh had signed an agreement with Ariston in January 1995 had not started. Ranariddh expressed concern over the repeated delays as early as February 1996, and Ariston responded that the absence of developmental authority in Sihanoukville was the main cause of delay. At the end of April 1995, Ranariddh and Hun Sen jointly formed the Sihanoukville Developmental Authority (SDA) to oversee regulatory affairs to facilitate Ariston's developmental plans. The cause of delays was a sore point for Ranariddh, and at a conference in May 1996, Ranariddh charged that CPP-controlled ministries were deliberately delaying administrative aspects of approving Ariston's project. According to Tioulong Saumura, she saw the delays as Hun Sen's strategy to undermine projects associated with Ranariddh. In an apparent act of revenge, Ranariddh directed FUNCINPEC's co-minister of the interior You Hockry to close down all existing casinos in the country, citing the absence of casino laws in the country. Ranariddh also went further to propose the cancellation of Ariston's due to the delays. Hun Sen responded by arranging a meeting with Mahathir, and assured that the agreement which Ranariddh signed would not be scrapped.
Conflict escalation & 1997 clashes
On 21 February 1997, FUNCINPEC troops commanded by Serey Kosal intercepted a convoy of 200 CPP troops at Battambang who were travelling en route to Pailin. The convoy was stopped and disarmed, but news of the incident spread to nearby areas and fighting soon broke out between the FUNCINPEC and CPP troops, leaving at least 21 dead. A week later, Ranariddh launched the coalition "National United Front". The coalition consisted of Funcinpec, Khmer Nation Party, BLDP and the Khmer Neutral Party and Ranariddh publicly declared the intention of the coalition to contest against the CPP in the 1998 elections.
During this period of time in February, Ranariddh sent a letter to Ariston Berhad to declare three agreements signed in September 1996 null and void. The agreements provided for the leasing of land to Ariston to develop a golf course, holiday resort and an airport in Sihanoukville. Ranariddh was upset at the agreements being signed unilaterally by CPP's minister Sok An without the knowledge of Ranariddh or other FUNCINPEC ministers. Ranariddh also implicitly charged Ariston of taking sides in the political divide between FUNCINPEC and the CPP. Ariston argued back that attempts by the company to send representatives to participate in the signing of the agreement were unsuccessful. Hun Sen separately sent a letter to Mahathir in April 1997 to reassure the legitimacy of the agreements, and at the same time slammed Ranariddh's attempt to void them.
At the end of May 1997, Ranariddh was caught with importing a three-ton shipment of rocket launchers, assault rifles and handguns from Sihanoukville covertly labelled as "spare parts". Some of the ammunitions were seized by officers from the Air Force, and Ranariddh's officers were allowed to keep the light ammunition. Following the incident, Ranariddh held secret talks with Khmer Rouge forces allied with Khieu Samphan in June 1997 around Preah Vihear. When news of the meeting was conveyed to Hun Sen, a firefight between Ranariddh's bodyguards and the Police loyal to CPP broke out in Phnom Penh. Hun Sen subsequently issued an ultimatum to Ranariddh either to co-operate with the CPP or with the Khmer Rouge. On 3 July, Ranariddh's motorcade convoy was travelling to Phnom Penh when they encountered security forces allied with Hun Sen which led to the latter disarming Ranariddh's bodyguards. The incident prompted Ranariddh to seek refuge in Bangkok the following day.
On 5 July 1997, several regiments of regular forces and military police aligned to the CPP converged at the Taing Krassang military base, Phnom Penh International Airport and the residence of Nhiek Bun Chhay. Fighting broke out in the afternoon between CPP troops and FUNCINPEC troops led by Nhiek Bun Chay and Serey Kosal. Hun Sen quickly returned from his vacation at Vung Tau. The following day, Hun Sen deployed his bodyguard units to the regular forces fighting FUNCINPEC troops. FUNCINPEC troops initiated two attempts to attack CPP troops, but were quickly repulsed by Hun Sen's bodyguards and regular troops. FUNCINPEC troops subsequently retreated from their positions following the failed attempts.
Continued leadership in FUNCINPEC (1997-2006)
Exile, return and 1998 elections
Following the coup attempt, Ranariddh several interviews to international press such as the Far Eastern Economic Review to make public denunciations on the coup. The foreign ministers of Indonesia, Philippines and Thai foreign ministers met with Ranariddh, which incurred the wrath of Hun Sen. Ung Huot was nominated by FUNCINPEC MPs loyal to Hun Sen to replace Ranariddh during a party meeting in mid-July, and was formally voted in as First Prime Minister during a National Assembly sitting on 6 August 1997. A few days later, Sihanouk voiced his unhappiness over the coup and proposed to abdicate the throne to take over the premiership. Sihanouk also charged that Ranariddh's ouster was unconstitutional and initially refused to endorse Ung Huot's appointment, although he later relented as ASEAN member states recognised Ung Huot's appointment. In September 1998, then-UN secretary general, Kofi Annan met with Ranariddh and Hun Sen to separately to mediate the return of FUNCINPEC politicians and prepare for the 1998 Cambodian general elections. While Ranariddh and Hun Sen agreed to allow UN representatives to monitor the election, Hun Sen insisted that Ranariddh be tried and prosecuted for his crimes. In return, Ranariddh snubbed at Hun Sen's suggestion, and threatened that any prosecution would see FUNCINPEC boycotting the general elections altogether.
FUNCINPEC troops continued to fight with CPP troops in Oddar Meanchey province along with Khmer Rouge, until February 1998 when a ceasefire was brokered between Nhiek Bun Chhay and Hun Sen. In March 1998, Ranariddh was convicted of illegally smuggling ammunitions in May 1997 and collusion with the Khmer Rouge, and was handed two prison sentences of 5 years and 24 years respectively. After Ranariddh was sentenced, Hun Sen proposed an amnesty to Sihanouk, who pardoned Ranariddh of all charges. Ranariddh subsequently returned to Cambodia at the end of March 1998 to lead FUNCINPEC's election campaign. FUNCINPEC's election campaign focused on pro-monarchical sentiments and anti-Vietnamese rhetoric. FUNCINPEC faced numerous problems during the campaign, such as sudden killings of FUNCINPEC election officials and supporters facing blockades to rallies. When the election voting was carried out in July 1998, FUNCINPEC won 43 seats and polled 32% of the total votes.
Hun Sen made an offer to FUNCINPEC to form a coalition government with FUNCINPEC. However, FUNCINPEC rejected the offer as they believed that the CPP-led government had carried out voter intimidation and tampering of the ballot boxes to skew the election results to the CPP's advantage. Both FUNCINPEC and the Sam Rainsy Party (SRP), which had came in third in the elections, filed petitions to the Election Commission and Constitutional Court over the allegations. When the petitions were rejected by the Constitutional Court in August, Ranariddh and Rainsy organised street protests to demand that Hun Sen relinquish power. The number of protesters reached 15,000 by the end of the month, and Sihanouk invited Ranariddh, Hun Sen and Rainsy for a summit meeting in Siem Reap to discuss for a political solution in September 1998. On the day of the meeting with Sihanouk, a B40 rocket was fired from an RPG-2 rocket launcher at the direction of Hun Sen's motorcade. The rocket missed the motorcade, and Hun Sen escaped unhurt. Following the attack, the police accused Rainsy of planning the attack, a claim which the latter denied. As the police issued threats to arrest Ranariddh and Rainsy, both of them left the country in October.
President of the National Assembly (1998-2006)
Ranariddh later returned to Cambodia in November 1998 and struck a deal with Hun Sen, whereby FUNCINPEC would get the post of the National Assembly Presidency in addition to several low and mid-key ministries. On 25 November 1998, Ranariddh was formally nominated as the Chairman of the National Assembly. Part of the deal included a condition for FUNCINPEC to support the creation of the Cambodian senate, which Ranariddh publicly expressed support in February 1999. Mehta noted that the creation of the senate was to provide an alternative platform to pass legislations in the event that Ranariddh may exert his influence as the Chairman to veto laws. Ranariddh also worked with Hun Sen to integrate members of his FUNCINPEC troops into the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF). Ranariddh spearheaded efforts to seek better relations with Vietnam, in a bid to reduce diplomatic tensions due to long-standing border dispute issues. The efforts culminated in several high profile visits between Ranariddh and Vietnamese leaders including Nong Duc Manh between 1999 and 2000, but proved to become unsuccessful as border clashes erupted in 2000 and 2001.
Ranariddh steered FUNCINPEC on the course of political rapprochement with the CPP, and actively discouraged FUNCINPEC ministers and MPs to criticise the CPP. During the party's congress in March 2001, Ranariddh declared the CPP as an "eternal partner". A sizeable minority of FUNCINPEC's politicians were reportedly unhappy with Ranariddh's leadership as early as 1999, when rumours of Ranariddh accepting bribes from the CPP began to circulate. Discontent within FUNCINPEC surfaced in February 2002 when FUNCINPEC performed poorly in the commune elections and was only able to secure 10 out of 1,600 seats. The deputy commander-in-chief of the RCAF, Khan Savoeun accused the co-Minister of the Interior, You Hockry of corruption and nepotism that led to FUNCINPEC's poor electoral performance. As Savoeun's accusations found support from only a fraction of the party members, this led to an apparent split in the party. Hockry resigned from his ministerial position in May 2002 after Ranariddh expressed support for Savoeun's cause. Within days of Hockry's resignation, two political parties espousing royalist platforms similar to FUNCINPEC, the Khmer Soul Party and the Hang Dara democratic party, were introduced to the press. The politicla parties were led by Ranariddh's half-brother Chakrapong and Hang Dara, both of them former FUNCINPEC members. Both parties attracted sizeable numbers of members defecting from FUNCINPEC, who were apparently unhappy with Ranariddh's leadership of FUNCINPEC. At this time, Ranariddh expressed worry of FUNCINPEC faring poorly in the 2003 general elections.
The general election was held in July 2003, and Harish Mehta noted that FUNCINPEC took care to refrain from confronting the CPP in their electoral campaign. According to FUNCINPEC party members interviewed by Stephen Heder, part of the reason that the party put up a nuanced electoral campaign was attributed to CPP-linked businessmen such as Ly Yong Phat, who had provided the party with funds to finance their electoral campaign. The CPP won the election, and FUNCINPEC secured 26 seats and polled 21% of the popular vote. The results marked an 11% point drop in the share of popular votes as compared to FUNCINPEC's performance in 1998. Both Ranariddh and Sam Rainsy expressed unhappiness with the outcome of the election, and alleged the CPP had engineered its election victory by manipulating vote counts and intimidating the electorate. In August 2003, Ranariddh and Rainsy forged an alliance, named the "Alliance of Democrats" (AD). The AD called on the CPP form a three-party government consisting of the CPP, FUNCINPEC and the SRP, and at the same time calling on Hun Sen to step down as Prime Minister. Hun Sen rejected AD's demands, and according to Heder he allegedly launched a spree of assassinations on prominent FUNCINPEC's activists. Several months later in March 2004, Ranariddh negotiated privately with Hun Sen that FUNCINPEC would join CPP as a junior coalition partner in the new government. Ranariddh led senior FUNCINPEC members to additional rounds of negotiations with the CPP, and a "package vote" was agreed upon by June 2004 whereby FUNCINPEC would continue to support Hun Sen to retain his premiership. In return, Ranariddh retained his appointment as the President of the National Assembly, as well as a promise to provide FUNCINPEC with 40 percent of all profits from state-owned enterprises. The package vote was formalised in a parliamentary session on July 2004.
Expulsion from FUNCINPEC
On 2 March 2006, the national assembly passed a constitutional amendment which required only a simple majority of parliamentarians to support a government, instead of a two-thirds majority that was previously stipulated. A day later, the government relieved Norodom Sirivudh and Nhek Bun Chhay of their posts as FUNCINPEC's co-minister of interior and co-minister of defense respectively. Ranariddh resigned as the President of the National Assembly on 14 March in protest of the government's decision, and left Cambodia to reside in France. Shortly after Ranariddh left for France, local tabloids published stories that Ranariddh had an affair with Ouk Phalla, an apsara dancer. Two months later, the party's secretary general, Nhek Bun Chhay issued an order to relieve 40 deputy provincial governors of their duties. In September 2006, Hun Sen and Nhek Bun Chhay claimed that Phalla had lobbied Ranariddh to appoint her relatives to official positions. A month later in October 2006, Ranariddh was relieved of his position as the FUNCINPEC chairman and named as the "historic leader" in an emergency congress.
Recent political activities (2006-present)
Norodom Ranariddh Party, exile and retirement
Following Ranariddh's expulsion, Nhek Bun Chhay filed a lawsuit in November 2006 against Ranariddh. Nhek Bun Chhay accused Ranariddh for pocketing the proceeds from the sale of FUNCINPEC headquarters to the French embassy back in 2005 amounting to $3.6 million. In mid-November, Ranariddh returned to Cambodia and announced the formation of the Norodom Ranariddh Party (NRP). In December, Ranariddh was expelled from the National Assembly as a Member of Parliament, and within days his wife filed another lawsuit against Ranariddh for adultery. Ranariddh was also joined by his half-brother Chakrapong, who was also expelled from FUNCINPEC just weeks after Ranariddh was ousted. Chakrapong had served as a senator under FUNCINPEC when he rejoined the party in 2004. After Chakrapong joined the NRP, Ranariddh appointed him as the party's deputy president. In March 2007, Ranariddh was convicted by the Phnom Penh Municipal Court for embezzlement over the sale of FUNCINPEC headquarters, and sentenced to 18 months imprisonment. A few days later, Ranariddh was formally charged for adultery by his first wife Eng Marie. Ranariddh had sought asylum in Malaysia days before his sentencing and was able to avoid imprisonment.
Ranariddh remained in exile in Malaysia to avoid imprisonment, and communicated to his party members and supporters through telephone and video conferencing. When the electoral campaign for the 2008 general elections kicked off in June 2008, Ranariddh mainly targeted on the presence of stateless Vietnamese in Cambodia to stir nationalistic sentiments, with a secondary focus to curb illegal logging and a promise to lower prices of gasoline. The NRP won 2 seats in parliament when voting was carried out in July. For a short period of time immediately after the election, NRP supported the Sam Rainsy Party and Human Rights Party in their accusations against the Election Commission for electoral fraud, but dropped their demands when Hun Sen was believed to have brokered a secret deal with Ranariddh to allow him to return from exile. Ranariddh received a royal pardon at the request of Hun Sen, and returned to Cambodia in September 2008. Following his return, Ranariddh announced his retirement from politics as well as a pledge to support the CPP-led government.
After his announced retirement, Ranariddh dedicated most of his time to philanthropy work and supporting royal activities. In late 2010, NRP and FUNCINPEC leaders such as Nhek Bun Chhay publicly called for Ranariddh to resume his political activities. Ranariddh initially resisted the calls, but changed his mind and announced his return in December 2010. For the next one-and-a-half years, Ranariddh and Nhek Bun Chhay negotiated at length for a bipartisan merger between NRP and FUNCINPEC. A merger agreement was formalised in May 2012 whereby Ranariddh would be made the president of FUNCINPEC while Nhek Bun Chhay would become its vice-president. However, the merger agreement was rescinded a month later when Nhek Bun Chhay charged Ranariddh for supporting other opposition parties. Two months later, Ranariddh declared his resignation from the politics for a second time and tended his resignation as the president of NRP.
Community of Royalist People's Party
In March 2014, Ranariddh launched the royalist Community of Royalist People's Party (CRPP), which was formally registered with the Interior Ministry the following month. Ranariddh stated that his return to politics was to draw pro-monarchial sentiments from the electorate, which according to him was becoming more republican in nature following the 2013 general elections. Ranariddh's comments drew flak from the main opposition party CNRP. Its president, Sam Rainsy charged that Ranariddh had the intention of splitting the opposition vote to favour the ruling CPP in subsequent elections. The CRPP attracted support from some senior FUNCINPEC party members, and in December 2014 an ex-secretary of state, senator and deputy police chief from FUNCINPEC declared support for the CRPP. At this point of time, Hun Sen secretly intervened to encourage Ranariddh to return to FUNCINPEC.
Return to FUNCINPEC
In early January 2015, Ranariddh announced his intention to dissolve the CRPP and return to FUNCINPEC. Ranariddh was reappointed as FUNCINPEC president at the party congress in the later part of the month. Ranariddh's half-sister and previous FUNCINPEC president, Norodom Arunrasmy as the first vice-president, while Nhek Bun Chhay was appointed as FUNCINPEC second vice-president.
|Royal Family of Cambodia|
Awards and royal appointments
Ranariddh was given the royal title of "Sdech Krom Luong" in June 1993, which translates to "Senior Prince" in English. Five months later in November 1993, Ranariddh was elevated to the royal title of Samdech Krom Preah in recognition of his efforts to re-instate Sihanouk as the King of Cambodia. The title translates to as "Leading Senior Prince" in English. Ranariddh was a recipient of several awards from the palace; in December 1992 he was decorated as the Grand Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodia. In May 2001, Ranariddh was bestowed with the Grand Order of National Merit and in October 2001, Ranariddh was awarded the Order of Sovatara with the class of Mohasereivadh. Ranariddh was also awarded the Grand Officer de l’Ordre de la Pleaide by the La Francophonie in March 2000.
In December 2008, Sihamoni appointed Ranariddh as the President of the Supreme Privy Council of Cambodia. Ranariddh's royal appointment carries an honorary position that provides an equivalent rank to the Prime Minister, and during an interview in December 2010 Ranariddh revealed that his royal appointment entitles him to a monthly salary of three million riels.
Candidacy to the throne
Ranariddh was an early favourite choice succeed Sihanouk while he was in the Premiership, and in 1995 a poll conducted by the Khmer Journalists' Associations over seven hundred people showed 24% of all respondents preferred Ranariddh to the throne, although a larger proportion of correspondents had indicate no preference over any members of the royal family. In a March 1996 interview with the Cambodia Daily, Sihanouk stated Ranariddh was an appropriate candidate to the throne. Sihanouk also expressed his concern over the succession of the FUNCINPEC leadership should Ranariddh accept the throne, as the constitution required Ranariddh give up his political career. Sihanouk stated the same opinion of Ranariddh's candidacy to the throne in an interview with the Phnom Penh Post in February 1997. Sihanouk also quoted Sihamoni as another potential candidate, but added that the latter felt that the responsibilities attached to the throne were "frightening". On several occasions between 1996 and 2001, Ranariddh alternately expressed interest between succeeding his father as the next king and staying in politics.
Hun Sen and Chea Sim similarly identified Ranariddh and Sihamoni as potential successors, although in private they preferred the latter due to his non-involvement in politics. In November 2001, Ranariddh told the Cambodia Daily that he had decided to prioritize his political career over the throne, and quoted that Sihamoni had expressed support for Ranariddh to take the throne in the past. In September 2004, Ranariddh commented that he had been offered the throne by Sihanouk and Monireath, but he would prefer to see Sihamoni take the throne instead. When the throne council convened in October 2004 to officially select Sihanouk's successor, Ranariddh was part of the council which unanimously chose Norodom Sihamoni to be the next king.
Ranariddh is known for his physical resemblance to his father Sihanouk, inheriting his facial features, high-pitched voice and mannerisms. Contemporaries such as Indian academic Harish Mehta, Lee Kuan Yew and Benny Widyono have made such references from their discourse with him. Journalists such as those from the Phnom Penh Post have observed that Ranariddh's resemblance to Sihanouk was a natural asset to canvass support for FUNCINPEC during the 1993 and 1998 general elections. Ranariddh acknowledged these observations, while at the same time expressed aversion during an interview with Mehta in 2001, saying:
"People adore the king and I look like him. It is not my achievement they are remembering, but the deeds of my father. On the contrary, if I fail the people would say 'Oh you are the son, but you are not like your father'. It's rather a burden."
Ranariddh speaks Khmer, French and English fluently. He also holds dual Cambodian and French citizenship, having obtained the latter from his long periods of residence in France between the 1960s and 1980s. Ranariddh enjoyed listening to music and watching films, though he described himself as lacking the artistic talent which Sihanouk possesses in a 2001 interview. In 2002, Ranariddh tried his hand at film making and directed a 90-minute film, titled "Raja Bori" which was shot in the Angkor Wat.
Ranariddh has 12 half-siblings from his father by different wives, and Norodom Buppha Devi is the only full-sibling of Ranariddh. Buppha Devi became a ballet dancer like their mother, Phat Kanthol during her younger days and also served as the Minister of Culture between 1998 and 2004. Kanthol remarried in 1947 to a military officer, Chap Huot, and had five children with him. Phat Kanhol passed away from cancer at 49 years old in February 1969, while Chap Huot was killed in an explosion a year later. Four of Ranariddh's half-siblings by his mother and Chap Huot were killed during the years, while one of them, Chap Nhalivuth survived. Chap Nhalivuth served as the governor of Siem Reap and Kampong Speu province between the 1990s and 2000s.
Ranariddh met his first wife, Eng Marie in early 1968. Marie was the eldest child of Eng Meas, an Interior Ministry official of Sino-Khmer descent, and Sarah Hay, a Muslim of Cham ethnicity. Marie had nine younger siblings, and among them was Roland Eng, the former ambassador to Thailand and United States. The couple married in September 1968 at the royal palace, and went on to have 3 children: Chakravuth (born 1970), Sihariddh (born 1972) and Rattana Devi (born 1973). The couple separated and filed for divorce in March 2006 when Ranariddh was found to have relations with Ouk Phalla, but was not finalised until June 2010. Ranariddh has 2 sons with Ouk Phalla, Sothearidh (born 2003) and Ranavong (born 2011). Phalla is a descendant of King Sisowath and was a classical dancer. She met Ranariddh when the latter was producing and directing the movie, Raja Bori in 2002.
- Mehta (2001), p. 7
- Mehta (2001), p. xxviii
- Mehta (2001), p. 13
- Mehta (2001), p. 14
- Mehta (2001), p. 19
- Mehta (2001), p. 20
- Mehta (2001), p. 37-39
- Mehta (2001), p. 41
- Narong (2005), p. 204
- Mehta (2001), p. 49
- Mehta (2001), p. 60
- Mehta (2001), p. 134
- Mehta (2001), p. 140
- Mehta (2001), p. 68
- Mehta (2001), p. 82
- Widyono (2008), p. 154
- Mehta (2001), p. 88
- Mehta (2001), p. 91
- Mehta (2001), p. 92
- Mehta (2013), p. 242
- Widyono (2008), p. 129
- Mehta (2013), p. 239
- Widyono (2008), p. 166
- Ker Munthit (13 August 1993). "Cambodia Chooses Franco-phone Path". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- Moeun Chhean Nariddh (22 October 1993). "'Learn both' says Prime Minister". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- Widyono (2008), p. 192-3
- Mehta (2001), p. 118
- Carol Livingston (22 April 1994). "Malaysia PM spurs investors". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Michael Hayes (27 January 1995). "The Malaysian business connection". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Widyono (2008), p. 199-200
- Matthew Grainger (16 December 1994). "Malaysians snare Naga casino deal". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Imran Vittachi (3 May 1996). "Ariston begins airport work in "good faith"". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Summers (2003), p. 248
- BRAD ADAMS (2 July 2014). "Marking the Anniversary of the Cambodian Coup Attempt". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Mehta (2001), p. 158
- Mehta (2013), p. 244-5
- Ker Munthit (28 January 1994). "King sends Rainsy message of support". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Mehta (2001), p. 142
- Matthew Grainger (10 March 1995). "Hun Sen steals show at corruption forum". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Widyono (2008), p. 180
- Widyono (2008), p. 212
- Widyono (2008), p. 214-5
- Jason Barber (22 March 1996). "Ranariddh warms to Rainsy; CPP keeps its cool". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Widyono (2008), p. 222-3
- Post Staff (2 May 1997). "Funcinpec loyalties put to the test". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Mehta (2001), p. 171
- Jason Barber (26 July 1996). "Hun Sen takes hard line at party summit". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- AFP (5 May 1996). "Cambodia sets up new body to ease Ariston's work". New Straits Times. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Jason Barber and Imran Vittachi (3 May 1996). "CDC caught in "red light" politics". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Widyono (2008), p. 201
- Imran Vittachi (14 June 1996). "Hun Sen dines with Mahathir". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Tricia Fitzgerald and Sok Pov (21 February 1997). "Factional fighting jolts the northwest". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Brad Adams (28 July 1996). "Cambodia: July 1997: Shock and Aftermath". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Widyono (2008), p. 239
- Katya Robinson (21 March 1997). "Ariston rides the rough-and-tumble of business". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Editor (3 April 1997). "Assurance from Hun Sen". New Straits Times. p. 2. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Widyono (2008), p. 244-5
- Widyono (2008), p. 253-4
- Mehta (2013), p. 257-8
- Widyono (2008), p. 259
- Post Staff (25 July 1997). "Asean backs off as Hun Sen digs in". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Mehta (2013), p. 260
- Post Staff (21 August 1997). "Cambodian King Sihanouk offers to abdicate –But still considers son's ouster illegal". CNN. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Widyono (2008), p. 265
- Elizabeth Moorthy (10 October 1997). "F'pec wonders 'Where's the party?'". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Tom Mintier (21 August 1997). "Royalist troops hold on to Cambodian outpost–Khmer Rouge aids Ranariddh in battle". CNN. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Jason Barber (8 May 1998). "The last general standing on the mountaintop". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- KIMSAN CHANTARA AND CATHERINE PHILP (5 March 1998). "Ranariddh Sentenced to Five Years". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- Widyono (2008), p. 266
- Samreth Sopha and Elizabeth Moorthy (17 July 1998). "Funcinpec relies on royalty, anti-VN rhetoric". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Widyono (2008), p. 267-8
- Post Staff (31 July 1998). "NEC investigates allegations of fraud". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Mehta (2001), p. 129-31
- Mehta (2001), p. 131-2
- Summers (2003), p. 238
- BRIAN MOCKENHAUPT (21 February 2000). "Vietnam’s NA Leader Talks Border Dispute". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Summers (2003), p. 242
- Mehta (2001), p. 179
- Post Staff (12 November 1999). "Hun Sen loyalists take key posts as rumors fly". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- Summers (2003), p. 239
- THET SAMBATH (3 June 2002). "Unhappy Royalists Start Second New Party". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Mehta (2013), p. 314
- Chin (2005), p. 117
- Chin (2005), p. 115
- Yun Samean and Porter Barron (18 August 2003). "Prince Repeats Call for a 3-Party Coalition". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Chin (2005), p. 118-9
- Chin (2005), p. 120
- Widoyono (2008), p. 277
- Widoyono (2008), p. 278
- Yun Samean (3 May 2006). "Over 40 F’pec Officials Removed From Posts". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Vong Sokheng (20 October 2006). "Funcinpec dismisses Ranariddh". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Yun Samean (10 November 2006). "Suit Filed on Sale of F’pec Headquarters". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Vong Sokheng (29 December 2006). "Chakrapong says court tool of the ruling parties". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Yun Samean (18 March 2007). "Court Charges Prince Ranariddh With Adultery". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Cat Barton and Vong Sokheng (3 October 2008). "Ranariddh quits politics". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Post Staff (27 June 2008). "Parties Take to Streets To Launch Poll Campaigns". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- YUN SAMEAN (13 August 2008). "NRP Accepts Election Result, Shuns SRP". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Vong Sokheng (20 October 2010). "Former PM rules out return". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Neth Pheaktra and Sebastian Strangio (20 December 2010). "Ranariddh speaks out". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Vong Sokheng and Bridget Di Certo (25 May 2012). "Funcinpec, NRP set to merge". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Meas Sokchea (20 June 2012). "No fun in Funcinpec merger". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Vong Sokheng and Bridget Di Certo (13 August 2012). "Royal exits Cambodia's politics again". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Vong Sokheng (1 April 2014). "New Ranariddh party approved". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- HUL REAKSMEY AND COLIN MEYN (17 March 2014). "Ranariddh Plays to Old Politics With New Party". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Meas Sokchea (10 December 2014). "Funcinpec higher-ups siding with Ranariddh". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- T. Mohan (4 January 2015). "Presidency of Funcinpec: Inevitable Says Prince Ranariddh". Khmer Times. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- MECH DARA AND ALEX WILLEMYNS (20 January 2015). "Ranariddh Named Funcinpec President—Again". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Narong (2005), p. 205
- Widyono (2008), p. 143
- BRIAN CALVERT (3 March 2000). "Prince Ranariddh Honored for Democracy Steps". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- Neth Pheaktra and Brendan Brady (11 December 2008). "Ranariddh appointed King Sihamoni's new top adviser: Palace". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Mehta (2001), p. 177
- Jason Barber (22 March 1996). "Royal trumps on the table, aces up the sleeve". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Post Staff (7 March 1997). "Comment: The politics of abdication and succession". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Mehta (2013), p. 306
- Julio A Jeldres (2 April 1999). "Cambodia's Monarchy: The search for the successor". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Hillary Jackson (19 September 2001). "Cambodian Prince torn between politics and throne". New Straits Times (originally from Reuters). p. 6. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Mehta (2013), p. 300-1
- LOR CHANDARA (14 November 2001). "Prince Opts For Politics, Not Throne". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Yun Samean (15 October 2004). "Throne Council Selects Sihamoni to be the Next King". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- Mehta (2013), p. 211
- Mehta (2001), p. 136, "I have to quote Singapore's Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew, ....He told me this, 'You look like your father, you talk like your father, but please don't be like your father'."
- Mehta (2001), p. 133
- Mehta (2001), p. 151
- Mehta (2001), p. 154
- SAMNANG HAM (30 April 2002). "Embattled Ranariddh Releases First Feature". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- Mehta (2001), p. xxiii
- Mehta (2001), p. 4
- LOR CHANDARA AND THET SAMBATH (11 November 2004). "Outgoing F’pec Governors To Skip Ceremony". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Mehta (2001), p. 24
- Murat Karaali (27 January 1995). "The face of Islam in a Buddhist land". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- Mehta (2001), p. 23
- Mehta (2001), p. 22
- Vong Sokheng (10 June 2010). "Ranariddhs reach a settlement". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- YUN SAMEAN (18 December 2006). "Princess Marie: Ranariddh Broke ‘Mistress Law’". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Bridget Di Certo (13 August 2012). "ទ្រង់ ន.រណឫទ្ធិ ប្រកាសបោះបង់អាជីពនយោបាយជាលើកទី២". Phnom Penh Post (Khmer edition). Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- YUN SAMEAN (2 March 2006). "Mistress Cited In Firing of F’pec Official". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Chin, Kin Wah, Southeast Asian Affairs 2005, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2005, ISBN 9812303065
- Mehta, Harish C. & Julie B., Strongman: The Extraordinary Life of Hun Sen: The Extraordinary Life of Hun Sen, Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd, 2013, ISBN 9814484601
- Mehta, Harish C., Warrior Prince: Norodom Ranariddh, Son of King Sihanouk of Cambodia, Graham Brash, 2001, ISBN 9812180869
- Narong, Men S., Who's Who in Cambodia: Special Focus on the Royal Family 2005-2006, Media Business Networks, 2005, ISBN 2951352409
- Summers, Laura (p. 227-243), The Far East and Australasia 2003, Psychology Press, 2003, ISBN 1857431332
- Widyono, Benny, Dancing in Shadows: Sihanouk, the Khmer Rouge, and the United Nations in Cambodia, Rowman & Littlefield, 2008, ISBN 0742555534
|Prime Minister of Cambodia
|President of the National Assembly of Cambodia
|Party political offices|
|President of the Funcinpec Party
|New office||President of the Community of Royalist People's Party
Dissolution of CRPP
|New office||President of the Norodom Ranariddh Party
Chhim Siek Leng
|President of the Funcinpec Party
Keo Puth Rasmey