North–South Railway (Vietnam)

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For the proposed high-speed railway, see North–South Express Railway (Vietnam).
North–South Railway (Vietnam)
A train stopped at a station on the North–South Railway, Vietnam
Train waiting at Phu My, north of Quy Nhơn
Overview
Type Heavy rail
Locale Vietnam
Termini Hanoi Railway Station
Saigon Railway Station
Operation
Opening 1936
Owner Vietnam Railways
Technical
Line length 1,726 km (1,072 mi)
Track gauge 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in)
Route map
km Station
0 Hanoi
5 Giáp Bát
9 Văn Điển
To Ha Dong
18 Thuong Tin
26 Cho Tia
30 Do Xa
34 Phu Xuyen
Hanoi - Hà Nam border
45 Dong Van
56 Phủ Lý
67 Binh Luc
Hà Nam - Nam Định border
73 Cau Ho
81 Dang Xa
87 Nam Định
94 Trinh Xuyen
101 Nui Goi
108 Cat Dang
Nam Định - Ninh Bình border
115 Ninh Bình
121 Cau Yen
125 Ghenh
134 Dong Giao
Ninh Bình - Thanh Hóa border
142 Bỉm Sơn
153 Do Len
161 Nghia Trang
Ma River
176 Thanh Hóa
188 Yen Thai
197 Minh Khoi
207 Thi Long
219 Van Trai
229 Khoa Truong
238 Truong Lam
Thanh Hóa - Nghệ An border
245 Hoang Mai
Hoang Mai River
261 Cau Giat (for Thai Hoa)
Lach Van River
272 Yen Ly
279 Cho Sy
292 My Ly
Cua Lo River
309 Quan Hanh
319 Vinh
330 Yen Xuan
Cả River
338 Yen Trung
345 Duc Lac
352 Yen Due
358 Hoa Duyet
370 Thanh Luyen
381 Chu Le
386 Huong Pho
397 Phuc Trach
Hà Tĩnh - Quảng Bình border
405 La Khe
409 Tân Ấp
415 Dong Chuoi
426 Kim Lu
437 Dong Le
450 Ngoc Lam
453 Minh Cam
459 Lac Son
468 Le Son
482 Minh Le
Con River
489 Ngan Son
499 Tho Loc
511 Phuc Tu
522 Đồng Hới
529 Le Ky
539 Long Dai
Long Đại River
551 My Duc
558 Phu Hoa
565 My Trach
572 Thuong Lam
Quảng Bình - Quảng Trị border
588 Sa Lung
592 Vinh Thuy
599 Tien An
Bến Hải River
609 Ha Thanh
622 Đông Hà
Thạch Hãn River
634 Quang Tri
643 Dien Sanh
652 My Chanh
Quảng Trị - Thừa Thiên–Huế border
660 Pho Trach
670 Hien Sy
678 Văn Xá
684 An Hoa
Perfume River
688 Huế
691 An Cuu
699 Huong Thuy
702 Phu Bai
708 Nong
715 Truoi
724 Da Bac
729 Cau Hai
732 Nuoc Ngot
742 Thua Luu
755 Lang Co
Thừa Thiên–Huế - Da Nang border
761 Hai Van Bac (Hải Vân Pass)
766 Hai Van (Hải Vân Pass)
772 Hai Van Nam (Hải Vân Pass)
776 Lien Chieu
777 Kim Lien
Cu Đê River
788 Thanh Khê
791 Da Nang
794 Lien Tri
799 Phong Le
Cam Le River
804 Le Trach
Da Nang - Quảng Nam border
814 Nong Son
Thu Bồn River
819 Go Noi
820 Chiem Son
825 Tra Kieu
842 Phu Cang
857 An My
865 Tam Kỳ
928 Quảng Ngãi
1096 Diêu Trì
Quy Nhơn
1198 Tuy Hòa
Đà Rằng River
1315 Nha Trang
1408 Tháp Chàm
1455 Vinh Hao
1551 Mương Mán
Phan Thiết
1697 Biên Hòa
Dong Nai River
1707 Dĩ An
1711 Sóng Thần
1713 Thủ Đức
1718 Binh Trieu
1722 Gò Vấp
Saigon River
1726 Saigon

The North–South Railway (Vietnamese: Đường sắt Bắc–Nam, French: Chemin de fer Nord-Sud) is the principal railway line serving the country of Vietnam. It is a single-track metre gauge line connecting the capital Hanoi in the north to Ho Chi Minh City in the south, for a total length of 1,726 km (1,072 mi). Trains travelling this line are sometimes referred to as the Reunification Express (referring to the Reunification of Vietnam), although no particular train carries this name officially.[1] The line was established during French colonial rule, and was completed over a period of nearly forty years, from 1899 to 1936.[2] As of 2005, there were 278 stations on the Vietnamese railway network,[3] of which 191 were located along the North–South line.[4]

From World War II through to the Vietnam War, the entire North–South Railway sustained major damage from bombings and sabotage.[5] Owing to this damage, and to a subsequent lack of capital investment and maintenance, much of the infrastructure along the North–South Railway remains outdated or in poor condition; in turn, lack of infrastructure development has been found to be a root cause for railway accidents along the line, including collisions at level crossings and derailments. Recent rehabilitation projects, supported by official development assistance, have improved the safety and efficiency of the line. As of 2007, 85% of the network's passenger volume and 60% of its cargo volume was transported along the line.[6] The national railway company Vietnam Railways owns and operates the line.

Overview[edit]

A locomotive drives past Lăng Cô.

For the most part, this 1,726 km (1,072 mi) long metre gauge line follows the coastline of Vietnam, beginning in Ha Noi, passing through the provinces of Hà Nam, Nam Đinh, Ninh Bình, Thanh Hóa, Nghệ An (Vinh), Hà Tĩnh, Quảng Bình (Đồng Hới), Quảng Trị (Đông Hà), Thừa Thiên–Huế (Huế), Da Nang, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định, Phú Yên, Khánh Hòa (Nha Trang), Ninh Thuận, Bình Thuận (Phan Thiết), Đồng Nai and Binh Dương, before coming to an end in Ho Chi Minh City.[6][7] Trains taking this route pass through a number of areas recognized for their beauty, such as the Hải Vân Pass and Lăng Cô Peninsula near Huế, and Vân Phong Bay near Nha Trang. Typical journeys from one end of the line to the other last about 30 hours.[8] Passengers arriving in Hanoi are able to transfer to several other railway lines, leading to Haiphong, Hạ Long Bay, Thái Nguyên, Lào Cai, Lạng Sơn and the People's Republic of China.

As of 2007, 85% of the network's passenger traffic and 60% of its cargo traffic was transported along the North–South line, corresponding to 3,960.6 million person-km and 2,329.5 million ton-km, respectively.[nb 1] These proportions are only slightly different than those recorded in the early 1990s; 1993 figures reported 82% of passenger traffic and 66% of cargo traffic along the line.[6]

Passenger service[edit]

Daily passenger service is provided along the entire North–South Railway by state railway company Vietnam Railways. Express service links Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, making stops at major stations; local service is also provided along shorter portions of the line, such as from Hanoi to Vinh, Vinh to Đồng Hới, Vinh to Quy Nhon, and so on. The following trains run regularly along the line (each line represents a pair of trains, one southbound and the other northbound):[9]

Train Type From To Length Notes
SE1/SE2 Express Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City 34 hrs, 40 mins Stops at Nam Định, Thanh Hóa, Vinh, Đồng Hới, Dong Ha, Huế, Lang Co, Da Nang, Tam Ky, Quảng Ngãi, Dieu Tri, Tuy Hòa, Nha Trang, Thap Cham, Muong Man
SE3/SE4 Express Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City 29 hrs, 30 mins Stops at Vinh, Đồng Hới, Huế, Da Nang, Dieu Tri, Nha Trang
SE5/SE6 Express Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City 32 hrs Stops at Phủ Lý, Nam Định, Ninh Bình, Thanh Hóa, Vinh, Đồng Hới, Huế, Da Nang, Quảng Ngãi, Dieu Tri, Nha Trang, Thap Cham, Muong Man, Bien Hoa
TN1/TN2 Local Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City 40 hrs, 50 mins
TN3/TN4 Local Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City 40 hrs, 45 mins
TN5/TN6 Local Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City 40 hrs, 10 mins
TN7/TN8 Local Hanoi Ho Chi Minh City 40 hrs, 25 mins
NA1/NA2 Local Hanoi Vinh
NA3/NA4 Local Hanoi Vinh
TH1/TH2 Local Giap Bat Thanh Hóa
VD31/VD32 Local Vinh Đồng Hới
DH41/DH42 Local Đồng Hới Huế
VQ1/VQ2 Local Vinh Quy Nhon

Freight service[edit]

Vietnam Railways provides daily freight transport, mainly between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City; freight service ending at Da Nang is also offered. The following trains run regularly along the line (each line represents a pair of trains, one southbound and the other northbound):[10]

Train From To Notes
GS1/GS2 Giáp Bát (Hanoi) Sóng Thần (HCMC) 4-day itinerary
SBN1/SBN2 Giáp Bát (Hanoi) Sóng Thần (HCMC) 4-day itinerary
HBN1/HBN2 Giáp Bát (Hanoi) Sóng Thần (HCMC)
HBN3/HBN4 Giáp Bát (Hanoi) Sóng Thần (HCMC)
SY1/SY2 Yen Vien (Hanoi) Sóng Thần (HCMC)
SY1/SY2 Yen Vien (Hanoi) Sóng Thần (HCMC)
HSD1/HSD2 Da Nang Ho Chi Minh City
HSK1/HSK2 Kim Lien (Da Nang) Sóng Thần (HCMC)

History[edit]

The progressive construction of Vietnam's railway system, 1881–1966.

In 1895, outgoing Governor-General of French Indochina Jean Marie de Lanessan, convinced of the necessity of building railways to connect the different parts of Indochina, urged his successors to give priority to the construction of a north–south railway connecting Hanoi and Saigon, calling it "the backbone of Indochina" from which all other routes would radiate.[nb 2] It was Paul Doumer, who was appointed as Governor-General in 1897, who put de Lanessan's call into action. Soon after his appointment, Doumer submitted an overarching proposal for railway development in Indochina, including plans for what would eventually become the Yunnan–Vietnam Railway and the North–South Railway. The French government approved the construction of the entire Yunnan line and several sections of the North–South line, approving a loan of 200 million francs within the following year. Work began swiftly thereafter, with the Phu Lang Thuong—Lạng Sơn line being upgraded and extended from Hanoi to the Chinese border at Dong Dang by 1902, and the first section of the Yunnan line between Hanoi and Haiphong opening in the same year.[11][12][13]

Construction of the first sections of the North–South Railway itself began in 1899, and lasted over thirty years, with individual sections completed serially. The first section to be laid down was the Hanoi–Vinh section, built from 1899 to 1905. Next to be built was the Nha Trang–Saigon section from 1905 to 1913; the Saigon–Tan Linh portion was opened in 1908, followed by the Tan Linh–Nha Trang portion in 1913. During this time, tracks were also laid around the city of Huế, leading south to Tourane, and north to Đông Hà. The Huế–Tourane section opened in 1906, and the Huế–Dong Ha line opened in 1908. The Vinh-Huế section was constructed from 1913 to 1927, and finally, the remaining Huế–Nha Trang section was constructed from 1930 to 1936.[2][6][11] On 2 October 1936, the entire 1,726 km (1,072 mi) Hanoi–Saigon link was formally put into full operation.

As elsewhere in the world, the railways were the sites of active union and labor organization.[14]

The first journeys from end to end of the newly completed line, dubbed the Transindochinois, generally took about 60 hours, or two days and three nights.[15] This decreased to about 40 hours by the late 1930s, with trains travelling at an average speed of 43 km/h (27 mph).[5] Trains were generally pulled by French Pacific or Mikado locomotives, and included dining cars and sleeping cars (voitures-couchettes).[12]

Wartime[edit]

After the Japanese invasion of French Indochina during World War II, Japanese forces used the Vietnamese railway system extensively, inviting sabotage by the Viet Minh as well as American bombing from the air. Following the exit of the Japanese at the end of the war, efforts were made to repair the seriously damaged North–South line.

Shortly after World War II ended, however, the First Indochina War began, and the Viet Minh's sabotage of the rail system continued, this time against the armies of the French Union.[5] In response, the French began using the armed armoured train La Rafale as both a cargo-carrier and a mobile surveillance unit.[16][17] In February 1951 the first Rafale was in service on the Saigon-Nha Trang section of the North–South line.[18][19] Use of the Rafale failed to deter the Viet Minh guerrillas, however, who continued sabotaging the line, making off with its rails under cover of night and creating a 300 km rail network between Ninh Hoa and Da Nang, in a Viet Minh-controlled area.[5] In 1953, the guerrillas attacked La Rafale itself, mining and destroying stone bridges as they passed by.[20] In 1954, following the signature of Geneva Accords, Vietnam was temporarily divided into two parts: the communist North and anti-communist South. The North–South Railway was bisected accordingly at Hiền Lương Bridge, a bridge over the Bến Hải River in Quảng Trị Province.[2]

A repair crew installs new railway tracks in South Vietnam.

Throughout the Vietnam War, the North–South Railway was a target of bombardments and sabotage by both North Vietnamese and South Vietnamese forces. The South, supported with the United States, reconstructed the track between Saigon and Huế in the late 1950s, a distance of 1,041 km (647 mi). Nevertheless, a relentless campaign of intense bombing and sabotage by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese regular units resulted in the South Vietnamese railway system being unable to carry significant tonnages. 795 attacks were launched between 1961 and 1964 alone, eventually forcing the South to abandon many large sections of the track.[5] The U.S. Army operating in South Vietnam had considerable interest in the North–South line because of the potential it offered in the bulk movement of cargo at low rates. The system was used to support the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, construction program and transported hundreds of thousands of tons of rock and gravel to air base and highway sites.[21]

In North Vietnam, American bombing of railways was concentrated on key targets such as railway bridges, both along the North–South Railway and along the lines north of Hanoi, such as the Hanoi–Lào Cai and Hanoi–Dong Dang lines. Operation Rolling Thunder was the first large-scale bombing campaign carried out by the U.S. Air Force, taking place from March 2, 1965 until November 1, 1968, when US President Lyndon B. Johnson temporarily called off air raids. Large-scale air raids resumed from May 9 to October 23, 1972, for Operation Linebacker, and again from December 18–29, 1972, for Operation Linebacker II, with fewer target restrictions than Rolling Thunder.

A particularly difficult target for the U.S. Air Force was the Thanh Hóa Bridge, a well-defended combined road/rail bridge in Thanh Hóa Province. One of the first attacks on the bridge took place on April 3–4, 1965. Despite dropping 239 tons of bombs on the bridge during the raid, the bridge remained serviceable; additionally, three American F-105 aircraft were shot down during the raid.[22][23] The U.S. Navy also conducted Alpha strikes on the bridge. Several times, traffic over the bridge was interrupted, but every time, the North Vietnamese dutifully repaired the damage. The bridge was eventually destroyed by laser-guided smart bombs during separate raids on April 27 and May 13, 1972, as part of Operation Linebacker.

After the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975, the Communist government of the newly unified Vietnam took control of the former South Vietnamese railway. Heavily damaged, the war-torn North–South Railway line was nevertheless restored and returned to service on 31 December 1976, promoted as a symbol of Vietnamese unity. In the short time between the surrender of the South and the reopening of the line, 1334 bridges, 27 tunnels, 158 stations and 1370 switches had been repaired.[5] Other railway lines that once existed, such as the Da LatTháp Chàm line, were dismantled during this period to provide materials for the repair of the main line.[24]

Stations[edit]

List of stations[edit]

This abridged list includes all major stations[nb 3] with timetabled services. As of 2005, there were 278 stations on the Vietnamese railway network,[3] of which 191 were located along the North–South line.[4]

Km Station Region Province City/Dist./Ward Opened Notes Photo
0 Hanoi Red River Delta  Hanoi Hoan Kiem District, Hanoi 1902[25] Interchange for Hanoi–Haiphong, Hanoi–Thái Nguyên, Hanoi–Lào Cai, Hanoi–Đồng Đăng lines Hanoi Railway Station
5 Giáp Bát Red River Delta Hanoi Hoang Mai District, Hanoi Freight station Photo
56 Phủ Lý Red River Delta Hà Nam Hai Ba Trung Ward, Phủ Lý Phủ Lý Railway Station
87 Nam Định Red River Delta Nam Định Nam Định Photo
115 Ninh Bình Red River Delta Ninh Bình Thanh Binh Ward, Ninh Bình Ninh Bình Railway Station
176 Thanh Hóa North Central Coast Thanh Hóa Tan Son Ward, Thanh Hóa Thanh Hóa Railway Station
319 Vinh North Central Coast Nghệ An Lê Lợi Ward, Vinh 1905[26] Vinh Railway Station
522 Đồng Hới North Central Coast Quảng Bình Nam Ly Ward, Đồng Hới Đồng Hới Railway Station
622 Đông Hà North Central Coast Quảng Trị Đông Hà Đông Hà Railway Station
688 Huế North Central Coast Thua Thiên-Huế Huế 1906[27] Huế Railway Station
777 Kim Lien South Central Coast Da Nang Freight station Photo
791 Đà Nẵng South Central Coast Da Nang Thanh Khe District 1902[28] Đà Nẵng Railway Station
865 Tam Kỳ South Central Coast Quảng Nam An Xuan Ward, Tam Ky Tam Kỳ Railway Station
928 Quảng Ngãi South Central Coast Quảng Ngãi Quang Phu Ward, Quảng Ngãi Quảng Ngãi Railway Station
1096 Diêu Trì South Central Coast Bình Định Diêu Trì, Tuy Phước District For Quy Nhơn Dieu Tri Railway Station
1096* Quy Nhơn South Central Coast Bình Định Quy Nhơn Quy Nhơn Railway Station
1198 Tuy Hòa South Central Coast Phú Yên Ward 2, Tuy Hòa Tuy Hòa Railway Station
1315 Nha Trang South Central Coast Khánh Hòa Phuoc Tan Ward - Nha Trang Nha Trang Railway Station
1408 Tháp Chàm  Southeast Ninh Thuận My Huong Ward, Phan Rang – Tháp Chàm Interchange for Da Lat–Thap Cham line[nb 4] Thap Cham Railway Station
1551 Bình Thuận Southeast Bình Thuận Muong Man For Phan Thiết Bình Thuận Railway Station
1697 Biên Hòa Southeast Đồng Nai Trung Dung Ward, Biên Hòa Photo
1711 Sóng Thần Southeast Ho Chi Minh City An Binh, Di An District Freight station Photo
1726 Sai Gon Southeast Ho Chi Minh City  Ward 9, District 3 1983[nb 5] Saigon Railway Station

Infrastructure[edit]

Tracks at a level crossing near Mỹ Sơn

Most of Vietnam's railway infrastructure—including bridges, rail trucks, track beds, rolling stock, signals and communication equipment, and maintenance facilities—has suffered severe deterioration, mainly due to damage inflicted during the Vietnam War and a subsequent lack of capital investment and maintenance. More recently, rehabilitation projects sustained by official development assistance have allowed some of the most critical pieces of infrastructure along the line to be replaced, although much work still remains to be done.[6] Complicating rehabilitation work is seasonal flooding, which, depending on its severity, may cause significant infrastructure damage. For instance, heavy rains falling on Vietnam's north central coast in October 2010 swept away several sections of track in Hà Tĩnh and Quảng Bình provinces; the flooding of many of the nearby provincial roads, which remained several metres underwater, prevented repair crews from reaching the affected sections for weeks.[29][30][31]

Tracks[edit]

The North–South Railway line uses metre gauge, as was commonly used on local railways in France around the time of its construction.[7][32]

Bridges[edit]

Vietnam Railways reports the number of railway bridges along the North–South line to be 1,300, totalling about 28,000 m (92,000 ft), or about 63% of the national total. Considering both standard rail bridges and combined bridges, the total length along the North–South line is about 36,000 m (118,000 ft).[6][7] Many of the railway bridges were severely worn from age and sporting damage dating from the Vietnam War, despite temporary restoration following the war. As of 2007, 278 bridges requiring major rehabilitation remain along the North–South Railway line.[6]

Tunnels[edit]

A Vietnam Railways train passes through a tunnel north of Quy Nhơn.

There are 27 railway tunnels along the North–South line, amounting to a total length of 8,335 m (27,346 ft).[7] Certain tunnels are inadequately drained and suffer from deterioration in the tunnel lining, causing water leaks that necessitate reductions in speed.[2]

Signalling[edit]

The North–South Railway line uses a semi-automatic block system, which allows individual signals to work either as automatic signals or manual signals.[7] According to a joint Japanese-Vietnamese evaluation team, the recent installation of additional auto-signal systems at key crossings along the line has contributed to a decline in railway accidents.[6]

Communications[edit]

Since 1998, microband Asynchronous Transfer Mode technology has been used along the North–South Railway line to send television signals; 64 kbit/s transmission lines are leased from the Vietnam Post and Telecommunications Corporation (VPTC). Along some sections of the line—for example, from Hanoi to Vinh and from Nha Trang to Ho Chi Minh City—a fiber optic cable network has been deployed; Vietnam Railways intends to extend the network along the remaining distance from Vinh to Nha Trang. A switching system featuring digital exchanges is in place, connected via the existing transmission system and the public telephone network. As the modernization of the telecommunication system progresses, manual exchanges are gradually being replaced with digital exchanges.[3][7]

Safety[edit]

An unprotected level crossing in Da Nang.

Along the North–South Railway line, 3,650 level crossings were counted, 3,000 (or 82%) of which had no barriers, alarm systems or guards.[33]

as a result, accidents involving vehicles and pedestrians have occurred. A researcher from Villanova University noted "There are numerous safety issues with level crossings...usually, an accident occurs every day."[34] Many rail bridges and tunnels have suffered deterioration since the 1970s, requiring trains passing over or through them to reduce speeds as low as 15 kilometres per hour (9.3 mph).[2] In addition, the center of the country is subject to violent annual flooding and bridges are often swept away, causing lengthy closures.[6]

Along with recent efforts aimed at infrastructure rehabilitation, the recent adoption of safety measures by Vietnam Railways has led to a decline in railway accidents. These measures include: public awareness campaigns on railway safety in the media; construction of fences and safety barriers at critical level crossings in major cities; mobilization of volunteers for traffic control at train stations and level crossings, especially during holiday seasons; the installation of additional auto-signal systems; and the construction of flyovers and underpasses to redirect traffic.[6]

Infrastructure rehabilitation[edit]

The condition of railway infrastructure in Vietnam, although improving, is still poor enough overall to require rehabilitation. Rail transport only became a national priority for the Vietnamese government around the mid-1990s, at which point most of the railway network was severely degraded, having received only temporary repair from damages suffered during decades of war.[6][35]

Railroad workers in Da Nang.

From 1994 to 2005, a major bridge rehabilitation project took place on the North–South Railway line, with the Pacific Consultants International Group and Japan Transportation Consultants providing consultancy services. The overall project cost was JPY 11,020 million, or 18% less than the budgeted cost. The overall results of the project included a reduction in running hours from one end of the line to the other (from 36 hours in 1994 to 29 hours in 2007); an increase of speed limits on rehabilitated bridges (from 15 to 30 km/h (9.3 to 18.6 mph) to 60 to 80 km/h (37 to 50 mph), which contributed to the reduction in running hours; and a reduction in the number of railway accidents throughout the line.[6]

In 2007, Vietnam Railways awarded an additional VND 150 billion (USD 9.5 million) five-year contract for consultancy services to Japan Transportation Consultants, the Pacific Consultants International Group, and the Japan Railway Technical Service (Jarts), regarding a VND 2.47 trillion project to further improve bridge and railway safety on the North–South line. The project's goals include the refurbishment of 44 bridges and 37.6 km (23.4 mi) of railway tracks, the building of two new railway bridges and a new railway station at Ninh Bình, and the purchase of 23 track machines. The project was expected to be completed in 2010.[36]

Development[edit]

Japanese Shinkansen technology has been suggested for use on the proposed North–South Express Railway.

North–South Express Railway[edit]

National railway company Vietnam Railways has proposed a high-speed rail link between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, capable of running at 300 to 350 km/h (186 to 217 mph). Funding of the $56 billion line would mainly come from the Vietnamese government; reports suggest Japanese development aid could be made available in stages, conditioned on the adoption of Shinkansen technology.[37][38] Once completed, the high-speed rail line would allow trains to complete the Hanoi-Ho Chi Minh City journey in approximately 6 hours.[39] Vietnam's National Assembly rejected the existing plan for the line in June 2010, and asked for further study of the project.[40]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Transport statistics for rail transport in 2007 report a traffic volume of 4,659.5 million person-km for passenger rail traffic and 3,882.5 million ton-km for freight rail traffic. Volume of freight traffic by type of transport, Volume of passengers traffic by type of transport. General Statistics Office of Vietnam.
  2. ^ "De la voie principale s'étendant ainsi de la frontière de Chine à Saïgon et représentant en quelque sorte l'épine dorsale de l'Indo-Chine, toutes les autres routes ou voies ferrées partent naturellement pour s'enfoncer en toutes directions jusqu'aux limites du pays, les unes pénétrant du côté de la Chine, les autres vers le Mékong, à travers le Laos." (La Colonisation française en Indo-Chine. Jean Marie Antoine de Lanessan. 1895. p.329.)
  3. ^ For the purpose of this list, major stations are defined as stations at which SE5/SE6-class passenger trains make regular stops lasting two or more minutes. Freight terminals have also been included. See Passenger Transport Business and Vận tải hàng hoá (Cargo transport) (Vietnam Railways), as well as the official Vietnam Railways timetable (Page 1, Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 (Vietnamese)).
  4. ^ Defunct or partially defunct line.
  5. ^ The original Saigon Station, located at Bến Thành Market, was built in 1881. ("120-Year History of Vietnam Railways". Retrieved 2010-07-22. ) The station currently in use as "Saigon Railway Station", located in Ho Chi Minh City's District 3, was originally known as Hoa Hung Depot, and was used mainly as a freight station; it was converted for use as a passenger station in 1983. ("Ga Sài Gòn". Retrieved 2010-06-30.  (Vietnamese))
References
  1. ^ "Train travel in Vietnam". Seat61. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Proposed Loan and Administration of Loan from Agence Française de Développement: Yen Vien–Lao Cai Railway Upgrading Project" (pdf). November 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  3. ^ a b c "Infrastructure Maintenance and Construction". Vietnam Railways. Retrieved 2010-06-24. 
  4. ^ a b "Các ga trên tuyến đường sắt Thống Nhất" (Railway stations on the North–South Railway), Page 1Page 2 (Vietnamese)
  5. ^ a b c d e f Nick Ray, Yu-Mei Balasingamchow, Iain Stewart (2009). Vietnam. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 2010-07-23. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Hanoi-Ho Chi Minh City Railway Bridge Rehabilitation Project". Japan International Cooperation Agency. 2007. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Railway Network". Vietnam Railways. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  8. ^ "Vietnam Railways Website (English)". Vietnam Railways. Retrieved 2008-05-10.  Check the timetable from Ha Noi to Sai Gon (or vice versa) to see journey times.
  9. ^ Passenger Transport Business. Vietnam Railways.
  10. ^ Vận tải hàng hoá (Cargo transport). Vietnam Railways.
  11. ^ a b Les chemins de fer de l'Indochine française. Arnaud Georges. In: Annales de Géographie. 1924, t. 33, n°185. pp. 501-503.
  12. ^ a b "Indian Mail: International". Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  13. ^ "Ga Hải Phòng". Retrieved 2010-06-30.  (Vietnamese)
  14. ^ David Del Testa, "Vietnamese railway workers during the revolutionary high tide." South East Asia Research, Volume 19, Number 4, December 2011, pp. 787-816(30)
  15. ^ Hoàng Cơ Thụy. Việt sử khảo luận. Paris: Nam Á, 2002. p.1495.
  16. ^ Le 5e Régiment du Génie d'hier et d'aujourd'hui : l'aventure des Sapeurs de chemins de fer, Lavauzelle, 1997, p. 73
  17. ^ L’audace du rail : les trains blindés du Sud-Annam in Revue historique des armées #234, Alexis Neviaski, 2004, quoted in the French Defense Ministry archives
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Bibliography

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.

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